|High Speed 2|
|Number of tracks||Double track|
|Track gauge||4 ft��8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Loading gauge||UIC GC|
|Electrification||25 kV AC overhead|
|Operating speed||360 km/h (225 mph) maximum, but 330 km/h (205 mph) routinely.|
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway system in the United Kingdom, with its 176 kilometres (109 mi) first phase under construction and future stages awaiting approval. HS2 will be the second major high-speed rail line in Britain; the first is 108 kilometres (67 mi) High Speed 1 (HS1), which connects London to the Channel Tunnel and was opened in the mid-2000s. Upon completion, with a new "Y"-shaped network of track and a design speed of 360 km/h (225 mph), the new railway will link London, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds.
High Speed 2 will provide upgrades to the terminal stations of London Euston, Manchester Piccadilly and Leeds, whereas Birmingham will be served by a new terminus known as Birmingham Curzon Street. Phase 1 will create a new high-speed line between London and Birmingham, and Phase 2 will create two branches north from Birmingham on either side of the Pennines. Once completed, sixteen trains per hour are planned to use the line either wholly or in part.
The project has been subject to both support and opposition: supporters of the project claim that HS2 will provide increased capacity and reliability to combat rising passenger numbers while driving further modal shift to rail; opponents of the project claim that the project is neither environmentally or financially sustainable. In response to criticism of the project, in 2019 the government ordered a review of the project chaired by the project's former chairman, Douglas Oakervee; this recommended that the entire project proceed as planned.
The costs of HS2 were estimated in 2010 to be between £30.9 billion and £36 billion; in 2015, this estimate was combined with the cost of rolling stock and adjusted for inflation to give a budget of £56.6 billion. Oakervee's review in 2019 estimated the project would cost between £80.7 billion and £88.7 billion in 2019 prices. After a judicial review on environmental grounds initiated by conservationist and television presenter Chris Packham failed, construction on the line began in 2020.
High-speed rail arrived in the United Kingdom with the opening in 2003 of the first part of High Speed 1, then known as the 67-mile-long (108 km) Channel Tunnel Rail Link between London and the Channel Tunnel. The assessment of the case for a second high-speed line was proposed in 2009 by the DfT under the Labour government, which was to be developed by a new company, High Speed Two Limited (HS2 Ltd).
Following a review by the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition, a route was opened to public consultation in December 2010, based on a Y-shaped route from London to Birmingham with branches to Leeds and Manchester, as originally put forward by the previous Labour government, with alterations designed to minimise the visual, noise, and other environmental impacts of the line.
In January 2012 the Secretary of State for Transport announced that HS2 would go ahead in two phases and the legislative process would be achieved through two hybrid bills. The High Speed Rail (London–West Midlands) Act 2017 authorising the construction of Phase 1 passed both Houses of Parliament and received Royal Assent in February 2017. A Phase 2a High Speed Rail (West Midlands–Crewe) bill, seeking the power to construct Phase 2 as far as Crewe and make decisions on the remainder of the Phase 2b route, was introduced in July 2017. Phase 2a received royal assent in February 2021.
One of the stated aims of the project is to increase the capacity of the railway network. It is envisaged that the introduction of HS2 will free up space on existing railway lines by removing a large number of express services, allowing additional local train services to run and enabling the network to handle increasing passenger numbers. Network Rail considers that constructing a new high-speed railway will be more cost-effective and less disruptive than upgrading the existing conventional rail network. The DfT has forecast that improved connectivity will have a positive economic impact, and that favourable journey times and ample capacity will generate modal shift from air and road to rail.
