The International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) is an association including 12,000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 70 constituent organizations. It was founded in 1910 by Sigmund Freud, from an idea proposed by Sándor Ferenczi.
In 1902 Sigmund Freud started to meet every week with colleagues to discuss his work, thus establishing the Psychological Wednesday Society. By 1908 there were 14 regular members and some guests including Max Eitingon, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, and Ernest Jones, all future Presidents of the IPA. The Society became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.
In 1907 Jones suggested to Jung that an international meeting should be arranged. Freud welcomed the proposal. The meeting took place in Salzburg on April 27, 1908. Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology". It is later reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress. Even so, the IPA had not yet been founded.
The IPA was established at the next Congress held at Nuremberg in March 1910. Its first President was Carl Jung, and its first Secretary was Otto Rank. Sigmund Freud considered an international organization to be essential to advance his ideas. In 1914 Freud published a paper entitled The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement.
The IPA is the international accrediting and regulatory body for member organisations. The IPA's aims include creating new psychoanalytic groups, conducting research, developing training policies and establishing links with other bodies. It organizes a biennial Congress.
There is a Regional Organisation for each of the IPA’s 3 regions:
- Europe—European Psychoanalytical Federation (or EPF), which also includes Australia, India, Israel, Lebanon, South Africa and Turkey;
- The IPA is incorporated in England, where it is a company limited by guarantee and also a registered charity. Its administrative offices are at The Lexicon in Central London.
- Latin America—Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies of Latin America (or FEPAL);
- North America—North American Psychoanalytic Confederation (or NAPSAC), which also includes Japan and Korea.
Each of these three bodies consists of Constituent Organisations and Study Groups that are part of that IPA region. The IPA has a close working relationship with each of these independent organisations, but they are not officially or legally part of the IPA.
The IPA's members qualify for membership by being a member of a "constituent organisation" (or the sole regional association).
- Argentine Psychoanalytic Association
- Argentine Psychoanalytic Society
- Australian Psychoanalytical Society
- Belgian Psychoanalytical Society
- Belgrade Psychoanalytical Society
- Brasília Psychoanalytic Society
- Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of Rio de Janeiro
- Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of São Paulo
- Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Porto Alegre
- Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Ribeirão Preto
- British Psychoanalytic Association
- British Psychoanalytical Society
- Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association
- Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
- Caracas Psychoanalytic Society
- Chilean Psychoanalytic Association
- Colombian Psychoanalytic Association
- Colombian Psychoanalytic Society
- Contemporary Freudian Society
- Cordoba Psychoanalytic Society
- Croatian Psyhoanalytic Society
- Czech Psychoanalytical Society
- Danish Psychoanalytical Society
- Dutch Psychoanalytical Association
- Dutch Psychoanalytical Group
- Dutch Psychoanalytical Society
- Finnish Psychoanalytical Society
- French Psychoanalytical Association
- Freudian Psychoanalytical Society of Colombia
- German Psychoanalytical Association
- German Psychoanalytical Society
- Hellenic Psycho-Analytical Society
- Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society
- Indian Psychoanalytical Society
- Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research
- Israel Psychoanalytic Society
- Italian Psychoanalytical Association
- Italian Psychoanalytical Society
- Japan Psychoanalytic Society
- Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies
- Madrid Psychoanalytical Association
- Mato Grosso do Sul Psychoanalytical Society
- Mendoza Psychoanalytic Society
- Mexican Assn for Psychoanalytic Practice, Training & Research
- Mexican Psychoanalytic Association
- Monterrey Psychoanalytic Association
- Northwestern Psychoanalytic Society
- Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society
- Paris Psychoanalytical Society
- Pelotas Psychoanalytic Society
- Peru Psychoanalytic Society
- Polish Psychoanalytical Society
- Porto Alegre Psychoanalytical Society
- Portuguese Psychoanalytical Society
- Psychoanalytic Center of California
- Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California
- Psychoanalytic Society of Mexico
- Psychoanalytical Association of The State of Rio de Janeiro
- Recife Psychoanalytic Society
- Rio de Janeiro Psychoanalytic Society
- Romanian Psychoanalytic Society
- Rosario Psychoanalytic Association
- Spanish Psychoanalytical Society
- Swedish Psychoanalytical Association
- Swiss Psychoanalytical Society
- Uruguayan Psychoanalytical Association
- Venezuelan Psychoanalytic Association
- Vienna Psychoanalytic Society
- Guadalajara Psychoanalytic Association (Provisional Society)
- Moscow Psychoanalytic Society (Provisional Society)
- Psychoanalytic Society for Research and Training (Provisional Society)
- Vienna Psychoanalytic Association
- American Psychoanalytic Association ("APsaA") is a body which has in membership societies which cover around 75% of psychoanalysts in the United States of America (the remainder are members of "independent" societies which are in direct relationship with the IPA).
