|I Know What You Did Last Summer|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Jim Gillespie|
|Screenplay by||Kevin Williamson|
|Based on||I Know What You Did Last Summer|
by Lois Duncan
|Music by||John Debney|
|Edited by||Steve Mirkovich|
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
|Box office||$125.2 million|
I Know What You Did Last Summer is a 1997 American slasher film directed by Jim Gillespie, written by Kevin Williamson, and starring Jennifer Love Hewitt, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Ryan Phillippe, and Freddie Prinze Jr.. Loosely based on the 1973 novel of the same name by Lois Duncan and is the first installment in I Know What You Did Last Summer trilogy. The film centers on four young friends who are stalked by a hook-wielding killer one year after covering up a car accident in which they killed a man. The film also draws inspiration from the urban legend known as the Hook.
After having written Scream (released the year prior), Williamson was approached to adapt Duncan's source novel by producer Erik Feig. Where Williamson's screenplay for Scream contained prominent elements of satire and self-referentiality, his adaptation of I Know What You Did Last Summer reworked the novel's central plot to resemble a straightforward 1980s-era slasher film. Shot on location in California and North Carolina in the spring of 1997, I Know What You Did Last Summer was released theatrically in North America on October 17, 1997. It received mixed reviews from critics but was commercially successful, grossing $125 million worldwide on a budget of $17 million, and remaining number 1 at the U.S. box office for three consecutive weeks. It was also nominated for and won multiple awards.
The film was followed by two sequels, I Still Know What You Did Last Summer (1998) and I'll Always Know What You Did Last Summer (2006). I Know What You Did Last Summer has also been parodied and referenced in popular culture, and credited alongside Scream with revitalizing the slasher genre in the 1990s.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Release
- 5 Music
- 6 Home media
- 7 Sequels and television series
- 8 Other media
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Works cited
- 12 External links
On the Fourth of July 1996 in Southport, North Carolina, Julie James and her friends Ray Bronson, Helen Shivers, and Barry Cox drive to the beach after attending a party. While driving along a coastal byway, they accidentally hit a pedestrian. Julie's friend Max passes by them on the road. Julie reassures Max that everything is all right, and he leaves. After some arguing, the group decides to dispose of the body, dumping it in the water. They agree to never discuss the incident again.
A year later, Julie returns home from her college in Boston for the summer. Since the incident, the friends have gone their separate ways. Julie receives a letter with no return address, stating, "I know what you did last summer!" Disturbed, Julie tracks down Helen, who has returned to Southport to work at her family's department store after a failed attempt at an acting career in New York City. The girls take the note to Barry, who immediately suspects Max as he was the only person there that night. They confront Max on the docks, and Barry threatens him with a hook, even though Max claims he has no idea what Barry is talking about. Julie meets Ray, who is now working as a fisherman; he unsuccessfully tries to reconcile with her. Later, Max is killed by a figure in a rain slicker wielding the same hook. Barry discovers a note in his gym locker saying, "I know." He is then ambushed by the same assailant driving Barry's car.
Meanwhile, as Ray still suspects Max, Julie researches newspaper articles which lead her to believe the man they ran over was a local named David Egan. Helen and Julie go to visit with David's sister Missy at her home. Missy explains to them that their family was devastated by David's death; she also mentions that a friend of David's named Billy Blue also visited her to pay his last respects. Later that night, the killer sneaks into Helen's house, cuts off most of her hair while she sleeps, and writes "Soon" in lipstick on her vanity mirror.
The following morning, Julie finds Max's corpse wearing Barry's stolen jacket in the trunk of her car. When she calls the others, the body is missing. Julie, Helen, and Barry confront Ray about the recent events. Ray claims to have received a threatening letter as well. Julie goes back to visit Missy, while Barry and Helen go to participate in the Fourth of July parade. Missy reveals David allegedly committed suicide out of guilt for the death of his girlfriend Susie in a car accident and shows David's suicide note to Julie. As the writing matches that of the note she received, Julie realizes it was not a suicide note, but a death threat.
