Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and among geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.[vague]
Ranks and title
- The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης, monárkhēs, "sole ruler" (from μόνος, mónos, "single" or "sole", and ἄρχων, árkhōn, archon, "leader", "ruler", "chief", the word being the present participle of the verb ἄρχειν, árkhein, "to rule", "to lead", this from the noun ὰρχή, arkhē, "beginning", "authority", "principle") through the Latinized form monarcha.
- The word sovereign is derived from the Latin above.
- Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ: αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("to hold power"), and may be translated as "one who rules by themselves".
Common titles for European and West Asian monarchs
Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles – non-sovereigns – depending on the historical period and state. The sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial (Emperor, Empress, etc.), high royal (King of Kings etc.), royal (King/Queen, sovereign Grand Duke or Grand Prince, etc.), others (sovereign Prince, sovereign Duke, etc.), and religious.
- "Emperor", from the Latin, 'imperator,' was originally a military title. Soldiers would salute the leader of a victorious army as 'imperator'. In English, the feminine form is Empress (the Latin is imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire. Other words meaning Emperor include:
- Caesar, the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. Augustus' four successors were each made the adoptive son of his predecessor, and were therefore legally entitled to use "Caesar" as a constituent of their names; after Nero, however, the familial link of the Julio-Claudian dynasty was disrupted and use of the word Caesar continued as a title only.
- Kaiser, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic countries.
- Otumfuo, literally "the Powerful one", an Akan title to mean a king of kings. It is thought to originate with the Akan state of Akwamu. It is still used amongst the Akwamu and now the Asante people.
- Augustus, a Roman honorific title which means 'Venerable' or 'Majestic', used by Roman Emperors from the beginning of the Empire onwards.
- Basileus kai Autokrator, Medieval Greek title meaning "sovereign and autocrat", used by the Roman emperors from the 9th century onwards.
- Tsar / Tzar / Csar / Czar, derived as shortened variant of the Slavic pronunciation of Caesar (tsyasar), the feminine form Tsaritsa, primarily used in Bulgaria, and after that in Russia and other Slavic countries.
- Huangdi (皇帝), the Imperial monarch during Imperial China.
- Samrat, (Sanskrit: samrāt or सम्राट) is an ancient Indian title meaning 'A paramount sovereign, universal lord'. The feminine form is Samrājñī or साम्राज्ञी.
- Chhatrapati (Devanagari: छत्रपती), from the Sanskrit chatra (parasol) and pati (master or lord), signifying a king over whom an umbrella is carried as a mark of dignity, a sovereign, emperor. The term was adopted by Maratha ruler Shivaji as his title in the 17th century in Early Modern India.
- Sapa Inca, The Sapa Inca (Hispanicized spelling) or Sapa Inka (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one"), was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and, later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.
- Tennō, which means "heavenly sovereign" in Japanese. Is the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people. Historically, he is also the highest authority of the Shinto religion as he and his family are said to be the direct descendants of the sun-goddess Amaterasu
- Tsenpo, also known as Ihase or "Divine Son", was the title of emperors of the Tibetan Empire.
- Chanyu, short for Chengli Gutu Chanyu (撐犁孤塗單于) was a title used by supreme nomadic rulers of Inner Asia. Meaning "Son of Heaven, Ruler of the North", it was later superseded by the title Khagan.
High royal titles
- King of Kings First used by the ancient Persian Achaemenid Empire. Also used in Christian contexts to denote the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and Byzantine periods.
- Basileus tōn Basileōn, Ancient Greek title meaning "sovereign of sovereigns", used by Alexander the Great after the similar title of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. A translation from Ancient Persian Shahanshah.
- Shahanshah, literally "King of Kings" in Middle Persian šāhān šāh, meaning "Kings' King." Used in Persia and surrounding countries.
- Sulṭānü's-Selāṭīn, literally "King of Kings" in Ottoman Turkish; used in Turkey and surrounding countries of the Ottoman dynasty.
- Xi Chu Ba Wang （西楚霸王） meaning the Hegemon King of Western Chu.
- Tian Kehan（天可汗） meaning Heavenly Khagan. Given to Tang Taizong and Tang Gaozong by Turkic nomads.
- Taewang, literally "Greatest King", a Korean title for the rulers of the Goguryeo Empire.
- Nəgusä Nägäst, title of the Emperors of Ethiopia, meaning "King of Kings".
- Mepe-Mepeta, Georgian for "King of Kings."
- Devaraja, literally "God King", a title in the Khmer Empire and throughout Java.
- Khagan, derived from Khan of Khans, used by the Central Asian nomads.
- Maharajadhiraja, "Great king of kings", title used in the Indian subcontinent, notably Gupta Empire and Kingdom of Nepal.
- Padishah, Persian pād "master" and shāh "king". Used in the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.
- Omukama, commonly translated as King of Kings, is a title associated with the Bunyoro-Kitara in Uganda. It is also the title of the Omukama of Toro.
- Aliʻi nui, was the supreme monarch of various Hawaiian islands. They are the supreme high chiefs (chief of chiefs). This title would later be used by monarchs of the entire Hawaiian chain of islands.
- High king, A king who rules over lesser kings.
- Amir al-Mu'minin, or "Commander ( Emir ) of the Faithful," a title traditionally held by the Caliphs of Islam to denote their suzerainty over all Muslims, even (theoretically) those beyond their territorial borders. Currently, the King of Morocco and the Sultan of Sokoto hold this title, although neither officially claims the Caliphate.