On 21 August 2019, the Department for Transport (DfT) ordered an independent review of the highly controversial project, chaired by the British civil engineer Douglas Oakervee. Work on preparations for the first phase proceeded while the review was undertaken. The review was completed in November 2019, but was delayed by purdah rules relating to the general election which took place in the following month. Lord Berkeley, the deputy chair of the review, distanced himself from the review's conclusions and issued a dissenting report in January 2020. The Oakervee Review was published by the Department for Transport on 11 February 2020, alongside a statement from the Prime Minister confirming that HS2 would go ahead in full, with reservations. Oakervee's conclusions were that the original rationale for High Speed 2—to provide capacity and reliability on the rail network—was still valid, and no "shovel-ready" interventions existed that could deployed within the timeframe of the project. As a consequence, Oakervee recommended that the project go ahead as planned, with the following recommendations:
- The DfT should revise the funding envelope and business case in response to the cost estimates in the report;
- Costs should be controlled and the procurement and contracting strategy—which was partially responsible for cost estimates increasing—be examined;
- The DfT should model for a reduced service frequency of fourteen trains per hour, with passive provision for two more;
- Phase 2a should be constructed alongside Phase 1, and the connection to the West Coast Main Line (WCML) near Handsacre—which represented the original boundary between Phase 1 and 2—be removed; the government later committed to providing the Handsacre connection regardless.
- Improvements to classic services in the Midlands and Northern England should be delivered in advance of Phase 2b's opening, and the Phase 2b hybrid bill be delayed for several months, pending a review into advanced connectivity in those areas;
- Old Oak Common should serve as a temporary terminus for the line if the high-speed terminus at Euston is not complete before opening.
After recommending the project proceed, the review recommended a further review of HS2 which will be undertaken by the Infrastructure and Projects Authority, concentrating on reducing costs and over-specification. Measures such as reducing the speed of trains and their frequency, and general cost-cutting predominately affecting Phase 2b, will be assessed. On 15 April 2020, formal approval was given to construction companies to start work on the project.
Amid concerns that HS2 was carrying out preparatory works during nesting season, Springwatch presenter and conservationist Chris Packham filed for a judicial review of the decision to proceed and an emergency injunction to prevent construction, having crowdfunded £100,000 to cover legal fees. His bid failed before the High Court of Justice, which ruled that a judicial review "had no real prospect of success". Packham was subsequently given leave to appeal to the Court of Appeal, with Lord Justice Lewison ruling that there was "considerable public interest". On 31 July 2020, Packham lost his case in the Court of Appeal.
Phase 1: London to Birmingham
Phase 1 will create a new high-speed line between London and Birmingham by approximately 2029. A high-speed link will also be provided to the existing WCML just north of Lichfield in Staffordshire, which will provide services to the North West of England and Scotland in advance of later phases.
Four stations will be included on the route: the London and Birmingham city centre termini will be London Euston and Birmingham Curzon Street, with interchanges at Old Oak Common and Birmingham Interchange respectively. The Phase 1 line is 176 kilometres (109 mi) long and the journey will be achieved in 49 minutes.
The route to the north begins at Euston station in London, entering a twin-bore tunnel near the Mornington Street bridge at the station's throat. After continuing through to Old Oak Common underground station, trains proceed through a second 8-mile (13 km) tunnel emerging to the surface at its northwestern portal. The line crosses the Colne Valley Regional Park on the Colne Valley Viaduct. The line then enters a 9.8-mile (15.8 km) tunnel under the Chiltern Hills to emerge near South Heath, northwest of Amersham. It will run roughly parallel to the A413 road and the London to Aylesbury Line, to the west of Wendover. This is a cut-and-cover tunnel under farmland, with soil spread over the final construction in order to reduce the visual impact of the line, reduce noise and allow use of the land above the tunnels for agriculture. After passing west of Aylesbury, the route will run along the corridor of the former Great Central Main Line, joining the alignment north of Quainton Road to travel through rural Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire up to Mixbury, south of Brackley, from where it will cross the A43 and open countryside through South Northamptonshire and Warwickshire. North of a bored tunnel under Long Itchington Wood, the route will pass through rural areas between Kenilworth and Coventry and cross the A46 to enter the West Midlands.
Birmingham Interchange station will be on the outskirts of Solihull, close to the strategic road network including the M42, M6, M6 toll and A45, all crossed on viaducts; also close to Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre. North of the station, a triangular junction west of Coleshill will link the HS2 Birmingham city centre spur with the line continuing north, from which Phase 2a and 2b will be developed. The northern limit for Phase 1 will be a connection onto the WCML near Lichfield. This part of the line would be operative with compatible high-speed trains moving onto the conventional track WCML while the western leg of Phase 2 is being built. The city centre spur will be routed along the Water Orton rail corridor, the Birmingham to Derby line through Castle Bromwich and in a tunnel past Bromford.