At the Croaker Beauty Pageant, Helen witnesses Barry being murdered on the balcony. She rushes upstairs with a police officer but finds no sign of the killer or Barry. A police officer escorts Helen home, but the killer lures him into an alley and murders him. Helen flees to her nearby family store, where her sister Elsa is closing for the night. The killer enters the store and murders Elsa. Helen is chased to the third floor of the building and escapes through a window, falling to a long alleyway. She manages to run toward the street, but the killer stops her and slashes her to death, her screams being drowned out by the sound of the oncoming parade.
Julie finds an article mentioning Susie's father, Ben Willis, and realizes that Ben was the man they ran over, moments after he had killed David to avenge his daughter. She then goes to the docks to tell Ray, but he refuses to believe her. Julie notices Ray's boat is called Billy Blue and runs away. Ben appears, knocking Ray unconscious, and invites Julie to hide on his boat. On the boat, she finds photos and articles about her friends and her, and pictures of Susie. Ben's boat leaves the docks, and he begins tormenting Julie, chasing her below deck; there, she uncovers the bodies of Helen and Barry in the boat's ice box. Ray regains consciousness and steals a motorboat to rescue Julie. He ultimately uses the rigging to sever Ben's hand and send him overboard. When Julie and Ray are questioned by the police, they deny knowing why Ben attempted to kill them, but they are relieved not to have actually killed anyone the previous summer, and reconcile.
A year later, Julie is in college in Boston. As she enters the shower, she notices the words "I still know" on the mirror. Moments later, the fisherman crashes through it as Julie screams in horror.
- Jennifer Love Hewitt as Julie James
- Sarah Michelle Gellar as Helen Shivers
- Ryan Phillippe as Barry Cox
- Freddie Prinze Jr. as Ray Bronson
- Bridgette Wilson as Elsa Shivers
- Anne Heche as Missy Egan
- Muse Watson as Ben Willis/The Fisherman
- Johnny Galecki as Max Neurick
- Stuart Greer as Officer Caporizo
Development and writing
I Know What You Did Last Summer was a screenplay penned by Kevin Williamson several years beforehand, which was then rushed into production by Columbia Pictures upon the success of the Williamson-written Scream (1996). It was based on the 1973 novel of the same name by Lois Duncan, a youth-oriented suspense novel about four young people who are involved in a hit-and-run accident involving a young boy. Producer Erik Feig pitched the idea of a screen adaptation to Mandalay Entertainment, and subsequently appointed Williamson to retool the core elements of Duncan's novel, rendering a screenplay more akin to a 1980s slasher film. Inspired by his father, who had been a commercial fisherman, Williamson changed the setting of the novel to a small fishing village, and made the villain a hook-wielding fisherman.
The killer's arming of himself with a hook is a reference to the urban legend "The Hook," which the four main characters recount at the beginning of the film around a campfire. According to Williamson, he wrote the scene as a way of indicating what was to come: "Basically what I was doing was I was setting the framework to say, 'All right, audience: That's that legend. Now here's a new one.'" Unlike Williamson's screenplay for the film's contemporary, Scream (1996), which incorporated satire of the slasher film, I Know What You Did Last Summer was written more as a straightforward slasher film. Gillespie commented in 2008: "The joy of this film for me as a filmmaker was in taking [the] elements that we've seen before, and saying to the audience: 'Here's something you've seen before'—knowing that they're saying 'We've seen this before'—and still getting them to jump." Gillespie also claimed that he felt Williamson's screenplay did not resemble a "slasher horror movie," and that he saw it rather as simply "a really good story" with a morality tale embedded within it.