- Mahārāja, Sanskrit for a "great king" or "high king". The female form is Maharani.
- Anax, from Mycenaean wanax for "High King". Outranked Basileus in Mycenaean usage.
- Nam-Lugal High kings of ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia).
- Pharaoh, "Man of the Great House (Palace)" used in Ancient Egypt to denote the High kings of the upper and lower kingdoms of the Nile river valley.
- Mansa, title of the rulers of the Mali Empire, meaning (King)".
- Omanhene or Ohene, an Akan title to mean King of the Nation., with Ohene simply meaning King. Ohemaa, the maternal counterpart(his mother, sister, aunt(referred to as a 2nd mother), cousin(referred to as sister), has equal power and selects which son she wants to lead the people. The Akan king rules on behalf of his mother who is the true power of the land. If the Ohemaa doesn't select any male relative to lead on her behalf, then she can take the role as King or Omanhene.
- Mwenematapa, title of the rulers of the Mutapa Empire. It means "Prince of the Realm" in Shona. Also spelled Mwene Mutapa or in Portuguese transliteration Monomotapa.
- Ard Rí, Gaelic for high king, most notably used for high kings of Ireland and Scotland.
- Bretwalda, high kings of Anglo-Saxon England.
- Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the official title of the Malaysian head of state, and means "He who is Made Supreme Lord" and is generally glossed in English as "king". The officeholder is elected from among the heads of the nine royal states, so the office may also be analogous to that of a high king.
- Alaafin, or "Man of the Palace" in the Yoruba language, was the title of the emperor of the medieval Oyo Empire in northwestern Yorubaland. He is considered the supreme overlord of the empire and expected to keep tributaries safe from attack as well as mediate disputes between various sub-rulers and their people within the Empire.
- Lamane, "master of the land" or "chief owner of the soil" in old Serer language were the ancient hereditary kings and landed gentry of the Serer people found in Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania. The Lamanes were guardians of Serer religion and many of them have been canonized as Holy Saints (Pangool).
- King, from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the people." (See: Germanic kingship)[a] The realm of a King is termed a Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
- Rex Latin for "ruler". Cognate with Raja, Rí, Reign, Regina, etc.
- Basileus, from Mycenaean Greek meaning "chieftain", used by various Ancient Greek rulers.
- Negus is a royal title in the Ethiopian
- Arka is a royal title (King) in Great Armenia
- Tagavor is a royal title (King) in Great Armenia, and later Cilician Armenia
- Melech, ancient Hebrew king.
- Wang （王）, the head of state of Ancient China.
- Król (in Polish) Král (in Czech), Király (in Hungarian), Король (in Russian and Ukrainian), Краљ / Kralj (in Serbian), Крал (in Bulgarian), Crai (in Romanian), Korol - Derived from Old East Slavic Король king, used in Kazakh, Tatar, and Kyrgyz languages. The korol, krol, kral, крал and kiraly versions used in Central and Eastern Europe derive from the name of Charlemagne.
- Raja, Sanskrit, later Hindustani, for "ruler or king". Cognate with Latin Rex, Irish Rí, etc.
- Rai, Sanskrit, meaning Raja, for "ruler or king" in the Indian Subcontinent.
- Rana, was used to be a title for martial sovereignty of Rajput rulers in the Indian subcontinent.
- Deshmukh, Marathi for "ruler and king."
- Rí, Gaelic title meaning king, of which there were several grades, the highest being Ard Rí (High king). Cognate with Indian Raja, Latin Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix.
- Khan, from the Turco-Mongol word for "lord," like Duke it was originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate.
- Eze, the Igbo word for the King or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is cognate with Obi and Igwe.
- Oba, the Yoruba word for King or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is used across all the traditional Yoruba lands, as well as by the Edo, throughout Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
- Kabaka, King of Buganda, a realm within Uganda in East Africa.
- Shah, Persian word for King, from Indo-European for "he who rules". Used in Persia, alongside Shahanshah (see above). The title of the sons of a Shah is Shahzade / Shahzadeh.
- Sultan, from Arabic and originally referring to one who had "power", more recently used as synonym for King.
- Malik, Arabic for King.
- Tlatoani, Ruler of the atlepetl or city state in ancient Mexico. Title of the Aztec Emperors. The word literally means "speaker" in Nahuatl, but may be translated into English as "king".
- Ajaw, In Maya meaning "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader". Was the title of the ruler in the Classic Maya polity. A variant being the title of K'inich Ajaw or "Great Sun King" as it was used to refer to the founder of the Copán dynasty, K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'.
- Halach Uinik, In Maya meaning "real man", "person of fact" or "person of command". Was the title of the ruler in the Post-Classic Maya polity (Kuchkabal).
- Datu in the Visayas and Mindanao which, together with the term Raja ( in the Rajahnate of Cebu and Kingdom of Maynila) and Lakan (title widely used on the island of Luzon), are the Filipino equivalents of "sovereign prince" and thus, glossed as "king". (Cf. also Principalía – the hispanized and Christianized Datu class during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines.)
- Tuanku, literally "My Master" (Tuan Ku), the title of the kings of the nine Royal states of Malaysia; all princes and princesses of the Royal Families also receive the appellation Tunku (literally "My Lord" (Tun Ku) or spelt Tengku) or Raja.
- Mwami in Rwanda and neighbouring regions in the Congo
- Maad a Sinig, King of Sine, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people. From the old Serer title "Maad" (king).
- Maad Saloum, King of Saloum, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people.
- Ratu, A Fijian chiefly title that is also found in Javanese culture.