In November 2015, the then Chancellor, George Osborne, announced that the HS2 line would be extended to Crewe by 2027, reducing journey times from London to Crewe by 35 minutes. The section from Lichfield to Crewe is a part of Phase 2a planned to be built simultaneously with Phase 1, effectively merging Phase 2a with Phase 1. The proposed Crewe Hub incorporating a station catering for high-speed trains will be built as part of Phase 2a.
Phase 2 – Birmingham to Manchester and Leeds
Phase 2 will create two branch lines from Birmingham running north either side of the Pennines creating a "Y" network. Phase 2 is split into two phases, 2a and 2b. Phase 2a is the section from Lichfield to Crewe on the western section. Phase 2b is the remainder of Phase 2.
The western section of the "Y" route extends north from Lichfield connecting to the northbound conventional WCML at Bamfurlong south of Wigan taking services to Scotland, with a branch to the existing Manchester Piccadilly station. A branch on HS2 at High Legh in Cheshire will takes trains on conventional track twenty-five miles (40 km) into Liverpool.
The eastern section of the "Y" branches at Coleshill to the east of Birmingham and routes north to just before York, where it joins the Cross Country Route, which in turn connects onto the northbound conventional ECML projecting services to the North East of England and Scotland.
West Midlands to Crewe (Phase 2a, western section)
This phase extends the line northwest to the Crewe Hub from the northern extremity of Phase 1, north of Lichfield. At Lichfield HS2 also connects to the West Coast Main Line. Opening a year after Phase 1, most of the construction of phase 2a will be in parallel with Phase 1. Phase 2a was approved by the House of Commons in July 2019, and received Royal Assent on 11 February 2021.
Crewe Hub (Phase 2a, western section)
The Crewe Hub is an important addition to the HS2 network, giving additional connectivity to existing lines radiating from the Crewe junction. The components are:
- An upgraded station at Crewe, to cope with high-speed trains.
- A tunnel under the station to allow HS2 trains to bypass the station while remaining on high-speed tracks.
- Branches onto the WCML just to the south and north of the station, to allow HS2 trains to enter the station.
Crewe to Bamfurlong and Manchester (Phase 2b, western section)
HS2 track continues north from Crewe with its endpoint at Bamfurlong south of Wigan where it branches into the WCML. As the line passes through Cheshire at Millington, it will branch to Manchester using a triangular junction. At this junction, passive provision for a link to Liverpool will be constructed, which will enable the future construction of Northern Powerhouse Rail to link to the HS2 network. This will be provided for in the HS2 Phase 2b Hybrid Bill. The Manchester branch then veers east in a circuitous route around Tatton running past Manchester airport through a station at the airport, with the line then entering a 10-mile (16 km) tunnel, emerging at Ardwick where the line will continue to its terminus at Manchester Piccadilly.
West Midlands to ECML and Leeds (Phase 2b, eastern section)
East of Birmingham the Phase 1 line branches at Coleshill progressing northeast roughly parallel to the M42 motorway, progressing north between Derby and Nottingham. The line ends by joining the Cross Country Route south of Ulleskelf, which itself almost immediately joins the northbound ECML just south of York, projecting services to the northeast of England and Scotland on a mixture of HS2 and conventional tracks.
The line from Birmingham northeast bound incorporates the proposed East Midlands Hub located at Toton between Derby and Nottingham. The East Midlands Hub will serve Derby, Leicester and Nottingham. There will be a parallel spur to the northbound HS2 track using the conventional track Midland Main Line from a branch at Clay Cross branching back onto HS2 track east of Grimethorpe. Chesterfield and Sheffield will be served by HS2 conventional trains being located on this spur. The HS2 track will branch near Woodlesford and directly into a Leeds HS2 terminus constructed on a viaduct over the River Aire and sharing a common concourse with the existing station.