According to producer Stokely Chaffin, the producers sought out actors who were "beautiful, but likable." Director Gillespie recalled that, though he had been unfamiliar with the screenplay's source material, that "roughly 60 to 65%" of the young women auditioning had read the novel as children. Jennifer Love Hewitt, who at the time was mainly known for her role on the television series Party of Five, was cast in the lead of Julie James based on her "ability to project vulnerability," which the producers, director Gillespie, and writer Williamson unanimously agreed upon. Initially, Hewitt was considered for the role of Helen. For the role of Barry, the crew had envisioned an actor with a "6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) quarterback" appearance, as the character had been written as an intimidating figure. Ryan Phillipe was ultimately cast in the part based on his audition, despite the fact that he was not as physically tall as the script had called for. Director Gillespie chose Freddie Prinze Jr. for the role of Ray, because he felt Prinze himself had an "everyman" quality much like the character.
Sarah Michelle Gellar was the last of the lead performers to be cast in the role of Helen. Like Hewitt, Gellar was also known to American audiences at the time for her roles in television, primarily as the titular Buffy Summers on Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Gillespie commented on casting Gellar: "I wanted an actress that had a warmth to her, but could still come off as being a bitch." For the supporting role of Missy, Gillespie sought an actress with significant screen presence, as the character, despite appearing in only two scenes, is central to several major plot points. Anne Heche was cast in the role, which she recalled as being two days' worth of work that required her to "be scary."
Scottish director Jim Gillespie was hired to direct the film after being suggested by writer Williamson. Star Hewitt would later state in 2008 that Gillespie was to date her "favorite director [she's] ever worked with." Principal photography began on March 31, 1997 and took place over a period of ten weeks throughout the late spring-early summer of 1997.[i] Approximately seven weeks of the ten-week shoot took place at night, which Gillespie says was difficult for the cast and crew, and also created commotion in primary small-town locations in which they shot. Gillespie devised a color scheme with cinematographer Denis Crossan which was marked by heavy blues throughout, and a notable lack of bright colors.
For the beginning of the film, coastal areas of Sonoma County, California stood in for North Carolina, where the film is set. The opening shots of the sun setting on a rugged coast were filmed at Kolmer Gulch, just north of the town of Jenner, on Highway 1. The car crash scene was also filmed on Highway 1 in the same area. The scene in which the four friends are seated around a campfire on the beach next to a wrecked boat was inspired by a painting Gillespie had seen in a reference book; to achieve the image, the art department purchased an old boat in Bodega Bay, cut it in half, and placed it at the beach location.
The remaining scenes were filmed primarily around the town of Southport, North Carolina. Specific sites included the Amuzu Theater, where the beauty pageant is held, the Old Yacht Basin and Southport Fish Company. Julie's house is on Short Street just north of Southport Marina. The daytime sequences shot on the marina show multiple vessels traversing the water; though real vessels, the boat traffic was orchestrated by a marine traffic coordinator to make the waterway appear lively. The Shivers Department Store setting in the film was discovered on location in Southport by director Gillespie, who was so impressed by the location that he reworked elements of the script in order to incorporate it into the film; it eventually became the primary setting for Helen's extended chase sequence with the killer. The exterior sequences of Julie's Boston college campus were in fact shot at Duke University, while the hospital sequence was filmed at Southport's Dosher Memorial Hospital in an unused wing of the hospital.
The final sequence on the boat was shot on an actual water-bound vessel on the Cape Fear River, which proved difficult for the actors and crew. According to Gillespie, the filmmakers nearly lost the boat while attempting to dock it due to the volatile waters, after which they were forced to leave and shoot other footage until the following day.
Gillespie chose to film virtually no onscreen blood as he did not want the film to be overly gratuitous in terms of violence. The scene in which Elsa has her throat slashed while standing against a glass door had originally been shot from behind without any blood appearing on the glass. However, producer Feig worried that the scene appeared "medically impossible," after which Gillespie re-shot it (post-principal photography) with a visual effect of blood spattering across the glass. Upon test screenings of the film, Gillespie and the producers decided that a death sequence needed to occur earlier in the film to establish a sense of legitimate danger for the main characters. The scene in which Max is murdered in the crab factory was subsequently filmed and implemented into the final cut to achieve this (in the original script, his character was not killed).
