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|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Indore Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Malini Gaur (BJP)|
|• District Collector||Manish Singh (IAS))|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Pratibha Pal (IAS)|
|• Member of Parliament||Shankar Lalwani|
|• Metropolis||530 km2 (200 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,200 km2 (500 sq mi)|
|Elevation||550 m (1,800 ft)|
|• Density||3,800/km2 (9,700/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||15th|
|Sex ratio||Female 925|
|Climate||Cwa / Aw (Köppen)|
|Precipitation||945 mm (37.2 in)|
|Avg. annual temperature||24.0 °C (75.2 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||31 °C (88 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||17 °C (63 °F)|
Indore // (listen) is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of both Indore District and Indore Division. It is also considered as an education hub of the state and has campuses of both the Indian Institute of Technology and the Indian Institute of Management. Located on the southern edge of Malwa Plateau, at an average altitude of 553 meters (1,814 ft) above sea level, it has the highest elevation among major cities of Central India. The city is 190 km (120 mi) west of the state capital of Bhopal. Indore had a census-estimated 2011 population of 1,994,397 (municipal corporation) and 2,170,295 (urban agglomeration). The city is distributed over a land area of just 530 square kilometres (200 sq mi), making Indore the most densely populated major city in the central province.
Indore traces its roots to its 16th century founding as a trading hub between the Deccan and Delhi. The city and its surroundings came under Maratha Empire on 18 May 1724 after Peshwa Baji Rao I assumed the full control of Malwa. During the days of the British Raj, Indore State was a 19 Gun Salute (21 locally) princely state (a rare high rank) ruled by the Maratha Holkar dynasty, until they acceded to the Union of India. Indore served as the capital of the Madhya Bharat from 1950 until 1956.
Indore's financial district, based in central Indore, functions as the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh and is home to the Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange.
Indore has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. It also qualified the first round of Smart Cities Mission and was selected as one of the first twenty cities to be developed as Smart Cities. Indore has been part of Swachh Survekshan since its inception and had ranked 25th in 2016. It has been ranked as India's cleanest city four years in a row as per the Swachh Survekshan for the years 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020.
Gupta inscriptions name Indore as 'Indrapura'. It is believed that the city is named after its Indreshwar Mahadev Temple, where Indra is the presiding deity. It is believed that Indra himself did Tapasya (meditation) in this place and led sage Swami Indrapuri to establish the temple. Later, Tukoji Rao Holkar renovated the temple.
Gupta Empire (Gupta Era)
Gupta Empire inscription mentions Indore as city/town of Indrapura in Gupta Indore Copper plate inscription dated 146 Gupta era or 465 CE. These are also some of the earliest mentions of Indore where the city is mentioned as 'Indrapura'. Indrapura (modern day Indore) was then known for its sun temple, where in 464-65 CE, Gupta king Skandagupta had made an endowment for the permanent maintenance of the city's sun temple. The temple was constructed by two merchants of the city – Achalavarman and Bhṛikuṇṭhasiṁha.
Maratha Raj (Holkar Era)
By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana were transferred from Kampel, Madhya Pradesh to Indore, due to the increasing commercial activity in the city. On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth (taxes) from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar (Governor) of the province. Nandlal Chaudhary accepted the suzerainty of the Marathas.
On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and one-half Parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founding ruler of Holkar dynasty. His daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military center
British Occupation (Indore/Holkar State)
In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British during the Third Anglo-Maratha War, in the Battle of Mahidpur by which the capital was again moved from Maheshwar to Indore. A residency with British residents was established at Indore, but Holkars continued to rule Indore State as a princely state mainly due to efforts of their Dewan Tatya Jog. During that time, Indore has established the headquarters of the British Central Agency. Ujjain was originally the commercial center of Malwa. But the British administrators such as John Malcolm decided to promote Indore as an alternative to Ujjain because the merchants of Ujjain had supported anti-British elements.
In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, the fire brigade was established in 1909, and 1918, the first master-plan of the city was made by noted architect and town planner, Patrick Geddes. During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II (1852–86) efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. With the introduction of Railways in 1875, the business in Indore flourished during the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar.
Tukoji Rao Holkar II, Indore, from a drawing by Mr. W. Carpenter, Jun.," from the Illustrated London News, 1857
After India's independence in 1947, Holkar State, along with several neighboring princely states, acceded to the Indian Union. In 1948, with the formation of Madhya Bharat, Indore became the summer capital of the new state. On 1 November 1956, when Madhya Bharat was renamed/ merged into Madhya Pradesh, the state capital was shifted to Bhopal. Indore, a city today of nearly 4.5 million (2018) residents, has been transformed from a traditional commercial urban center into the modern dynamic commercial capital of the state.