IPA Study Groups
"Study Groups" are bodies of analysts which have not yet developed sufficiently to be a freestanding society, but that is their aim.
- Campinas Psychoanalytical Study Group
- Center for Psychoanalytic Education and Research
- Croatian Psychoanalytic Study Group
- Fortaleza Psychoanalytic Group
- Goiania Psychoanalytic Nucleus
- Korean Psychoanalytic Study Group
- Latvia and Estonia Psychoanalytic Study Group
- Lebanese Association for the Development of Psychoanalysis
- Minas Gerais Psychoanalytical Study Group
- Portuguese Nucleus of Psychoanalysis
- Psychoanalytical Association of Asuncion SG
- South African Psychoanalytic Association
- Study Group of Turkey: Psike Istanbul
- Turkish Psychoanalytical Group
- Vermont Psychoanalytic Study Group
- Vilnius Society of Psychoanalysts
"Allied Centres" are groups of people with an interest in psychoanalysis, in places where there are not already societies or study groups.
- Korean Psychoanalytic Allied Centre
- Psychoanalysis Studying Centre in China
- Taiwan Centre for The Development of Psychoanalysis
- The Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies of Panama
The first 23 Congresses of IPA did not have a specific theme.
|2||1910||Nuremberg||C. G. Jung|
|3||1911||Weimar||C. G. Jung|
|4||1913||Munich||C. G. Jung|
|6||1920||The Hague||Sándor Ferenczi|
|9||1925||Bad Homburg||K Abraham / M Eitingon|
|17||1951||Amsterdam||Leo H. Bartemeier|
|21||1959||Copenhagen||William H. Gillespie|
|22||1961||Edinburgh||William H. Gillespie|
|24||1965||Amsterdam||Gillespie/Greenacre||Psychoanalytic Treatment of the Obsessional Neurosis|
|25||1967||Copenhagen||P.J. van der Leeuw||On Acting Out and its Role in the Psychoanalytic Process|
|26||1969||Rome||P.J. van der Leeuw||New Developments in Psychoanalysis|
|27||1971||Vienna||Leo Rangell||The Psychoanalytical Concept of Aggression|
|28||1973||Paris||Leo Rangell||Transference and Hysteria Today|
|29||1975||London||Serge Lebovici||Changes in Psychoanalytic Practice and Experience|
|30||1977||Jerusalem||Serge Lebovici||Affects and the Psychoanalytic Situation|
|31||1979||New York City||Edward D. Joseph||Clinical Issues in Psychoanalysis|
|32||1981||Helsinki||Edward D. Joseph||Early Psychic Development as Reflected in the Psychoanalytic Process|
|33||1983||Madrid||Adam Limentani||The Psychoanalyst at Work|
|34||1985||Hamburg||Adam Limentani||Identification and its Vicissitudes|
|35||1987||Montreal||Robert S. Wallerstein||Analysis Terminable and Interminable – 50 Years Later|
|36||1989||Rome||Robert S. Wallerstein||Common Ground in Psychoanalysis|
|37||1991||Buenos Aires||Joseph J. Sandler||Psychic Change|
|38||1993||Amsterdam||Joseph J. Sandler||The Psychoanalyst’s Mind – From Listening to Interpretation|
|39||1995||San Francisco||R. Horacio Etchegoyen||Psychic Reality – Its Impact on the Analyst and Patient Today|
|40||1997||Barcelona||R. Horacio Etchegoyen||Psychoanalysis and Sexuality|
|41||1999||Santiago||Otto F. Kernberg||Affect in Theory and Practice|
|42||2001||Nice||Otto F. Kernberg||Psychoanalysis – Method and Application|
|43||2004||New Orleans||Daniel Widlöcher||Working at the Frontiers|
|44||2005||Rio de Janeiro||Daniel Widlöcher||Trauma: New Developments in Psychoanalysis|
|45||2007||Berlin||Cláudio Laks Eizirik||Remembering, Repeating and Working Through in Psychoanalysis & Culture Today|