- Susuhunan, "he to whom homage is paid", title of the Javanese monarch of the Surakarta Sunanate.
- Teigne, King of Baol, previously a pre-colonial Serer kingdom.
- Nizam, The word is derived from the Arabic language Nizām (نظام), meaning order, arrangement. Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the Whole Empire.
- Lugal, is the Sumerian term for "king, ruler". Literally, the term means "big man."
- Queen, from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, "wife"; cognate of Greek γυνή, gynē, "woman"; from PIE *gʷḗn, "woman". The female equivalent of a King, or the consort of a King; a Queen's realm is also a kingdom.
- Rani, Hindi for Queen. See Raja, above.
- Shahbanu, Persian for Empress. See Shah, above.
- Sultana, Arabic for Queen. See Sultan, above.
- Malika, Arabic for Queen.
- Malka, ancient Hebrew Queen.
- Mwamikazi, Rwanda and Congo kingdoms
- Ix-ajaw, See Ajaw above, it was a title was also given to women, though generally prefixed with the sign Ix ("woman") to indicate their gender.
- Dayang, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Datu". See Datu
- Hara, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Raha". See Raja, above.
- Sovereign Grand Dukes or Grand Princes are considered to be part of the reigning nobility ("Royalty", in German Hochadel; their correct form of address is "Royal Highness")
Princely, ducal, and other sovereign titles
- Prince, from the Latin princeps, meaning "first citizen". The feminine form is Princess. Variant forms include the German Fürst and Russian Tsarevich (царевич) and the feminine form Tsarevna (царевна).[b]
- Bai, Filipino feminine equivalent of a prince.
- Ampuan, Maranao royal title which literally means "The One to whom one asks for apology"
- Ginoo, Ancient Filipino equivalent to noble man or prince (now used in the form "Ginoóng" as the analogue to "mister").
- Pillai, Ancient South Indian Title meaning "child", Prince for junior children of Emperors
- Morza, a Tatar title usually translated as "prince", it ranked below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian appellation Mirza added to the names of certain nobles, which itself derived from Emir.
- Daakyehene, pronounced: Daa-chi-hi-ni, literally: future king. The feminine form is Daakyehemaa. An Akan prince.
- Knyaz, a title found in most Slavic languages, denoting a ruling or noble rank. It is usually translated into English as "Prince", but the word is related to the English King and the German König.
- Despot, Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans.
- Voievod şi domn, title held by the sovereign princes of Wallachia and Moldavia. Voievod (from Slavic) means in this context supreme military commander while Domn (from lat. dominus) means master, lord, autocrat. The "civilian" title of domn holds a kind of primacy. The office/authority is called "domnie" (roughly "lordship") rather than voievodship (as is the case of similar named but lesser Slavic titles). The prince is called upon as "doamne" ("mylord").
- Duke, from the Latin Dux, meaning "leader," a military rank in the late Roman Empire. Variant forms include Doge and Duce; it has also been modified into
- Sheikh is often used as a title for Arab royal families. Some Emirs of the Arabian Peninsula use the title Sheikh ("elder" or "lord"), as do other members of the extended family.
- Emir, often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic "to command." The female form is Emira (Amirah). Emir is the root of the naval rank "Admiral"
- Amir al-umara, Emir of Emirs.
- Mir: According to the book Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments, Mir is most probably an Arabized form of Pir. Pir in Old Persian and Sanskrit means the old, the wise man, the chief and the great leader. It was Arabized as Mir then, with Al(A) (Arabic definite article), it was pronounced as Amir.
- Bey, or Beg/Baig, Turkish for "Chieftain."
- Begum, female royal and aristocratic title from Central and South Asia.
- Beylerbey, Bey of Beys.
- Atabeg, word is a compound of two Turkic words: ata, "ancestor", and beg or bey, "lord, leader, prince".
- Beg Khan, concatenation of Baig and Khan.
- Khagan Bek, title used by Khazars.
- Derebey, feudal lord in Anatolia and the Pontic areas of Lazistan and Acara in the 18th century.
- Buumi, first in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
- Thilas, second in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
- Loul, third in line to the throne in Serer country.
- Dey, title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers and Tripoli under the Ottoman Empire from 1671 onwards.
- Sahib, name of Arabic origin meaning "holder, master or owner."
- Zamindar were considered to be equivalent to lords and barons; in some cases they were independent sovereign princes.
- Jagir, also spelled as Jageer (Devanagari: जागीर, Persian: جاگیر, ja- meaning "place", -gir meaning "keeping, holding") The feudal owner/lord of the Jagir were called Jagirdar or Jageerdar
- Sardar, also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar or Serdar, is a title of nobility (sir-, sar/sair- means "head or authority" and -dār means "holder" in Sanskrit and Avestan)
- Tadodaho, derived from the name of the first "keeper of the council fire" of the Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee, or Five Nations, refers to the individual with the highest authority in both their modern territory and their spiritual way of life.
- Taoiseach (Irish pronunciation: [ˈt̪ˠiːʃəx]) means leader. An Irish clan chief.
- Tánaiste (Irish pronunciation: [ˈt̪ˠaːnˠaʃtʲə]) is the second in command of an Irish clan.
- Tòiseach, the Scottish Gaelic for clan chief.
- Tywysog (Welsh pronunciation: [təˈwəsɔɡ]), in modern Welsh, means "Prince" and is cognate with Taoiseach and Tòiseach. Derived from the proto-Celtic *towissākos "chieftain, leader".
- Rí ruirech, King of Overlords, or rí cóicid, a provincial King in Ireland.