Indore lies on a borderline between a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) and a tropical savanna climate (Aw). Because of its high elevation and inland location even during the hottest months the nights are relatively cool, which is known as Shab-e-Malwa. Three distinct seasons are observed: summer, monsoon and winter. The coldest temperature was 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) in January 1936.
Indore gets moderate rainfall of 700 to 800 millimetres (28 to 31 in) during July–September due to the southwest monsoon.
|Climate data for Indore (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.9
|Average high °C (°F)||26.8
|Average low °C (°F)||10.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−1.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||5.6
|Average rainy days||0.4||0.4||0.4||0.3||1.3||6.3||12.0||12.9||7.4||2.7||1.0||0.2||45.4|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||34||25||16||14||20||44||70||78||65||40||35||36||40|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||289.0||275.6||287.6||305.9||326.9||208.6||104.1||79.9||180.6||270.8||274.0||281.3||2,884.3|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun 1971–1990)|
Indore is the most populous city in Madhya Pradesh. It is also the largest metropolitan city in Central India. According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Indore city (the area under the municipal corporation and outgrowths) was 1,994,397. The population of the Indore metropolis (urban agglomeration that includes neighboring areas) was 2,170,295. In 2011, the city had a population density of 25,170 people per square mile (9,718 per square km), rendering it the most densely populated of all the municipalities with population over 100,000 in Madhya Pradesh. As per the 2011 census, the city of Indore had an average literacy rate of 87.38%, higher than the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 91.84% and female literacy was 82.55% In Indore, 12.72% of the population is under 6 years of age (as per census 2011). The average annual growth rate of population was around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001. Religion-wise, according to the 2011 census reports, Hindus constitute the majority 80.18% of Indore's total population, while Muslims are 14.09%, Jains 3.25% and others 2.48%.
Hindi is the official language of Indore city, and is spoken by a majority of the population. A number of Hindi dialects such as Malawi, Nimadi and Bundeli are spoken in decent numbers. Other languages with substantial number of speakers include - Marathi, Urdu, Sindhi, Gujarati, Punjabi and Bengali.
Government and politics
Indore has a city government or municipality with a mayor-council form of government. In 1870, the first municipality was constituted in Indore and Bakshi Khajan Singh was appointed Chairman. Indore municipality became the first city to have an elected municipal government responsible for the welfare and growth of the city. In the year 1956, during the reorganization of states, Indore was included in Madhya Pradesh and in the same year it was declared a municipal corporation.
Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) is spread over an area of 269 square km. The Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) is a unicameral body consisting of 69 Council members whose districts are divided into 12 zones and these zones had been further divided into 69 wards defined by geographic population boundaries. In 2014, 29 villages were added into the fold of the municipality. In 2015, 23 more villages were added. After these inclusions, the number of wards went up to 85, and zones 19.
The mayor and councillors are elected to five-year terms. The municipal or local elections to Indore Municipal Corporation were last held in 2015. The next elections were to be held early in 2020, but as per a report from February 2020, these have not happened, although preparation of voter rolls and ward reservation happened later in July. The elected wing of the city government is headed by the Mayor and the incumbent Mayor is Malini Gaur. As per a report from the Free Press Journal, Indore was notified in 2018 for not having constituted ward committees. The executive wing is headed by Pratibha Pal, the municipal commissioner of Indore, who is also the first female commissioner of the city.
On 8 May 2020, the budget for of ₹4,763 crore for 2020-21 was approved for the civic body. Major sources of revenue for the municipality include collection of property tax, water tax, rent.
Indore municipality follows the guidelines as per the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporations Act 1956, as well as the Madhya Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1961. The IMC is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, local planning, and welfare services.
Representation in Parliament and State Assembly
Indore city is represented in the parliament through the Indore Lok Sabha constituency, which covers most of the district. In May 2019, Shankar Lalwani of Bharatiya Janata Party, who is also the chairman of the Indore Development Authority, had been elected as the Member of Parliament from Indore. As per delimitation from 2008, Indore city is represented in the state assembly constituency through 5 Constituencies, election for which last took place in 2018:
|Constituency||Member of Legislative Assembly||Political Party|
|Indore 1||Sanjay Shukla||Indian National Congress|||
|Indore 2||Ramesh Mendola||Bhartiya Janata Party|||
|Indore 3||Akash Vijayvargiya||Bhartiya Janata Party|||
|Indore 4||Malini Gaur (Mayor)||Bhartiya Janata Party|||
|Indore 5||Mahendra Hardia||Bhartiya Janata Party|||
Law and order
The Indore Police, a division of the Madhya Pradesh Police, under the direct control of Department of Home Affairs, Government of Madhya Pradesh is the law enforcement agency in Indore. Indore district is divided into 39 police stations and seven police outposts.
