This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Died||30 April 1928 (aged 48–49)|
|Cause of death||Assassination|
|Other names||Opium King|
Lee Hysan or Lee Hy-san (1879 – 30 April 1928) was a Hong Kong businessman who was involved in the opium trade and refinery, as well as land development in British Hong Kong during the early 1900s. He was nicknamed the Opium King in Hong Kong and Macau.
Lee was born in Hawaii. Lee's father was Lee Leung-yik (Chinese: 利良奕), a businessman who was heavily involved in the opium business in Hong Kong and China. Lee's ancestral home was Xinhui, Guangdong Province, China.
As a young boy, he lived in San Francisco when his father moved there. At age seventeen, he returned to Hong Kong and continued his studies at Queen's College. Since he spoke English fluently, he later taught English at Queen's College, his alma mater.
Lee's father achieved great wealth from the opium trade, and Lee inherited his father's business. Having amassed a great fortune from his successful opium business, Lee later participated in the fast-growing Hong Kong real estate market.
In 1923, he bought the Jardine's Hill property, west of Causeway Bay, from Jardines for HK$3.8 million. He initially wanted to build opium refinery facilities there, but owing to the global anti-opium movement, he changed his plan and developed the property as Lee Garden. It is approximately the area around Lee Garden Road, Lee Theatre, Yun Ping Road and Percival Street.
Death and legacy
On 30 April 1928, Lee was shot on a street in the Central district in Hong Kong and died shortly after yelling for help. The assassination was possibly due to a growing public resentment of his opium business, which people believed had caused great harm to Chinese society. The assassin was never caught, despite his family offering a huge bounty.
Landmarks named after him
- Lee Garden
- Lee Garden One
- Lee Garden Two
- Lee Garden Three
- Lee Garden Five
- Lee Garden Six
- Hysan Avenue
- Hysan Place
- Lee Hysan Hall in the University of Hong Kong
- Lee Hysan Medical Library in the University of Hong Kong, renamed as Yu Chun Keung Medical Library after moving
There was a popular doggerel in Hong Kong showing Lee's notoriety. The first characters of the first three lines sound (in Cantonese) almost the same as Lee's name:
- 利己害人 lei6 gei2 hoi6 jan4
- 欺貧重富 hei1 pan4 cung4 fu3
- 神憎鬼厭 san4 cang1 gwai2 yim3
- 街知巷聞 gaai1 zi1 hong6 man4
- Benefiting oneself while harming others,
- Oppressing the poor while respecting the rich.
- Detested by the deities and disgusted by the ghosts,
- Known on the streets and heard on the alleys.
Many of Lee's descendants and other family members are notable in their own right:
- Richard Charles Lee (利銘澤) (1905-1983) - businessman, son of Lee Hysan
- Vivienne Poy née Lee (利德蕙) - daughter of Richard Charles Lee and a Canadian Senator from 1998 to 2012
- Harold Hsiao-Wo Lee (利孝和)
- Jung Kong Lee (利榮康) - chemist, son of Lee Hysan
- Lee Quo-wei (利國偉) - banker and educator, nephew of Lee Hysan
- Peter Ting Chang Lee, JP (deceased) - former Chairman of Hysan Development
- Michael Tze Hau Lee, BA, MBA - Managing Director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Anthony Hsien Pin Lee, BA, MBA - non-managing director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Chien Lee - non-executive director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Dr. Deanna Ruth Tak Yung Rudgard, BA, MD - non-executive director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- 鄭宏泰 [Zheng, Victor]; 黃紹倫 [Wong, S.L.] (2011). 一代煙王: 利希慎 [Opium King: Lee Hysan] (in Chinese). Joint Publishing (Hong Kong). ISBN 978-962-043066-4.