- Fon, the regional and tribal leaders in Cameroon.
- Odikro, an Akan chieftain. Obahemaa female maternal counterpart.
- Caliph means 'successor' (to Muhammad), both a religious and a secular leader. The ruler of the caliphate was the secular head of the international Muslim community, as a nation. To claim the Caliphate was, theoretically, to claim stewardship over Muslims on earth, under the sovereignty of Allah. (See Amir al-Mu'minin above). This did not necessarily mean that the Caliph was himself the supreme authority on Islamic law or theology; that still fell to the Ulema. The role of the Caliph was to oversee and take responsibility for the Muslim community's political and governmental needs (both within and beyond the borders of his territorial realm), rather than to himself determine matters of doctrine, like the Pope.
- Dalai Lama, the highest authority in Tibetan (or more specifically Gelug) Buddhism and a symbol of the unification of Tibet, said to belong to a line of reincarnations of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. Among other incarnate Tibetan lamas, the second highest Gelug prelate is the Panchen Lama. From the time of the Fifth Dalai Lama until 1950 the Dalai Lamas effectively ruled Tibet. The chief of the rival Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism is the Karmapa.
- Patriarch is the highest ecclesial title used in the Eastern Christian tradition. Some patriarchs are also styled as popes.
- Pope, also "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ", is considered the apostolic successor of Saint Peter, one of the Twelve Apostles (primary disciples) of Jesus Christ. Once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States and leader of Christendom, the Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state Vatican City. Also the title of the leader of the Coptic Church, considered successor of the Apostle Saint Mark the Evangelist. The word pope is derived from Latin and Italian papa, a familiar form of "father".
- Catholicos is the Chief Bishop, Patriarch of the Armenian Orthodox Church. The earliest ecclesiastical use of the title Catholicos was by the Bishop of Armenia, head of the Armenian Orthodox Apostolic Church, in the 4th century.
- Saltigue, the high priests and priestesses of the Serer people. They are the diviners in Serer religion.
Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility
Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This situation was most widely exemplified by the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) in Europe. Several of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor).
- Archduke, ruler of an archduchy; used exclusively by the Habsburg dynasty and its junior branch of Habsburg-Lorraine which ruled the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806), the Austrian Empire (1804-1867), and the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918) for imperial family members of the dynasty, each retaining it as a subsidiary title when founding sovereign cadet branches by acquiring thrones under different titles (e.g., Tuscany, Modena); it was also used for those ruling some Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern so-called "Benelux" nations (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg); The title was created in 1358 by the Habsburgs themselves to establish a precedence of their princes over the other titleholders of high nobility of the era; therefore the rank was not recognized by the other ruling dynasties until 1453
- Grand Duke, ruler of a grand duchy; nowadays considered to be in precedence the third highest monarchial rank in the western world, after "Emperor" and "King". In the Russian Empire the title of Grand Duke was reserved for sons and grandsons of a reigning Tsar, and as such marked the holder of the title as a member of the Imperial Family.
- Grand Prince (Velikiy Knyaz), ruler of a grand principality; a title primarily used in the medieval Kyivan Rus' principalities; It was also used by the Romanovs of the Russian Empire for members of the imperial family, although then it is more commonly translated into English as Grand Duke
- Grand Župan, like a Russian Grand Prince to a Knyaz.
- Duke (Herzog in German), ruler[a] of a duchy;[c] also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families
- Prince (Prinz in German), junior members of a royal, grand ducal, ruling ducal or princely, or mediatised family. The title of Fürst was usually reserved, from the 19th century, for rulers of principalities—the smallest sovereign entities (e.g., Liechtenstein, Lippe, Schwarzburg, Waldeck-and-Pyrmont)—and for heads of high-ranking, noble but non-ruling families (Bismarck, Clary und Aldringen, Dietrichstein, Henckel von Donnersmarck, Kinsky, Paar, Pless, Thun und Hohenstein, etc.). Cadets of these latter families were generally not allowed to use Prinz, being accorded only the style of count (Graf) or, occasionally, that of Fürst (Wrede, Urach) even though it was also a ruling title. Exceptional use of Prinz was permitted for some morganatic families (e.g., Battenberg, Montenuovo) and a few others (Carolath-Beuthen, Biron von Kurland).
- Dauphin, title of the heir apparent of the royal family of France, as he was the de jure ruler of the Dauphiné region in southeastern France (under the authority of the King)
- Infante, title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal and Spain
- Królewicz, title used by the children of the monarchs of Poland and later Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
- Elector (Kurfürst in German), a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
- Marquess, Margrave, or Marquis (literally "Count of a March" (=Border territory)) was the ruler of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
- Landgrave (literally "Land Count"), a German title, ruler of a landgraviate
- Count, theoretically the ruler of a county; known as an Earl in modern Britain; known as a Graf in German, known as a Serdar in Montenegro and Serbia
- Principal (m.)/Principala (f.), a person belonging to the aristocratic ruling class of Filipino nobles called Principalía, roughly equivalent to ancient Roman Patricians, through whom the Spanish Monarchs ruled the Philippines during the colonial period (c. 1600s to 1898).
- Viscount (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty, which did not develop into a hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as vicomte [vi.kɔ̃t].
- Primor, a Hungarian noble title, originally the highest rank of Székely nobility, usually compared to baron (or less commonly, count). Originally, primores could de jure not be evicted from his fiefdom, even by the King of Hungary (although such instances did occur).