In 2012, it was reported that the Police Commissionerate system would be implemented in Indore, but this did not pan out because of tussle between the IAS and IPS officers in the state. The bill was proposed again in 2018 and has been criticised by NewsClick. The system has not been implemented as of 2020, although there has been talk of it.
As of 4 September 2013, the Divisional commissioner is Dr Pawan Kumar Sharma. In Feb 2020, the new Director General of Police became Vivek Johri while SSP Indore is Harinarayan Chari Mishra.
Indore is also a seat for one of the two permanent benches of Madhya Pradesh High Court with Gwalior, the city, its agglomerates, and other 12 districts of western Madhya Pradesh falls under the jurisdiction of Indore High Court.
Most of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Indore Development Authority (IDA). IDA works as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Indore Metropolitan Region (IMR) comprising Indore and its agglomeration covering an area of 398.72 km2 (153.95 sq mi). Primarily, IDA develops new residential areas. During the early stage of development of such areas, the IDA is responsible for developing basic infrastructure. Once a sizeable number of plots are sold, the area is formally transferred to the IMC, which is then responsible for the maintenance of the infrastructure in the area.
The IDA consists of two appointed components; the collector of the district, who has executive powers, and the IDA Board which includes a chairman appointed by Government of Madhya Pradesh, Municipal Commissioner of Indore and five members form Town and Country Planning Department, Forest Department, Public Health Engineering, Public Works Department and MP Electricity Board who scrutinize the collector's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The role of IDA is to implement the master plan for Indore prepared by the Town and Country Office, Bhopal. The headquarters of the IDA is at Race Course Road, Indore.
Major source of water in Indore are Narmada river and overhead tanks. In 2016, the central government sanctioned 70 crores under the AMRUT scheme to overhaul the water facilities. Indore used to receive 350 MLD of water from Jalud pumping station on Narmada river; while in 2019 the quantity reduced by 100 MLD, as of 2020 it has regained its capacity. The municipality supplies around 450 MLD water through piped connections to parts of the town on alternate days, other parts of the city have shortage of water. The urban poor and unauthorized slum area face a massive shortage of water, and need to purchases private water in drums, or need to have to access private tubewells. A joint study done by UN Habitat, IMC and WaterAid mapping poverty surveyed 176545 households (approximately 1/3rd of the households in the city), and found that 72% of the households did not have access to piped water supply.
As of 2012, Indore generated nearly 240 MLD of sewage. As per a report from August 2018, Indore achieved 100% treatment of the faecal matter generated in the city. The city has 3 sewage treatment plants (STPs), which includes a Sequencing Batch Reactors with a capacity of 245 MLD, the largest in the world, as well as a 78 MLD and 12 MLD Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor at Kabitkhedi and a third with a capacity of 122 MLD.
As of 2019, Indore generates over 1,115 metric tons (MT) of garbage a day, of which 650 MT is wet waste and 465 MT is dry waste. The municipality has 100% door to door collection and segregation. The city has a Centralized Processing Unit situated at Devguradia, Nemawar Road over an area of 146 acres. Waste collected at the garbage transfer stations in city is weighed, compressed and moved to this site for final processing. Indore also set up a Plastic Collection Centre (PCC) to reuse and recycle the city’s plastic waste and also installed a plastic cleansing machine known as a ‘Phatka Machine'.
Indore is a commercial center for goods and services. As of 2011, Indore had a GDP of $14 billion. The city also hosts a biennial global investors' summit, which attracts investors from several countries. Major industrial areas surrounding the city include: Pithampur (phases I, II and III alone host 1,500 large, medium and small industrial set-ups), Indore Special Economic Zone (around 3,000 acres/ 4.7 square miles/ 1,214 hectares), Sanwer industrial belt (1,000 acres/ 1.6 square miles/ 405 hectares), Laxmibainagar Industrial Area, Rau Industrial Area, Bhagirathpura Industrial Area, Kali Billod Industrial Area, Ranmal Billod Industrial Area, Shivajinagar Bhindikho Industrial Area, Hatod Industrial Area.