|46||2009||Chicago||Cláudio Laks Eizirik||Psychoanalytic Practice - Convergences and Divergences|
|47||2011||Mexico City||Charles Hanly||Exploring Core Concepts: Sexuality, Dreams and the Unconscious|
|48||2013||Prague||Charles Hanly||Facing the Pain: Clinical Experience and the Development of Psychoanalytic Knowledge|
|49||2015||Boston||Stefano Bolognini||Changing World: the shape and use of psychoanalytic tools today|
|50||2017||Buenos Aires||Stefano Bolognini||Intimacy|
|51||2019||London||Virginia Ungar||The Feminine|
|52||2021||Vancouver||Virginia Ungar||The infantile: its multiple dimensions|
In 1999, Elisabeth Roudinesco noted that the IPA's attempts to professionalize psychoanalysis had become "a machine to manufacture significance". She also said that in France, "Lacanian colleagues looked upon the IPA as bureaucrats who had betrayed psychoanalysis in favour of an adaptive psychology in the service of triumphant capitalism". She wrote of the "IPA['s] Legitimist Freudianism, as mistakenly called "orthodox" ". Among Roudinesco's other criticisms, was her reference to "homophobia" in the IPA, considered a "disgrace of psychoanalysis.
On the other hand, most criticisms laid against the IPA tend to come from a 1950s Lacanian point of view, unaware of recent developments, and of the variety of schools and training models within the association in recent decades. One of the three training models in the IPA (the French Model), is mostly due to Lacan's ideas and their perspectives regarding the training.
- nelmeda, jella (7 July 2016). "Google+". Phoenix.[permanent dead link]
- Group portrait: Freud and associates in a photograph taken ca. 1922, Berlin. Sitting (from left to right) : Sigmund Freud, Sándor Ferenczi, Hanns Sachs. Standing (from left to right) : Otto Rank, Karl Abraham, Max Eitingon, Ernest Jones.
- How did the IPA begin? Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine
- "La mission de Sigmund Freud : une analyse de sa personnalité et de son influence'", Erich Fromm, translation from English by Paul Alexandre. Bruxelles : Complexe, 1975 and in Grandeurs et limites de la pensée freudienne, édition Laffont, 1980
- Elisabeth Roudinesco, "Pourquoi la psychanalyse ?" chapter four, « critiques des institutions psychanalytiques ». Fayard, Paris, 1999
- E.Roudinesco "Genealogy", p.60
- E. Roudinesco « la famille en désordre », in Eric Fassin, « L’inversion de la question homosexuelle » Revue française de psychanalyse, 2003/1 (Vol. 67).
- J. Lacan, The situation of psychoanalysis and the training of psychoanalysts in 1956, Ecrits, the first complete edition in English, translated by Bruce Fink, in collaboration with Heloise Fink and Russel Crigg. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London; Copyright © 1966, 1970, 1971, 1999 by Editions du Seuil - English translation copyright © 2006, 2002 by W. W. Norton & Company.
- Peter Loewenberg & Nellie L. Thompson, 100 years of the IPA, The Centenary History of the International Psychoanalytical Association, 1910-2010; Evolution and change. First published in 2011 by The International Psychoanalytical Association, Broomhills, Woodside Lane, London N12 8UD, United Kingdom. London, Karnac books.
- Gilbert Diatkine, Les lacanismes, les analystes français et l'Association psychanalytique internationale, Revue française de psychanalyse, hors-série, "Courants de la psychanalyse contemporaine", 2001, 389-400.