The initial plan was for the line to serve Sheffield directly via a new raised station adjacent to Tinsley Viaduct, near to Meadowhall Interchange east of Sheffield. This met with opposition from Sheffield Council, who lobbied for the line to be routed through Sheffield city centre. As a result, Sheffield will be accessed via a spur from HS2 branching off at Clay Cross and running through Chesterfield, using the existing conventional track on Midland Main Line. This spur means Chesterfield gains a HS2 classic compatible service, which was not in the initial plan.
Following the conclusion of the Oakervee Review in early 2020, the government decided to proceed with legislation for the Western Leg of Phase 2b as a priority. Therefore, HS2 Ltd intend to submit a Hybrid Bill before parliament for the Western Leg in early 2022, or sooner if possible.
The government also plans to present an Integrated Rail Plan for the North and Midlands by the end of 2020, informed by an assessment from the National Infrastructure Commission, which will consider how to better deliver the Eastern Leg of Phase 2b along with Northern Powerhouse Rail, East Midlands Hub and other rail programmes. Therefore, work on the Eastern Leg of Phase 2b has been paused.
Possible future phases
There are no DfT proposals to extend the new 186 mph (300 km/h) high-speed lines north of Leeds to Newcastle, west of Manchester to Liverpool, or to Scotland via the west or east coast routes. High-speed trains will be capable of accessing some destinations using the existing slower speed high-speed tracks, using a mixture of higher speed of over 186 mph (300 km/h) and lower speed 125 mph (200 km/h) classic tracks.
The Liverpool City Region was omitted from direct HS2 track access. The nearest proposed HS2 track will be 16 miles (26 km) from the city centre and 1 mile (1.6 km) to the nearest boundary of the Liverpool City Region.
In February 2016, Liverpool City Council offered £2 billion towards funding a direct HS2 line into the city centre. In November 2018, it was reported that Transport Secretary, Chris Grayling and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Hammond, were looking at extending HS2 to Liverpool.
Steve Rotheram, the Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region, announced the creation of a Station Commission to determine the size, type and location of a new "transport hub" station in Liverpool's city centre, linking with the local transport infrastructure. The station would serve HS2 and Northern Powerhouse Rail trains. The existing Lime Street station is considered too small, with expansion difficult and expensive. Transport for the North's strategic plan recognised the need for a new station to accommodate HS2 and NPR trains.
Rotheram stated in May 2019 that the government now preferred to connect Liverpool to HS2 via an existing freight line rather than build dedicated direct high-speed track into the city. In June 2019, HS2 Ltd published revised plans to access Liverpool via High Legh in Cheshire, with passive provision for two junctions to allow Northern Powerhouse Rail (NPR) services to use portions of HS2 track to access Warrington and Manchester, and for HS2 services to use NPR infrastructure to access central Liverpool.
Newcastle and Scotland
Business and governmental organisations including Network Rail, CBI Scotland and Transport Scotland (the transport agency of the Scottish Government) formed the Scottish Partnership Group for high-speed rail in June 2011 to campaign for the extension of the HS2 project north to Edinburgh and Glasgow. It published a study in December 2011 which outlined a case for extending high-speed rail to Scotland, proposing a route north of Manchester to Edinburgh and Glasgow as well as an extension to Newcastle.
In 2009, the then Transport Secretary Lord Adonis outlined a policy for high-speed rail in the UK as an alternative to domestic air travel, with particular emphasis on travel between the major cities of Scotland and England, "I see this as the union railway, uniting England and Scotland, north and south, richer and poorer parts of our country, sharing wealth and opportunity, pioneering a fundamentally better Britain".
In November 2012 the Scottish Government announced plans to build a 74 km (46 mi) high-speed rail link between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The proposed link would have reduced journey times between the two cities to under 30 minutes and was planned to open by 2024, eventually connecting to the high-speed network being developed in England. The plan was cancelled in 2016. In May 2015, HS2 Ltd had concluded that there was "no business case" to extend HS2 north into Scotland, and that high-speed rail services should run north on upgraded conventional track.