The city also has IT Parks, Crystal IT Park (550,000 square feet), Pardeshipura IT Park (100,000 square feet), Electronic Complex, and Individual Special Economic Zones (SEZs) such as TCS SEZ, Infosys SEZ, Impetus SEZ, Diamond Park, Gems and Jewelry Park, Food Park, Apparel Park, Namkeen Cluster and Pharma Cluster.
Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange (MPSE) was set up in 1919. It is the only stock exchange in Central India and the third oldest stock exchange in India. It is located in Indore. The National Stock Exchange (NSE) has established an Investor Service Center in the city.
TCS has officially started an offshore development center in Indore with a total campus area of around 1.5 million square feet. Collabera has also announced plans to open campuses in Indore. Infosys is setting up a new development center at Indore at an investment of Rs. 1 billion in Phase I at Super Corridor. Infosys demanded an area of 130 acres (53 hectares) to open its new facility in Indore which will employ about 13,000 people. The government of MP has done the land allotment. Impetus, headquartered in Los Gatos, California, USA, with multiple offshore offices in Indore, has started operations at its 25-acre land, procured from the SEZ. Besides these, there are several small and medium sized software development firms in Indore. Webgility, a San Francisco-based ecommerce company that has had a presence in Indore since 2007, opened a 16,000 square-foot campus at NRK Business Park in 2017.
Indore's culinary culture has a blend of Maharashtrian, Malwi, Rajasthani and Gujarati influence. The street food of the city is especially popular. Two of the most noteworthy street food places in Indore are Chappan Dukan and Sarafa Bazaar.
As part of the Smart City project, the Chappan Dukan area has been developed as a smart food street. The cost of this project is ₹40 million and has been implemented in a 45-day period.
Indore is also notable for its wide variety of namkeens or savory items and has many popular namkeen stores across the city. Most popular food items of Indore include poha, kachori, samosa, jalebi, gulab jamun, rabdi, gajak, imarti, bhel, pani puri, hot dog, egg banjo, moong bhajiya, moong daal halwa, dahi wada, sabudana khichdi, sabudana wada, dhokla and sev.
The Yeshwant Club (named after Late the Maharaja Yeshwant Rao II Holkar of Indore) and Sayaji Club/Hotel (named after Late the Maharaja Sayaji Rao III Gaekwad of Baroda) are big sponsors for art & music and invite talents from across the world. The major art centers in Indore are the Devlalikar Kala Vithika, Ravindra Natya Grah (RNG), Mai Mangeshkar Sabha Grah, Anand Mohan Mathur Sabhagrah, DAVV auditorium, and Brilliant Convention Centre.
The city has a good rock/metal music culture which is growing. Nicotine, one of the city's earliest and most renowned bands, is widely known for being the pioneer of metal music in Central India.
The early 2010s saw the rise of EDM music in many pubs and clubs in Indore.
Indore was going to host IIFA (International Indian Film Academy) Awards 2020 from 27 to 29 March at the Daly College. This has been postponed due to concerns regarding spread of coronavirus.
Indore is served by Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport, about 8 km from the city. It is the busiest airport in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh with 2,269,971 passengers and 10851 tons cargo for April 2017- March 2018. Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport, Indore has been adjudged as the best airport in the under 2 million annual passenger footfall category in the Asia Pacific region in the Airports Council International (ACI)'s airport service quality (ASQ) rankings for the year 2017.
Electrification of the Indore–Dewas–Ujjain was completed in June 2012. Ratlam–Indore broad gauge conversion was completed in September 2014. Indore–Mhow section was upgraded to broad gauge in 2016 and electrified in 2017.
Aside from the main Indore Junction, the city of Indore has eight other railway stations:
|Station name||Station code||Railway zone||Total platforms|
|Lakshmibai Nagar||LMNR||Western Railway||3|
|Saify Nagar||SFNR||Western Railway||1|
|Lokmanya Nagar||LMNR||Western Railway||1|
|Rajendra Nagar||RJNR||Western Railway||2|
|Manglia Gaon||MGG||Western Railway||3|
|Dr. Ambedkar Nagar||MHOW||Western Railway||3|
Indore is connected to other parts of India through National and State highways.
The National Highways passing through the city are:
- National Highway 52 (NH 52) contains parts of the erstwhile NH3 (AB Rd stands for Agra Bombay Road) and it originates at Sangrur, Punjab and runs through Jaipur, Rajasthan, Indore, Dhule and terminates at Ankola in Karnataka.