- Freiherr, a German word meaning literally "Free Master" or "Free Lord" (i.e. not subdued to feudal chores or drudgery), is the German equivalent of the English term "Baron", with the important difference that unlike the British Baron, he is not a "Peer of the Realm" (member of the high aristocracy)
- Baron, theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons.
- Rais, is a used by the rulers of Arab states and South Asia.
- Yuvraj, is an Indian title for crown prince, the heir apparent to the throne of an Indian (notably Hindu) kingdom
- Subahdar, is normally appointed from the Mughal princes or the officers holding the highest mansabs.
Usages of the titles of Grand Duke, Duke and Prince
In all European countries, the sovereign Grand Duke (or Grand Prince in some eastern European languages) is considered the third-highest monarchic title in precedence, after Emperor and King.
This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: Titles and privileges of nobility were abolished in Germany in 1919..August 2020)(
In Germany, a sovereign Duke (Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince (Fürst). A cadet prince (Prinz) who belongs to an imperial or royal dynasty, however, may outrank a duke who is the cadet of a reigning house, e.g., Wurttemberg, Bavaria, Mecklenburg or Oldenburg.
The children of a sovereign Grand Duke may be titled "Prince" (Luxembourg, Tuscany, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) or "Duke" (Oldenburg) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty. The heir of the throne of a Grand Duchy is titled "Hereditary Grand Duke", as soon as he reaches the full legal age (majority).
Children of a sovereign (i.e., ruling) Duke and of a ruling Prince (Fürst) were, however, all titled prince (Prinz).
The heir apparent to a ruling or mediatised title would usually prepend the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to his or her title, e.g., Erbherzog, Erbprinz, Erbgraf, to distinguish their status from that of their junior siblings.
Children of a mediatised Fürst were either Prinzen or Grafen (counts), depending upon whether the princely title was limited to descent by masculine primogeniture or not. In the German non-sovereign nobility, a Duke (Herzog) still ranked higher than a Prince (Fürst).
In Russia "Grand duke" is the traditional translation of the title Velikiy Kniaz (Великий Князь), which from the 11th century was at first the title of the leading Prince of Kievan Rus', then of several princes of the Rus'. From 1328 the Velikii Kniaz of Muscovy appeared as the grand duke for "all of Russia" until Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as tsar. Thereafter the title was given to sons and grandsons (through male lines) of the Tsars and Emperors of Russia. The daughters and paternal granddaughters of Russian emperors, as well as the consorts of Russian grand dukes, were generally called "grand duchesses" in English.
Minor nobility, landed gentry, and other aristocracy
The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed above) and the minor nobility, listed here, was not always a sharp one in all nations. But the precedence of the ranks of a Baronet or a Knight is quite generally accepted for where this distinction exists for most nations. Here the rank of Baronet (ranking above a Knight) is taken as the highest rank among the ranks of the minor nobility or landed gentry that are listed below.
- Baronet is a hereditary title ranking below Baron but above Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles and does not confer nobility.
- Dominus was the Latin title of the feudal, superior and mesne, lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of Lord)
- Vidame, a minor French aristocrat
- Vavasour, also a petty French feudal lord
- Seigneur or Lord of the manor rules a smaller local fief
- Knight is the central rank of the Medieval aristocratic system in Europe (and having its equivalents elsewhere), usually ranking at or near the top of the Minor Nobility
- Patrician is a dignity of minor nobility or landed gentry (most often being hereditary) usually ranking below Knight but above Esquire
- Fidalgo or Hidalgo is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat (respectively; from filho d'algo / hijo de algo, lit. "son of something")
- Nobile is an Italian title of nobility for prestigious families that never received a title
- Edler is a minor aristocrat in Germany and Austria during those countries' respective imperial periods.
- Jonkheer is an honorific for members of noble Dutch families that never received a title. An untitled noblewoman is styled Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or, sometimes, Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same.
- Junker is a German noble honorific, meaning "young nobleman" or otherwise "young lord"
- Skartabel is a minor Polish aristocrat.
- Scottish Baron is a hereditary feudal nobility dignity, outside the Scots peerage, recognised by Lord Lyon as a member of the Scots noblesse and ranking below a Knight but above a Scottish Laird[d] in the British system. However, Scottish Barons on the European continent are considered and treated equal to European barons.
- Laird is a Scottish hereditary feudal dignity ranking below a Scottish Baron but above an Esquire
- Esquire is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight, an apprentice knight, or a manorial lord; it ranks below Knight (or in Scotland below Laird) but above Gentleman[e][f]
- Gentleman is the basic rank of landed gentry (ranking below Esquire), historically primarily associated with land; within British Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some minor nobility of some continental European nations
- Bibi, means Miss in Urdu and is frequently used as a respectful title for women in South Asia when added to the given name
- Lalla, is an Amazigh title of respect. The title is a prefix to her given name or personal name, and is used by females usually of noble or royal background.
- Sidi, is a masculine title of respect, meaning "my master" in Maltese, Darija and Egyptian Arabic.
- Qanungoh Shaikh, are a clan of Muslim Shaikhs in Punjab, other parts of Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 ceased to accord privileges to members of dynastic and noble families. Their titles henceforth became legal parts of the family name, and traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "Durchlaucht") ceased to be accorded to them by governmental entities. The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of a title-holder in Germany depended not only on the nominal rank of the title, but also the degree of sovereignty exercised, the rank of the title-holder's suzerain, and the length of time the family possessed its status within the nobility (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any reigning sovereign ranks higher than any deposed or mediatized sovereign (e.g., the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, head of a mediatized family, although Herzog is nominally a higher title than Fürst). However, former holders of higher titles in extant monarchies retained their relative rank, i.e., a queen dowager of Belgium outranks the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein. Members of a formerly sovereign or mediatized house rank higher than the nobility. Among the nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman Empire rank higher than the holder of an equivalent title granted by one of the German monarchs after 1806.