The original ending of the film featured a sequence in which Julie receives an email reading: "I Still Know." This ending was scrapped for the more dramatic ending featured in the final cut of the film, in which Julie finds the same message scrawled on a shower stall just before the killer comes crashing through the glass. This footage was also shot after principal photography, on a soundstage next-door to where Hewitt was filming Party of Five.
In anticipation of the film's release, distributor Columbia Pictures began a summer marketing campaign that presented the film as being "From the creator of Scream." Miramax Pictures subsequently filed a lawsuit against Columbia, arguing the claim was inaccurate as the director of Scream was Wes Craven, not Williamson. The week following the film's theatrical release, a federal judge awarded Miramax an injunction requiring that Columbia remove the claim from their advertising campaign. Williamson had requested its removal prior after seeing it on a theater poster.
Miramax won a subsequent lawsuit against Columbia during a March 1998 hearing. In a press release, executive Bob Weinstein noted plans to "vigorously pursue" damage claims against Columbia Pictures for their use of the claim.
I Know What You Did Last Summer opened theatrically in North America on October 17, 1997. The film had been made on a $17 million budget, yet already in its opening weekend it grossed $15,818,645 in 2,524 theaters in the United States and Canada, ranking number one; it remained in the number one position for an additional two weekends. By the end of its theatrical run in December 1997, it had grossed $72,586,134 in the U.S. and Canada and $53 million in other countries for a worldwide total of $126 million.
The film received mixed reviews upon release, inevitably drawing both positive and negative comparisons to Scream, also written by Williamson. Mick LaSalle thought it inferior to Scream, but Richard Harrington compared it favorably, stating that it was "... a smart, sharply drawn genre film with a moral center and a solid cast of young actors to hold it." Variety was also enthusiastic, calling it a "polished genre piece with superior fright elements that should perform at better than average theatrical levels." Critic Roger Ebert gave the film one of four stars and wrote in his review, "The best shot in this film is the first one. Not a good sign." An Entertainment Weekly columnist praised Hewitt's performance, noting that Hewitt knows how to "scream with soul."
Lawrence Van Gelder of The New York Times wrote of the film: "This isn't real life. It's the Grand Guignol of I Know What You Did Last Summer, laying its claim to succeed Scream as a high-grossing, blood-drenched date-night crowd-pleaser. And why shouldn't it?" James Kendrick of the Q Network wrote that 'Williamson's characters are all generic types, but they're still believable as people and they react realistically according to the situations," adding that the film was "head and shoulders above earlier "dead teenager movies."" TV Guide's Maitland McDonagh awarded the film two out of five stars, noting: "Scream screenwriter Kevin Williamson takes a step back and writes the kind of movie Scream mocks. You can see him now, soaking up videos of Friday the 13th and Halloween—not to mention the lesser likes of He Knows You're Alone, Terror Train, and My Bloody Valentine—and saying, "I can do that!" And he can."
Critic James Berardinelli credited the film (along with Scream) as igniting a new boom of slasher films, adding: "There is one minor aspect of the plot that elevates I Know What You Did Last Summer above the level of a typical '80s slasher flick -- it has an interesting subtext. I'm referring to the way the lives and friendships of these four individuals crumble in the wake of their accident. Guilt, confusion, and doubt build in them until they can no longer stand to be with each other or look at themselves in the mirror. Sadly, this potentially-fascinating element of the movie is dismissed quickly to facilitate a higher body count. And, as I said before, a few extra deaths can only make a slasher movie better, right?"