Connection to other lines
Existing main lines
A key feature of the HS2 proposals is that the new high-speed track will mix with existing conventional track to form the complete network. Purpose-built conventional trains will be capable of operating on the new spine of high-speed track at full line speeds, then seamlessly run onto conventional tracks at speeds of 200 km/h (125 mph) or below. This will enable trains to reach destinations served only by slower high-speed tracks, such as Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Newcastle, using a mixture of conventional and high-speed track. HS2 trains are non-tilting; however, non-tilting speed limits are being increased from 110 mph to 125 mph in some places and modifications to the alignment of the WCML are planned, which will make tilting trains no longer necessary.
The proposed connections from the new high-speed tracks onto existing tracks will be at junctions on the network at the following places.
- West Coast Main Line
- east of Lichfield Trent Valley, 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) northwest of Lichfield
- north of Crewe
- south of Crewe
- 3 miles south of Wigan North Western station
- at Ulleskelf, 8 km (5 mi) southeast of York, joining the Cross Country Route, which meets the East Coast Main Line 3 km (2 mi) further north near Colton
- Midland Main Line
- at High Legh in Cheshire.
The route from London to the West Midlands will be the first stage of a line to Scotland, with passengers travelling to or from Scotland on through trains using a mixture of new high-speed and existing conventional tracks, with a saving of 45 minutes from the opening of Phase 1. It was recommended by a Parliamentary select committee on HS2 in November 2011 that a statutory clause should be in the bill that will guarantee HS2 being constructed beyond Birmingham.
High Speed 1
The Department for Transport initially outlined plans to build a two-kilometre-long (1.2 mi) link between HS2 and the existing High Speed 1 (HS1) line that connects London to the Channel Tunnel, creating one high-speed network. This connection would have realised the aims of the Regional Eurostar scheme that was first proposed in the 1980s. Several schemes were considered, and the route finally put forward was a tunnel between Old Oak Common and Chalk Farm, linked to existing conventional lines along the North London Line which would connect to HS1 north of St Pancras.
Camden London Borough Council raised concerns about the impact on housing, Camden Market and other local businesses from construction work and bridge widening. Alternative schemes were considered, including boring a tunnel under Camden. The HS1–HS2 link was removed from the parliamentary bill at the second reading stage in order to save £700 million from the budget.
As HS1 and HS2 will not be integrated, HS2 Ltd proposed to enhance links between HS1's terminus at St Pancras and HS2's terminus at Euston which are separated by the British Library on Euston Road; at their closest points, the two high-speed lines will be only 640 m (0.4 mi) apart. HS2's proposed options include improvements to pedestrian links between the two stations and the construction of an automated people mover. The two termini will also be served by the same station—Euston St Pancras—on Crossrail 2, which could provide a covered connection.
High Speed North
High Speed North, sometimes called Northern Powerhouse Rail or High Speed 3 (HS3), is a high speed railway across the North of England that was proposed in 2015 by Transport for the North (TfN). The east–west trans-Pennine line would provide a high speed link between northern cities such as Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle and Hull, with connections to HS2. In March 2016, the National Infrastructure Commission's report, "High Speed North", recommended collaboration between TfN and HS2 Ltd on the design of the northern parts of HS2. Some redesign of HS2 would be needed to link into HS3. The proposal was given approval in the March 2016 budget.
In December 2016, Sir David Higgins, then head of HS2, gave evidence to the Transport Select Committee about collaboration between HS2 and HS3, and outlined potential schemes being considered for a high-speed connection between Liverpool and Manchester; these include a link via Golborne, or a southern route via Manchester Airport into Piccadilly station.
In May 2019, the House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee recommended treating NPR and HS2 Phase 2b as one project. In June 2019, HS2 Ltd published a document stating that NPR will branch into HS2 at High Legh in Cheshire. This was taken further, with steps towards NPR integration being announced in HS2 Ltd's Phase 2b design refinement consultation. The two schemes which were developed separately will lead to the development of NPR in close co-ordination with HS2.
London and Birmingham
HS2's southern terminus is London Euston. Peak-hour capacity at the HS2 London terminal at Euston is predicted to more than triple when the network is fully operational, increasing from 11,300 to 34,900 passengers each way. Upon completion, Euston will have 24 National Rail platforms, not including those on the London Underground's Northern and Victoria lines.