In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.
Titles used by the Maratha Royals
The titles used by royalty, aristocracy & nobility of the Maratha Empire
- Chhatrapati: Chhatrapati is an Indian royal title most equivalent to a King. It means the 'Lord of the Parasol' and is a title conferred upon the founder of Maratha Empire, Chhatrapati Shivaji. The title is also used by Shivaji's descendants.
- Maharaj: The English equivalent of Maharaj is great king. It is a title first conferred upon Chhatrapati Shivaji's father Shahaji Raje Bhosale by Adilshah.
- Maharani: The English equivalent of Maharani is great queen. It is a title first used by Tarabai, as regent of marathas empire .
- Raje: The English equivalent of Raje is Your Majesty. It is a title first conferred upon Chhatrapati Shivaji's grandfather Maloji Raje Bhosale
- Kshatriya Kulavantas: It means 'The Head of the Kshatriya caste' and was a title first given to Chhatrapati Shivaji at the time of his coronation
- Sinhasanadhishwar: It means 'the enthroned King' and was a title first given to Chhatrapati Shivaji at the time of his coronation
- Peshwa: It is a word of Persian origin and means 'Foremost' or 'the first minister' or 'Premier' (or Prime Minister). It was a title given to the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire
- Peshwin: The wife of a Peshwa
- Daria Sarang: It means the Chief or Admiral of the Maratha Navy
- Sena Khas Khel: It means the Commander of the armies of the state (Maratha Army). It is a designation created by the Peshwas of Pune and was conferred upon the Gaekwads of Vadodara
- Shamsher Bahadur: It is a title conferred upon the Maharajas of Baroda (the Gaekwads) and means a distinguished swordsman
- Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Alija Bahadur: It is a title used by the Maharajas of Indore (the Holkars). For example, Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Alija Bahadur H.H. Yashwant Rao Holkar
- Raj Rajeshwar: It means 'king of kings' and is a title conferred upon the Holkar (Maratha) Maharajas.
- Maharajadhiraj: It means 'Great King of Kings'. For example, it was conferred upon H. H. Maharajadhiraj Rajeshwar Sawai Tukoji Rao Holkar Bahadur K.G.C.S.I.
- Naib Wakil-i-Mutlaq: It means Deputy Regent of Mughal affairs. It was a title conferred upon Shrimant Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) by the Mughals, since he helped the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, ascend the throne of Delhi.
- Amir-al-Umara: It means the Head of the Amirs and was a title conferred upon Shrimant Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) by the Mughals, since he helped the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, ascend the throne of Delhi.
- Shrimant: It is a title used by Maratha royals and nobles. It was also used in recent times to formally address well achieved members of society or upperclass men in Marathi. For example, 'Shrimant' Bajirao Peshwa aka Baji Rao I or 'Shrimant' Dnyaneshwar Agashe.
- Sardar: It is a title used by the most senior Mahratta nobles, for example Shrimant 'Sardar' Ranoji Rao Scindia Bahadur, Subedar of Malwa
- Mankari: Mānkari (Maankari) is a hereditary title used by Maratha nobles who held land grants, and cash allowances. They were entitled to certain ceremonial honours and held an official position at the Darbar (court).
- Sawai: 'Sawai' in Marathi means 'a notch above the rest'. For example, it was a title conferred upon His Highness Shrimant Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa aka Madhu Rao II Narayan
- Pant Pratinidhi: It means a vicegerent; title borne by a distinguished Maratha family.
- Nawab: It is a title used by the Nawabs of Banda (a vassal of Maratha polity), such as the Nawab of Banda, Ali Bahadur, the grandson of Shreemant Bajirao I
Corresponding titles of nobility between languages
Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various countries. Quite often, a Latin 3rd declension noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base, but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female nobles, except for Imperator and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are italicized in this chart. See Royal and noble styles to learn how to address holders of these titles properly.
