|13th century–15th century|
• 14th century
• 15th century
The Hadiya Sultanate (r. 13th century-15th century) was an ancient kingdom located in southwestern Ethiopia, south of the Abbay River and west of Shewa. It was ruled by the Hadiya people, who spoke the Cushitic Hadiyya language. The historical Hadiya area was situated between Kambaat, Gamo and Waj, southwest of Shewa. By 1850, Hadiya is placed north-west of lakes Zway and Langano but still between these areas.
The Hadiya Kingdom was described in the mid-fourteenth century by the Arab historian Chihab Al-Umari as measuring eight days' journey by nine, which Richard Pankhurst estimates was 160 by 180 kilometers. Although small, Hadiya was fertile with fruit and cereals, rich with horses, and its inhabitants used pieces of iron as currency. It could raise an army of 40,000 cavalry and at least twice as many foot soldiers.
The current Hadiya Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region is located in approximately the same area as this former kingdom.
Hadiya was likely part of the domain of the Sultanate of Showa and linked to the Harla before the pagan Kingdom of Damot's invasion led by Sidama. A cluster of speakers labelled Hadiya-Sidama developed maintaining Islamic identity and later creating the Hadiya Sultanate. According to Hadiya elders the dynasty was started by descendants of Harar Emir Abadir, who intermarried with Sidama. The earliest surviving mention of Hadiya is in the Kebra Nagast (ch. 94), indicating that the kingdom was in existence by the 13th century. Another early mention is in a manuscript written on the island monastery of Lake Hayq, which states that after conquering Damot, Emperor Amda Seyon I proceeded to Hadiya and brought it under his control using Gura armies from modern Eritrea which would later become Gurage region. Later during Amda Seyon's reign, the King of Hadiya, Amano, refused to submit to the Emperor of Ethiopia. Amano was encouraged in this by a Muslim "prophet of darkness" named Bel'am. Amda Seyon subsequently set forth for Hadiya, where he "slew the inhabitants of the country with the point of the sword", killing many of the inhabitants while enslaving others. Despite such punitive measures, many of the Hadiya people served in the military units of Amda Seyon.
During the reign of Zara Yaqob, the Garad or Sultan of Hadiya, Mahiko, the son of Garaad Mehmad, repeated his predecessor's actions and refused to submit to the Abyssinian Emperor. However, with the help of one of Mahiko's followers, the Garaad was deposed in favor of his uncle Bamo. Garaad Mahiko then sought sanctuary at the court of the Adal Sultanate. He was later slain by the military contingent Adal Mabrak, who had been in pursuit. The chronicles record that the Adal Mabrak sent Mahiko's head and limbs to Zara Yaqob as proof of his death.
After militarily occupying Hadiya, many kings of Ethiopia and high ranking members forcefully married Hadiya women; Queen Eleni of Hadiya is one example. This would result in wars with neighboring Adal Sultanate, who did not take kindly to the atrocities committed by Ethiopia against its fellow Muslim state Hadiya. Adal Sultanate attempted to invade Ethiopia in response however the campaign was a disaster and led to the death of Sultan Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din at Battle of Gomit. Ethiopian and Adal relations continued to sour after the Hadiya incident and reached its peak at the Ethiopian–Adal war, Hadiya would join the Adal armies in its invasion of Ethiopia during the sixteenth century. In the late sixteenth century, the Hadiya regions were overrun by Oromo migrations, thus the Arsi Oromo today claim Hadiya ancestry.
Historical definition of Hadiya people includes a number of Ethiopian ethnic groups currently known by other names according to ethnologist Ulrich Braukämper, who lived in various parts of southern-central Ethiopia for over four years during his research. In his book titled A history of the Hadiyya in Southern Ethiopia, he established linkages to the ancient Hadiya Kingdom. Currently, Hadiya is not a homogeneous ethnic group but is rather sub-divided into a number of ethnonyms, partly with different languages and cultural affiliations. They were initially all inhabitants of a single political entity, a Sultanate, which in the 4th centuries following its break-down became remarkably diverse. The Libidoo (Maräqo), Leemo, Sooro, Shaashoogo, and Baadawwaachcho remained a language entity and preserved an identity of oneness, the Hadiya proper; whereas the Qabeena, Allaaba, Siltʼe people, clans of Hadiyya origin in Walayta, parts of the East-Gurage as well as descendants of an old Hadiya stratum living with the Oromo and Sidama developed separate ethnic identities. Hadiya are related to the Harari.
- Eleni of Ethiopia
- Garaad Amano
- Garaad Mehmad
- Garaad Mahiko
- Garaad Bamo
- "Local History in Ethiopia" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine (pdf) The Nordic Africa Institute website (accessed 25 January 2008)
- Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1977) p. 79
- Hassen, Mohammed. Oromo of Ethiopia (PDF). University of London. p. 137.
- Bounga, Ayda (2014). "The kingdom of Damot: An Inquiry into Political and Economic Power in the Horn of Africa (13th c.)". Annales d'Ethiopie. 29: 262. doi:10.3406/ethio.2014.1572.
- BRAUKÄMPER, ULRICH (1973). "The Correlation of Oral Traditions and Historical Records in Southern Ethiopia: A Case Study of the Hadiya/Sidamo Past". Journal of Ethiopian Studies. 11 (2): 29–50. JSTOR 41988257.
- First identified by Enrico Cerulli, according to David Allen Hubbard, "The Literary Sources of the Kebra Nagast" (St. Andrews, 1954), p. 397 n. 71.
- Wydawn, Naukowe (1977). Folia orientalia. p. 134.
- Pankhurst, Ethiopian Borderlands, p. 77
- Pankhurst, Ethiopian Borderlands, p. 78
- Pankhurst, Ethiopian Borderlands, pp. 143f
- Hassen, Mohammed. Oromo of Ethiopia with special emphasis on the Gibe region (PDF). University of London. p. 22.
- J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 75.
- Braukämper, Ulrich (1977). "Islamic Principalities in Southeast Ethiopia Between the Thirteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Part Ii)". Ethiopianist Notes. Michigan State University. 1 (2): 1–43. JSTOR 42731322.
- Ethiopianist Notes. Michigan State University. 1977. p. 28.
- Ulrich, Braukämper (2012). A History of the Hadiyya in Southern Ethiopia: Translated from German by Geraldine Krause. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3447068048.
- D'Abbadie, A. T. (1890). Reconnaissances magnetiques. Annales du Bureau des Longitudes, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 4, b1-b62.
- Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian borderlands: Essays in regional history from ancient times to the end of the 18th century. The Red Sea Press, 1997.
- Braukaemper, Ulrich. A history of the Hadiya in Southern Ethiopia. Universite Hamburg. p. 9.
- Braukämper, Ulrich. (1980), Geschichte der Hadiya Süd-Äthiopiens: von den Anfängen bis zur Revolution 1974, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag (Studien zur Kulturkunde 50).
- Braukämper, Ulrich. (2005), "Hadiyya Ethnography", in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 961–963.
- Braukämper, Ulrich. (2005), "Hadiyya Sultanate", in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 963–965.