As part of the HS2 project, Euston will be remodelled to integrate with the current classic rail station, and improved connections to Euston Square tube station, which serves the Circle, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines will be provided. Euston will also be better connected with HS1's terminus at St Pancras, including a proposed station on Crossrail 2 under the British Library. St Pancras's own links with King's Cross station will effectively create a "mega-station" along the Euston Road from Euston Square in the west to King's Cross St Pancras in the east.
The DfT's command paper in March 2010 proposed that all trains would stop at a "Crossrail interchange" near Old Oak Common, between Paddington and Acton Main Line, with connections for Crossrail, Heathrow Express, and the Great Western Main Line to Heathrow Airport, Reading, South West England and South Wales. Old Oak Common railway station will also be connected, via out of station interchange, with London Overground stations at Old Oak Common Lane on the North London line and Hythe Road on the West London line.
The Old Oak and Park Royal Development Corporation (OPDC) approved planning permission for the UK's largest new-build railway station at Old Oak Common in May 2020. The construction contract was awarded to Balfour Beatty, Vinci and Systra (BBVS). The station's 850 metre box will have fourteen platforms.
Birmingham Interchange will be a through station situated in rural Solihull, within a triangle of land enclosed by the M42, A45, and the A452. A people mover with a capacity of over 2,100 passengers per hour in each direction will connect it to the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham Airport, and the existing Birmingham International railway station. The AirRail Link people mover already operates between Birmingham International station and the airport. In addition, there is a proposal to extend the West Midlands Metro to serve the station.
In 2010, Birmingham Airport's chief executive Paul Kehoe stated that HS2 is a key element in increasing the number of flights using the airport, with added patronage by inhabitants of London and the South East, as HS2 will reduce travelling times to Birmingham Airport from London to under 40 minutes.
Birmingham city centre
A terminus named Birmingham Curzon Street will be built at the end of a branch, connected to the mainline via a triangle junction at Coleshill. A station of the same name existed on the site between 1838 and 1966; the surviving Grade I listed station building will be retained and renovated.
The site is immediately adjacent to Moor Street station, and approximately 400 metres (0.25 mi) northeast of New Street station, which is separated from Curzon Street and Moor Street by the Bull Ring. Passenger interchange with Moor Street would be at street level, across Moor Street Queensway; interchange with New Street would be via a pedestrian walkway between Moor Street and New Street (opened in 2013). One of Birmingham's oldest pubs, the Fox and Grapes, was demolished to make way for the new developments in September 2018. The West Midlands Metro will be extended to serve the station.
Development planning for the Fazeley Street quarter of Birmingham has changed as a result of HS2. Prior to the announcement of the HS2 station, Birmingham City University had planned to build a new campus in Eastside. The proposed Eastside development will now include a new museum quarter, with the original station building becoming a new museum of photography, fronting on to a new Curzon Square, which will also be home to Ikon 2, a museum of contemporary art.
Clearing the site for construction commenced in December 2018. Grimshaw Architects received planning permission for three applications in April 2020. The new station is expected to have a zero-carbon rating and over 2,800 m2 of solar panels.
Birmingham to Manchester (Phases 2a and 2b)
Proposals for the station locations were announced on 28 January 2013.
Birmingham to Crewe (Phase 2a)
HS2 will pass through Staffordshire and Cheshire. The line will run in a tunnel under the Crewe junction by-passing the station. The HS2 line will be linked to the WCML via a grade-separated junction just south of Crewe, enabling "classic compatible" trains exiting the high-speed line to call at the existing Crewe station. In 2014, the chairman of HS2 advocated a dedicated hub station in Crewe. In November 2015 it was announced that the Crewe hub completion would be brought forward to 2027. In November 2017 the government and Network Rail supported a proposal to build the hub station on the existing station site, with a junction onto the West Coast Main Line north of the station. This will enable through trains to bypass the station via a tunnel under the station and run directly onto the WCML.
Manchester Airport (Phase 2b)
An HS2 station provisionally named Manchester Interchange is planned to the south of the city of Manchester, serving Manchester Airport. It was recommended in 2013 by local authorities during the consultation stage. Construction will be part-funded by private investment from the Manchester Airports Group.