|Grand Duke /
Grand Duchess /
|Eques||Nobilis Homo (N.H.)|
|Al-Ka'ed Al-Askary Al-Akbar
(القائد العسكري الأكبر)
|Armenian||Tagavor tagavorats (King of kings); Gaysr (from Latin "Caesar")||Arka (from Greek 'árchōn,' 'king'); Tagavor,
|Ishkhanats ishkhan (literally Prince of Princes)||Nakharar ('Grand' only by precedence among other 'dukes')||Nakharar (synonyms are Medzamedz, Ter, Tanuter, Nahapet)||- A function held by the Dukes when assembled in council. Otherwise, a function held by imperial powers who appointed governors or dependent monarchs. (Prince-électeur,
style of wife: Mevrouw
Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete)
Paronitar, Rouva/ Vapaaherratar[m]
|Baronetti, "Herra" (=fiefholder),
style of wife: Rouva
|Baron, Herr, Freiherr
Baronin, Frau, Freifrau, Freiin
|Ritter||Junker (Prussia), Edler (Austria),|
|Hindi||Samrat (सम्राट)||Raja (राजा),
|Rana (राना)||Rao (राव)||Rai (राय)||-||Yuvraj (युवराज),
|Thakur (ठाकुर)||Chaudhary (चौधरी)||Zamindar (ज़मींदार)||Mukhia (मुखिया)||Sardar (सरदार)||Samant (सामन्त)||Sriman (श्रीमान)|
|Nagyherceg, fejedelem, vajda
nagyhercegnő, fejedelemasszony, -
|Jarl / Greve,
|Великий Князь (Velikiy Knyaz),
Великая Княгиня (Velikaya Kniagina)
|Баронет (Baronet)||Рыцарь (Rytsar),
|Велики војвода (Veliki vojvoda),
Велика војводкиња (Velika vojvodkinja)
|Витез (Vitez)||Господин (Gospodin)|
|Baron, Herre, Friherre,
Baronessa, Fru, Friherrinna
|Turkish||Padishah, Hakan, Sulṭānü's-Selāṭīn||Sultan, Han||Khedive, Pasha||Pasha, Beylerbey,
|Великий Князь (Velykyi Knyaz),
Велика Княгиня (Velyka Kniahynia)
|Баронет (Baronet)||Лицар (Lytsar)||Пан/Господар (Pan/Hospodar), |
|Mian (میاں)||Mir (میر)||Nawab Wazir,
Wazir e Azim,
|Malik (ملک)||Pasha (پاشا)||Khan (خان)||Sardar (سردار),
|Baig (بیگ)||Ghazi (غازی)||Janab (جناب), |
- Ecclesiastical Addresses
- Prince of the church
- Courtesy title
- False titles of nobility
- Forms of address in the United Kingdom
- Nobiliary particle
- Petty kingdom
- Royal and noble styles
- Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule.
- A duke who is not actually or formerly sovereign, or a member of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty, such as British, French, Portuguese, Spanish and most Italian dukes, is a non-dynastic noble ranking above a marquis.
- There are actually three Scottish dignities that are types of a Scottish Baron; these are (in descending order of rank): Scottish feudal Earl, Scottish Feudal Lord, and Scottish feudal Baron (the general name for the dignity listed above among the ranks of aristocratic gentry).
- The meaning of the title Esquire became (and remains) quite diffuse, and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just Gentleman.
- In the United States, where there is no nobility, the title esquire is sometimes arrogated (without any governmental authorization) by lawyers admitted to the state bar.
- "Prince" (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in Finnish, "Principe" in Spanish) can also be a title of junior members of royal houses. In the British system, for example, prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the royal family.
- Does not confer nobility in the British system.
- Non-hereditary. Does not confer nobility in the British system. See also squire and esquire.
- Latin titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not accurately reflect their medieval counterparts.
- The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus referred only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabě (the same as the German Markgraf) is connected only to a few historical territories (including the former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, or Moravia).
- Finland accorded the noble ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi, Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua, Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni, and Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi, and Herttua have been used as official titles of members of the dynasties that ruled Finland, though not granted as titles of nobility. Some feudally-based privileges in landowning, connected to nobily related lordship, existed into the nineteenth century; and fiefs were common in the late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not commonly used except in the context of knightly orders. The lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was that of the "Aatelinen" (i.e. "noble").
- No noble titles were granted after 1906 when the unicameral legislatures (Eduskunta) were established, removing the constitutional status of the so-called First Estate. However, noble ranks were granted in Finland until 1917 (there, the lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was "Aatelinen", or "noble"; it was in essence a rank, not a title).
- In central Europe, the title of Fürst or kníže (e.g. Fürst von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g. Duke of Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking countries, and the titles of Ritter and Edler were not commonly used.
- In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf.
- The "vitéz" title was introduced in Hungary after 1920. In preceding ages simply meant a warrior or a courageous man.
- In keeping with the principle of equality among noblemen, no noble titles (with few exceptions) below that of prince were allowed in Poland. The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions. Instead of hereditary titles, the Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based on offices held. See "szlachta" for more info on Polish nobility.
- In Portugal, a baron or viscount who was a "grandee of the kingdom" (Portuguese: Grandes do Reino) was called a "baron with grandness" (Portuguese: Barão com Grandeza) or "viscount with grandness" (Portuguese: Visconde com Grandeza); each of these grandees was ranked as equal to a count.
- For domestic Russian nobility, only the titles Kniaz and Boyar were used before the 18th century, when Graf was added.
- According to: https://www.infoplease.com/whos-who-monarchy
- The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Vaman Shivaram Apte
- A Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Apte
- Esta institucion (Cabecería de Barangay), mucho más antigua que la sujecion de las islas al Gobierno, ha merecido siempre las mayores atencion. En un principio eran las cabecerías hereditarias, y constituian la verdadera hidalguía del país; mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su prestigio y son una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á lo que llaman aquí principalía. (Translation: This institution (Cabecera de Barangay), much older than the fastening of the islands to the Government, has always deserved the most attention. In the beginning they were the hereditary heads, and they constituted the true chivalry of the country; but of the day, although in some provinces they are still transacted by hereditary succession, there are also elections, particularly in the provinces closest to Manila, where they have lost their prestige and are a real burden. In the distant provinces they are still enforced, and that is precisely where authority has less to do, and the order is preserved without the need for coercive measures; because the patriarchal government still exists in them, because of the great respect that the plebs still retain for what they call here principalía.FERRANDO.) FERRANDO, Fr Juan & FONSECA OSA, Fr Joaquin (1870–1872). Historia de los PP. Dominicos en las Islas Filipinas y en las Misiones del Japon, China, Tung-kin y Formosa (Vol. 1 of 6 vols) (in Spanish). Madrid: Imprenta y esteriotipia de M Rivadeneyra. OCLC 9362749.
