In mathematics, an involute (also known as an evolvent) is a particular type of curve that is dependent on another shape or curve. An involute of a curve is the locus of a point on a piece of taut string as the string is either unwrapped from or wrapped around the curve.
It is a class of curves coming under the roulette family of curves.
The evolute of an involute is the original curve.
The notions of the involute and evolute of a curve were introduced by Christiaan Huygens in his work titled Horologium oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum ad horologia aptato demonstrationes geometricae (1673).
Involute of a parameterized curve
is an involute of the given curve.
Adding an arbitrary but fixed number to the integral results in an involute corresponding to a string extended by (like a ball of wool yarn having some length of thread already hanging before it is unwound). Hence, the involute can be varied by constant and/or adding a number to the integral (see Involutes of a semicubic parabola).
If one gets
Properties of involutes
In order to derive properties of a regular curve it is advantageous to suppose the arc length to be the parameter of the given curve, which lead to the following simplifications: and , with the curvature and the unit normal. One gets for the involute:
and the statement:
- At point the involute is not regular (because ),
and from follows:
- The normal of the involute at point is the tangent of the given curve at point .
- The involutes are parallel curves, because of and the fact, that is the unit normal at .
Involutes of a circle
For a circle with parametric representation , one has . Hence , and the path length is .
Evaluating the above given equation of the involute, one gets
for the parametric equation of the involute of the circle.
The figure shows involutes for (green), (red), (purple) and (light blue). The involutes look like Archimedean spirals, but they are actually not.
The arc length for and of the involute is
Involutes of a semicubic parabola
Eliminating t yields showing that this involute is a parabola.
Involutes of a catenary
For the catenary , the tangent vector is , and, as its length is . Thus the arc length from the point (0, 1) is
Hence the involute starting from (0, 1) is parametrized by
and is thus a tractrix.
The other involutes are not tractrices, as they are parallel curves of a tractrix.
Involutes of a cycloid
The parametric representation describes a cycloid. From , one gets (after having used some trigonometric formulas)
Hence the equations of the corresponding involute are
which describe the shifted red cycloid of the diagram. Hence
- The involutes of the cycloid are parallel curves of the cycloid
(Parallel curves of a cycloid are not cycloids.)
Involute and evolute
- A curve is the evolute of any of its involutes.
The involute has some properties that makes it extremely important to the gear industry: If two intermeshed gears have teeth with the profile-shape of involutes (rather than, for example, a traditional triangular shape), they form an involute gear system. Their relative rates of rotation are constant while the teeth are engaged. The gears also always make contact along a single steady line of force. With teeth of other shapes, the relative speeds and forces rise and fall as successive teeth engage, resulting in vibration, noise, and excessive wear. For this reason, nearly all modern gear teeth bear the involute shape.
The involute of a circle is also an important shape in gas compressing, as a scroll compressor can be built based on this shape. Scroll compressors make less sound than conventional compressors and have proven to be quite efficient.
The High Flux Isotope Reactor uses involute-shaped fuel elements, since these allow a constant-width channel between them for coolant.
- Rutter, J.W. (2000). Geometry of Curves. CRC Press. pp. 204. ISBN 9781584881667.
- McCleary, John (2013). Geometry from a Differentiable Viewpoint. Cambridge University Press. pp. 89. ISBN 9780521116077.
- K. Burg, H. Haf, F. Wille, A. Meister: Vektoranalysis: Höhere Mathematik für Ingenieure, Naturwissenschaftler und ..., Springer-Verlag, 2012,ISBN 3834883468, S. 30.
- R. Courant:Vorlesungen über Differential- und Integralrechnung, 1. Band, Springer-Verlag, 1955, S. 267.
- V. G. A. Goss (2013) "Application of analytical geometry to the shape of gear teeth", Resonance 18(9): 817 to 31 Springerlink (subscription required).