The proposed site is located on the northwestern side of the airport, to the west of the M56 motorway at junction 5, and approximately 1.5 mi (2.4 km) northwest of the existing Manchester Airport railway station. A sub-surface station is planned, approximately 8.5 metres (27 ft 11 in) below ground level, consisting of two central 415-metre (1,362 ft) platforms, a pair of through tracks for trains to pass through the station without stopping, a street-level passenger concourse and a main entrance on the eastern side, facing the airport.
Current proposals do not detail passenger interchange methods; various options are being considered to integrate the new station with existing transport networks, including extending the Manchester Metrolink airport tram line to connect the HS2 station with the existing airport railway station.
If the station is built, it is estimated that the average journey time from London Euston to Manchester Airport would be 59 minutes.
Doubts over Phases 2a/2b
On 28 November 2020, a civil servant called Phase 2B "a sacrificial lamb" Legislation for Phase 2 is to be split, rather than carried as one combined Act. This has cast doubt on its likelihood to be completed
During a House of Lords debate in November 2020 the Government confirmed that Phase 2a and 2b would be separate legislation In March 2021, the transport secretary stated that Phase 2B would be going ahead.
Manchester city centre (Phase 2b)
The route is currently proposed to continue from the airport into Manchester city centre via a 7.5-mile (12.1 km) twin bore branch tunnel under the dense urban districts of south Manchester before surfacing at Ardwick. The tunnel will be at an average depth of 33 m (108 ft) and trains will travel through it at 228 kilometres per hour (142 mph). The diameter of the tunnel is dependent on the train speed and length of the tunnel. It is envisaged both tunnels will be, as an "absolute minimum", 7.25 metres (23 ft 9 in) in diameter to accommodate the high-speed trains.
Up to 15 sites were put forward, including Sportcity, Pomona Island, expanding Deansgate railway station and re-configuring the grade-II listed Manchester Central into a station. Three final sites made the list: Manchester Piccadilly station, Salford Central station and a newly built station at Salford Middlewood Locks. Three approaches were considered, one via the M62, one via the River Mersey and the other through south Manchester. Both Manchester and Salford city councils recommended routing High Speed 2 to Manchester Piccadilly, although the station approach faces southeast away from the incoming HS2 line, to maximise economic potential and connectivity rather than building a new station at a greater cost.
HS2 will terminate at an upgraded Manchester Piccadilly station. At least four new 400-metre-long (1,300 ft) platforms will be built to accommodate the new high-speed trains in addition to the two platforms which are currently planned as part of the Northern Hub proposal. It is envisaged Platform 1 under the existing listed train shed will also be converted to a fifth HS2 platform. The HS2 concourse will be connected to the existing concourse at Piccadilly. HS2 will reduce the average journey time from central Manchester to central London from 2 hours 8 minutes to 1 hour 8 minutes.
Birmingham to Leeds (Phase 2b)
East Midlands Hub
HS2 is proposed to serve a new station named the East Midlands Hub located at Toton sidings in Long Eaton. The station will be an out of town parkway station,[note 1] serving the cities of Nottingham, Derby and Leicester. The Derbyshire and Nottingham Chamber of Commerce supports high-speed rail serving the East Midlands, however, was concerned that a parkway station instead of centrally located stations in each of the three cities would result in no overall net benefit in journey times.
Derby City Council and Nottingham City Council have proposed an extension to the Nottingham Express Transit tram system, which currently terminates at Toton Lane, to serve the HS2 station and then branch to provide tram services to Derby and East Midlands Airport. Toton Lane currently serves as a Park and Ride station for the nearby M1 motorway.
HS2 is proposed to pass Sheffield to the east of the city. Initially, there were plans for a HS2 station on the main line at Meadowhall in the east of the city; the area has an indoor shopping centre, a Park & Ride service for the M1 motorway, and the Meadowhall Interchange station which is served by local rail and Sheffield Supertram services. After petitioning by Sheffield City Council—who claimed that a station in the city centre would have greater economic benefits and cause less congestion than the Meadowhall site—the route to the city was changed in July 2016, with high-speed trains serving the centre of the city using classic compatible trains. High-speed trains would branch off HS2 track onto the Midland main line south of Sheffield at Clay Cross, serve Chesterfield station and continue north into Sheffield station. High-speed trains can leave Sheffield heading north and then branch back onto HS2 track north of the city at Clayton.