- L'institution des chefs de barangay a été empruntée aux Indiens chez qui on la trouvée établie lors de la conquête des Philippines; ils formaient, à cette époque une espèce de noblesse héréditaire. L'hérédité leur a été conservée aujourd hui: quand une de ces places devient vacante, la nomination du successeur est faite par le surintendant des finances dans les pueblos qui environnent la capitale, et, dans les provinces éloignées, par l'alcalde, sur la proposition du gobernadorcillo et la présentation des autres membres du barangay; il en est de même pour les nouvelles créations que nécessite de temps à autre l'augmentation de la population. Le cabeza, sa femme et l'aîné de ses enfants sont exempts du tributo. MALLAT de BASSILAU, Jean (1846). Les Philippines: Histoire, géographie, moeurs. Agriculture, industrie et commerce des Colonies espagnoles dans l'Océanie (2 vols) (in French). Paris: Arthus Bertrand Éd. ISBN 978-1143901140. OCLC 23424678, p. 356.
- Harriet Crawford™ (29 August 2013). The Sumerian World. Routledge. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-136-21912-2.
- Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p21-22
- Indian Epigraphical Dictionary Page 166 Accessed at https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pySCGvdyYLIC&pg=PA166&dq=indian+epigraphical+pillai+prince&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiHpO3DvuTQAhWpBcAKHRzwDSIQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=indian%20epigraphical%20pillai%20prince&f=false
- Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 2, p. 106.
- "Esta institucion (Cabecería de Barangay), mucho más antigua que la sujecion de las islas al Gobierno, ha merecido siempre las mayores atencion. En un principio eran las cabecerías hereditarias, y constituian la verdadera hidalguía del país; mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su prestigio y su una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á lo que llaman aquí principalía." FERRANDO, Fr Juan & FONSECA OSA, Fr Joaquin (1870–1872). Historia de los PP. Dominicos en las Islas Filipinas y en las Misiones del Japon, China, Tung-kin y Formosa, (Vol. 1 of 6 vols, in Spanish). Madrid: Imprenta y esteriotipia de M Rivadeneyra, p. 61.
- Durante la dominación española, el cacique, jefe de un barangay, ejercía funciones judiciales y administrativas. A los tres años tenía el tratamiento de don y se reconocía capacidad para ser gobernadorcillo, con facultades para nombrarse un auxiliar llamado primogenito, siendo hereditario el cargo de jefe. Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana. VII. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S.A. 1921, p. 624.
- Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Terry, Janice; Holoka, Jim; Goff, Richard; Cassar, George H. (2011). Cengage Advantage Books: World History. I. California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc. p. 329. ISBN 9781111345167.
- Szilágyi, László (1938). Székely Primor Családok. Budapest. p. 17.
- Gerő, József (1938). A M. Kir. Belügyminiszter által igazolt nemesek 1867-1937. Budapest: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom of Hungary. pp. 5–30.
- Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte 1982, vol 1, p. 22 & vol 2, p. 198.
- Ruling of the Court of the Lord Lyon (26 February 1948, Vol. IV, page 26): "With regard to the words 'untitled nobility' employed in certain recent birthbrieves in relation to the (Minor) Baronage of Scotland, Finds and Declares that the (Minor) Barons of Scotland are, and have been both in this nobiliary Court and in the Court of Session recognised as a 'titled nobility' and that the estait of the Baronage (i.e. Barones Minores) are of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland".
- Dodd, Charles R. (1843) A manual of dignities, privilege, and precedence: including lists of the great public functionaries, from the revolution to the present time, London: Whittaker & Co., pp.248,251 
- Larence, Sir James Henry (1827) [first published 1824]. The nobility of the British Gentry or the political ranks and dignities of the British Empire compared with those on the continent (2nd ed.). London: T.Hookham -- Simpkin and Marshall. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "RIS Dokument". bka.gv.at.
- Alain Daniélou (11 February 2003). A Brief History of India. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 257–. ISBN 978-1-59477-794-3.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji".
- Temple, Sir Richard Carnac (1 January 1953). Sivaji and the rise of the mahrattas. Susil Gupta.
- Yule, Henry; Burnell, A. C.; Teltscher, Kate (13 June 2013). Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199601134.
- Sardesai, HS (2002). Shivaji, the Great Maratha, Volume 3. Cosmo Publications. p. 649. ISBN 9788177552874.
- The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. 1 January 1933.
- "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Baroda".
- Singh, Ravindra Pratap (1 January 1987). Geography and Politics in Central India: A Case Study of Erstwhile Indore State. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170220251.
- Sir Roper Lethbridge (2005). The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire. Aakar Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-87879-54-1.
- Social Science. FK Publications. 1 January 2006. ISBN 9788179730423.
- Kapoor, Subodh (1 January 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Biographical, Historical, Religious, Administrative, Ethnological, Commercial and Scientific. Cosmo Publications. ISBN 9788177552577.
- Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. p. 334. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
- Copeman, Jacob; Ikegame, Aya (1 January 2012). The Guru in South Asia: New Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 9780415510196.
- Central India (1908). The Central India State Gazetteer Series. Thacker, Spink.
- T. N. Madan (1988). Way of Life: King, Householder, Renouncer : Essays in Honour of Louis Dumont. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 129. ISBN 978-81-208-0527-9.
- Rosalind O'Hanlon (2002). Caste, Conflict and Ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and Low Caste Protest in Nineteenth-Century Western India. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-521-52308-0.
- Balkrishna Govind Gokhale (1988). Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195621372.
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1 January 1992). Fall of the Mughal Empire. Sangam. ISBN 9780861317493.
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