Industrial city or industrial town refers to the kind of city in which the municipal economy and development are concentrated around industrial production and characterized by a large amount of factories. Industrial city is at some stage during industrialization. Industrialization affected the internal structure of many cities, and by the end of nineteenth century shape and functions of most cities along with social relations appeared fundamentally changed. Manchester, England, is considered to be the archetype of the industrial city on the basis of Friedrich Engels' observations. Industrial cities might have had gone through the period featuring pollution.
In Chinese-speaking world, the term "industrial city" tends to refer to cities in which the municipal economy is led by heavy industries or the heavy industry is a significant impression of the city to people other than its local residents.
- Henderson, J. Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari; Turner, Matthew (1992). Industrial Development in Cities (Report). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w4178.
- pre-industrial cities (1), industrial cities (2) and post-industrial cities (3).
- Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 378. ISBN 9780415252256.
- "Industrial city - sociology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2015-09-21. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- Simkin, John. "Industrial Towns and Cities". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on 2018-07-06. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- Henderson, J. Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari; Turner, Matthew (1992). Industrial Development in Cities (Report). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w4178. Archived from the original on 2018-06-30. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- "工業城市：產業革命後隨著現代工業的發展而產生的以工業生產為主要職能的城市，在 -華人百科". 華人百科 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- Wang, Mark (2014). Old industrial cities seeking new road of industrialization : models of revitalizing Northeast China. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 981-4390-54-2. OCLC 864899911.