Film scholar Adam Rockoff notes in his book Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978–1986 that at the time of its release, many critics branded I Know What You Did Last Summer as an imitation of Scream. However, he contends that it is a "much different film," even in spite of the fact that their respective screenplays were penned by the same writer:
Whereas Scream relied heavily on self-conscious references and its pop culture veneer, Last Summer was a throwback to the slasher films of the early '80s. While, like Scream, it employed the services of a group of young, sexy and almost impossibly good-looking actors, Last Summer played its horror straight. Those looking for a good old-fashioned slasher film were pleasantly surprised.
Modern reception has continued to be mixed and on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 42% approval rating, based on reviews from 66 critics. The consensus summarizes: "A by-the-numbers slasher that arrived a decade too late, the mostly tedious I Know What You Did Last Summer will likely only hook diehard fans of the genre." Metacritic reported an aggregate score of 52 out of 100 based on reviews from 17 critics. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B-" on an A+ to F scale.
|1997||ASCAP Award||Top Box Office Films||John Debney||Won|
|1998||Saturn Award||Best Horror Film||I Know What You Did Last Summer||Nominated|
|Blockbuster Entertainment Award||Favorite Female Newcomer||Jennifer Love Hewitt||Won|
|Favorite Supporting Actress – Horror||Sarah Michelle Gellar|
|Favorite Actor – Horror||Freddie Prinze Jr.||Nominated|
|Favorite Actress – Horror||Jennifer Love Hewitt|
|Favorite Supporting Actor||Ryan Phillippe|
|International Horror Guild Award||Best Movie||I Know What You Did Last Summer|
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Breakthrough Performance||Sarah Michelle Gellar|
|Young Artist Award||Best Performance in a Feature Film – Leading Young Actress||Jennifer Love Hewitt|
The film produced two soundtracks. One of them featured the score composed by John Debney, while the other contained various rock songs found in the film.
|I Know What You Did Last Summer: Original Motion Picture Score|
|Film score (Digital download)/Audio CD by|
|Released||October 7, 1997|
|Label||Super Tracks Music Group|
|I Know What You Did Last Summer: The Album|
|Soundtrack album (Digital download)/Audio CD by |
|Released||October 7, 1997|
|Genre||Alternative rock, alternative metal|
|2.||"Summer Breeze"||Type O Negative||4:57|
|4.||"Kid"||Green Apple Quick Step||3:17|
|5.||"This Ain't the Summer of Love""||L7||3:09|
|6.||"Losin' It"||Soul Asylum||3:01|
|7.||"Hey Bulldog"||Toad the Wet Sprocket||2:31|
|8.||"My Baby's Got the Strangest Ways"||Southern Culture on the Skids||3:59|
|9.||"Waterfall"||The Din Pedals||3:47|
|10.||"Clumsy"||Our Lady Peace||4:27|
|11.||"One Hundred Days"||Flick||3:40|
|14.||"Don't Mean Anything"||Adam Cohen||3:43|
Additional songs featured in the film (but not on a soundtrack):
- "Forgotten Too" by Ugly Beauty
- "Wake Up Call" by The Mighty Mighty Bosstones
- "Where Did You Sleep Last Night" by Lead Belly
- "You're a Grand Old Flag" by George M. Cohan
- "Beautiful Girl" by Bing Crosby
- "Free" by Ultra Naté
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released the film on Blu-ray for the first time on July 22, 2008, with additional special features including the director's short film, Joyride. On September 30, 2014, Mill Creek Entertainment re-released the film on Blu-ray as a budget disc, featuring the film alone with no bonus materials.
Sequels and television series
The film was followed by I Still Know What You Did Last Summer (1998) and I'll Always Know What You Did Last Summer (2006). In the first sequel, Jennifer Love Hewitt, Freddie Prinze Jr., and Muse Watson reprise their roles. The second sequel has very little relation to the first two, other than the premise, the villain, and the producers. It featured new characters and a different setting.
In 1973, Lois Duncan's I Know What You Did Last Summer was published. It was republished as a tie-in to the film in 1997 and once again in 2018 with some of its content modernized. The film adaptation reenvisioned the story of the novel as a violent slasher film, as opposed to the slow-burn mystery nature of the novel.