- National Highway 47 starts from Bamanbore, Gujarat and reaches Indore via Ahmedabad and further connects Betul to terminate at Nagpur.
The highways which have ceased to exist because of renumbering are:
- National Highway 3 also known as the Agra-Bombay Road or AB Road, was an important highway connecting Agra to Mumbai via Indore & Dhule.
- National Highway 59 & its branch NH 59A. NH 59 originated at Ahmedabad and passed through Godhra, Indore, Raipur, Brahmapur, Odisha and terminated at Gopalpur-on-Sea while NH 59A connected Indore & Betul.
The state highways passing through the city are:
- MP State Highway 27 runs from Jhalawar in Rajasthan, through Ujjain, Indore, Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh and terminates at Malkapur, Buldhana in Maharashtra.
- MP State Highway 31 (Neemuch – Ratlam – Dhar)
Indore's City Bus transport system runs through 277 km (172 mi) of road with a daily ridership of over 140,000. Atal Indore City Transport Services Ltd, a PPP scheme operates buses and radio taxis in the city. The buses designated as City Bus operate on 64 Routes with a fleet of 361 buses, with 421 bus stops. The buses are color-coded into three colors: Blue, Magenta and Orange according to their route.
Indore BRTS (iBUS) – Indore BRTS is a bus rapid transit system with 53 air-conditioned buses equipped with services like GPS and IVR which are used to track the position of the bus with information displayed on LED displays installed at the bus stops.
Indore Magic (Auto Rickshaw) – Indore Auto Rickshaw is a magic service for small distance travel. Daily approx. 500,000 people travel within the city.
Indore Cable Car was announced in January 2021 as another public transport for the city to decongest traffic. It will also be the first cable car in India to run on crowded streets.
The Daly College, founded in 1870 by General Henry Daly, is one of the oldest co-educational boarding school in the world, which was established to educate the rulers of the Central Indian princely states of the 'Marathas' and Rajputs'. The Holkar Science College, officially known as Government Model Autonomous Holkar Science College was established in 1891.
Indore is the first city to have both IIT (Indian Institute of Technology Indore) and IIM (Indian Institute of Management Indore). Indore is home to a range of colleges and schools. Indore has a large student population and is a big educational center in central India, it also is the education hub of central India. Most primary and secondary schools in Indore are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE); however, quite a few numbers of schools are affiliated with ICSE board, NIOS board, CBSE board, and the state level M.P. Board as well.
Indian Institute of Technology Indore is one of the most prestigious institutions in the country. Started in 2009, IIT Indore has its 500-acre campus in Simrol (28 km from Indore City). IIT Indore has several disciplines including Civil Engineering, Computer Science Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy, and Material Science.
IIT Indore ranked 15 under the engineering category in the National Institute Ranking Framework. IIT Indore's central library emphasizes the use of Online Information Resources. The library provides its users access to nearly 3800 electronic journals as well as access to databases such as ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MathSciNet, JSTOR, SciFinder, Taylor and Francis, WILEY, and Springer. The library also provides air-conditioned and Wi-Fi enabled reading halls.
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, also known as DAVV (formerly known as University of Indore or Indore Vishvavidyalaya), is a university in Indore with several colleges operating under its aegis. It has two campuses within the city, one at Takshila Parisar (near Bhavarkuan Square) and another at Rabindra Nath Tagore Road, Indore. The university runs several departments including Institute of Management Studies, School of Computer Science & Information Technology(SCSIT), (IMS), School of Law (SoL), Institute of Engineering and Technology, DAVV (IET), Educational Multimedia Research Centre (EMRC), International Institute of Professional Studies (IIPS), School of Pharmacy, School of Energy & Environmental Studies - one of the primer schools for MTech (Energy Management), School of Journalism and School of Futures Studies and Planning, which runs two MTech Courses with specializations in Technology Management & Systems Science & Engineering, MBA (Business Forecasting), an MSc in Science & Technology Communication. The campus houses several other research and educational departments, hostels, playgrounds, and cafes.
The Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science (SGSITS), formerly Shri Govindram Seksaria Kala Bhavan, is a public engineering institution located in Indore. It was established in 1952 as a technical institute offering licentiate and diploma courses in engineering. New Delhi granted the status of an autonomous institution in 1989. In 2020, it became the first and only Madhya Pradesh government-funded engineering college in the state to have made its place among the top 250 in the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) ranking released by Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
The Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College (MGMMC) is another old institution and was formerly known as the King Edward Medical College. Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences (SAIMS) is a group of colleges located in Indore. It features Mohak Hitech Speciality Hospital within the campus
Health and medicine
Indore is home to 51 public health institutions and has a number of private hospitals. The healthcare facilities of Indore include MY Hospital, Bombay Hospital, SAIMS, Choithram Hospital, CHL Hospital, Medanta, Apollo, Vasan, Centre for Sight and Navchetna Rehabilitation and Deaddiction Center.
The National Family Health Survey of 2018 found Indore to be India's most vegetarian city, with 49% of residents eschewing meat products.
There are about 20 Hindi dailies, 7 English dailies, 26 weeklies and monthlies, four quarterlies, two bi-monthly magazines, one annual paper, and one monthly Hindi language educational tabloid named "Campus Diary" published from the city. India's only magazine on the pump industry, Pumps India, and valve magazine Valves India are published from here.
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The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government-owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR Vividh Bharathi FM (101.6 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (105.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial television channels. Local broadcasting stations also exist.
Indore switched to complete digitalization of cable TV in 2013 under the second phase of digitalization by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Indore is covered by a network of optical fiber cables. Doordarshan Kendra Indore with studio and transmission started from July 2000.
There are various companies providing paid and free Wi-fi services across the city. Reliance's Jionet became operational in November 2013. It covers the whole city but a large number of Wi-fi towers are not working yet. It is a 4.5G high-speed Wi-fi service which was initially free for now but was to become chargeable in 2016. IM FREE WIFI provides free Wi-fi service using cloud-based technology in most parts of the city. It is the only company in India which uses this technology.[non-primary source needed] Indore is the second city in India to provide free Wi-fi across the city. AICSTL provides a high-speed free Wi-fi service named 'Free As Air' across the Indore BRTS corridor. BSNL has also started free Wi-fi services in prominent locations.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the city. Indore is also home to the Madhya Pradesh Cricket Association (MPCA), Madhya Pradesh Table Tennis Association (MPTTA), and the city has one international cricket ground, the Holkar Cricket Stadium. The first ODI cricket match in the state was played in Indore at Nehru Stadium in 1983.
Besides cricket, Indore is also a center for many national and international championships. The city hosted the South Asian Billiard Championship and is a host to the three-day-long National Triathlon Championship, in which nearly 450 players and 250 sports officials belonging to 23 states take part in the action.
Places to visit
Kanch Mandir, literally a 'temple of glass', is a famous Jain temple in Indore, built by Sir Seth Hukumchand Jain. Its construction began sometime around 1903. Khajrana Ganesh Temple is a pilgrimage center in Indore, dedicated to Lord Ganapati, built during the reign of Holkar Dynasty. Nahar Shah Vali Dargah is the oldest dargah of Indore. It is situated in the Khajrana area, a little distance away from Kalka Mata Temple.
Lalbagh Palace is one the finest buildings built by the Holkar Dynasty between 1886 and 1921. The interior is beautified with striated Italian marble pillars, many chandeliers and classical columns, murals of Greek deities, a baroque-cum-rococo dining room, an English-library-style office with leather armchairs, a Renaissance sitting room, and a Palladian queen's bedroom which was the fashion among many of the late Raj-era Indian nobility, accompanied by a billiards room. There is imitation of the Buckingham Palace gates creak at the entrance along with 28-hectare ground, where, near to the palace, stands the statue of Queen Victoria.
Manik Bagh palace was built in 1930 when Maharajah Yashwant Rao Holkar II commissioned the construction of the Manik Bagh ("Jewel Garden") palace. The architect was Eckart Muthesius (1904-1989) from Germany. The maharaja was at a young age at that time, as was Muthesius who was just a couple of years older. The work outside and inside was done in a late art deco and the international style of modern architecture.
The Yeshwant Club came into existence in 1934 at the behest of late the Maharaja Tukoji Rao III Holkar of Indore. The club was established for their son, Yuvraj Yeshwant Rao Holkar. Spread over 14 acres it is a Maratha legacy of the Holkar rulers of Indore State. Initially, the club was opened for Maratha royalty, nobility, aristocracy, and the officers (Natives and British) of the Holkar State. Later its doors were opened for the business elites. Post-Indian Independence, the admission criteria were revised according to the changing times. Maharani Usha Devi, the daughter of late Maharaja Yeshwant Rao II Holkar of Indore is the Chief Patron of the Club, the Honorary Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh being the President of the Club.
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