In popular culture
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- Rockoff 2016, p. 182.
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer - Box Office Data". The Numbers. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- Harper 2004, p. 26.
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- "I Know What You Did Last Summer - Awards". Internet Movie Database.
- "Wayans Brothers' Comedy Style A Hit In 'Scary Movie'". Jet. 98: 58. August 14, 2000.
- Shary 2012, p. 62.
- Susman, Gary (October 17, 2017). "14 Things You Never Know About 'I Know What You Did Last Summer'". MovieFone. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Fahy 2010, p. 248.
- Gillis, Michael (prod., dir.) (2008). Now I Know What You Did Last Summer. I Know What You Did Last Summer (Blu-ray)
|url=(help) (Documentary short). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
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- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:08:12)
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:10:28)
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:24:27)
- "Filming Locations for 'I Know What You Did Last Summer'". Movie-Locations.com. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:09:58)
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997)". Southport-OakIsland.com. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- "Movies Filmed in Southport, North Carolina". Southport Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:36:57)
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:24:51)
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (0:43:00)
- Gillespie & Mirkovich 1998 (1:35:29)
- Karon, Paul (October 20, 1997). "Miramax reigns in court". Variety. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Bates, James (March 7, 1998). "Miramax Wins 'Scream' Claim Against Sony". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Lasalle, Mick (October 17, 1997). "FILM REVIEW -- 'Last Summer' Offers Thrills But No 'Scream' / Story starts strong, but turns formulaic". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- Harrington, Richard (October 17, 1997). "'Summer' Time: The Living is Deadly". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Elley, Derek (October 13, 1997). "Review:'I Know What You Did Last Summer'". Variety. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- Ebert, Roger. "I Know What You Did Last Summer". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Movie Review: 'I Know What You Did Last Summer'". Entertainment Weekly. October 24, 1997. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Van Gelder, Lawrence (October 17, 1997). ""I Know What You Did Last Summer": Creepy Guy, Ghost Stories, Teen-age Sex. Uh-Oh". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- Kendrick, James (1998). "Review: I Know What You Did Last Summer". Q Network. Archived from the original on July 12, 2001.
- McDonagh, Maitland. "I Know What You Did Last Summer". TV Guide. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Berardinelli, James (1997). "Review: I Know What You Did Last Summer". Reel Views. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007.
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer". Cinema Score. Archived from the original on 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2018-08-08. (Requires manual search).
- "I Know What You Did Last Summer - Original Soundtrack". AllMusic. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Gillespie, Jim (dir.) (1997). I Know What You Did Last Summer. (End credits). Columbia Pictures.
- I Know What You Did Last Summer (DVD)
|url=(help). Columbia TriStar Home Video. 1998 . ASIN 6305017115.CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link)
- I Know What You Did Last Summer (Blu-ray)
|url=(help). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2008 . ASIN B0018CWWAU.
- I Know What You Did Last Summer (Blu-ray)
|url=(help). Mill Creek Entertainment. 2014 . ASIN B00LU4URLC.
- N'Duka, Amanda (July 26, 2019). "James Wan Directing 'I Know What You Did Last Summer' Pilot for Amazon!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
- Harper 2004, p. 28.
- Murphy 2009, p. 172.
- Fahy, Thomas, ed. (2010). The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-813-13954-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Gillespie, Jim; Mirkovich, Steve (1998). I Know What You Did Last Summer: Audio commentary (DVD). Columbia TriStar Home Video.
- Harper, Jim (2004). Legacy of Blood: A Comprehensive Guide to Slasher Movies. Critical Vision. ISBN 978-1-900-48639-2.
- Murphy, Bernice (2009). The Suburban Gothic in American Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-21810-9.
- Rockoff, Adam (2016). Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978–1986. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-786-49192-6.
- Shary, Timothy (2012). Teen Movies: American Youth on Screen. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50160-6.
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