As a replacement for the Meadowhall station, Sir David Higgins—then the CEO of HS2 Ltd—announced his support for a "South Yorkshire Parkway" station on the main line. In January 2017, the government published eight possible sites across South Yorkshire and the City of Wakefield for the parkway station; by December 2017, three possible sites were still being assessed, with Higgins requesting that local government leaders reach a consensus on the final site.
Plans see HS2 continue north towards York, with a spur serving Leeds. The original proposals recommended that HS2 would terminate at a new station—Leeds New Lane—situated approximately 400 m south of the existing Leeds station; the two stations would have been connected by a moving walkway. In 2015, the New Lane site was removed from plans in favour of a site on a viaduct over the River Aire, which would adjoin the current station and share a common concourse over Neville Street.
The main stages of construction officially began on 4 September 2020, following previous delays. The civil aspect of the construction of Phase 1 is worth roughly £6.6 billion with preparation including over 8,000 boreholes for ground investigation.
Euston station in London
In October 2018, demolition began on the former carriage sheds at Euston station. This will allow the start of construction at the throat of the station at Mornington Street bridge, twin-bore 8-mile (13 km) tunnels to West Ruislip. The taxi rank at Euston station was moved to a temporary location at the front of the station in January 2019 so that demolition of the One Euston Square and Grant Thornton House tower blocks could commence. The demolition period was scheduled for ten months.
In June 2020, workers finished the demolition of the western ramp and canopy of the station. This part of the station housed the parcels depot which had previously been disused after parcel traffic had shifted to road.
In July 2020, work was completed on a 17 m high headwall that will allow tunnelling to commence in summer 2021. The 10 miles (16 km) Chiltern tunnels will take three years to dig using two 2,000 tonne boring machines. The headwall is approximately located at .
The tunnels are lined with concrete which is being cast in sections at a purpose-built facility situated at the southern tunnel portal. The first sections were cast in March 2021.
Opposition to construction
A protest camp was established at Harvil Road in the Colne Valley Regional Park in 2017, by environmental activists intending to protect the wildlife habitats of bats and owls. The protesters claimed that fresh water aquifer would be affected by HS2 construction works and this would impact London's water supply. The camp was populated by individuals including members of the Green Party and Extinction Rebellion. In January 2020, HS2 bailiffs began to evict the site after HS2 has exercised the right to compulsory purchase the land from Hillingdon council, which had not been prepared to sell the land otherwise. A prosecution of two activists accused of aggravated trespass had previously collapsed in 2019 when HS2 was unable to prove it owned the land the activists were allegedly trespassing upon.
During the clearance of woodland along the route in early 2020, the group HS2 Rebellion squatted on a site in the Colne Valley aiming to block construction; the protesters argued that public money would be more suited to supporting the National Health Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. HS2 and Hillingdon council both moved to get separate injunctions allowing them to remove the squatters. Another camp was set up in March 2020 at Jones Hill Wood in Buckinghamshire, aiming to preserve a wood which inspired Roald Dahl to write Fantastic Mr Fox. Activists, including Swampy, were evicted from treehouses in October 2020.
In January 2021 it was revealed that protesters had dug a tunnel underneath Euston Square Gardens. The protesters were criticised for endangering themselves and emergency services personnel, and for being "costly to the taxpayer".
There have been incidents of violence directed towards HS2 workers.
HS2 will provide up to 18 trains an hour by 2033 to and from London. The service pattern is not yet finalised; the 2020 business case contains a suggested service pattern. Some services will operate as two connected units and will split to serve multiple northern destinations.
Proposed service pattern
After an initial period with a reduced service running north from Old Oak Common, a full nine train-per-hour service from London Euston is proposed to run after Phase 1 opens. While mostly the same, the proposed service pattern is different depending on whether Phase 2a opens alongside Phase 1.
|London to Birmingham|
|London Euston – Birmingham Curzon Street||3||Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange||400 m|
|London to the North West and Scotland|
|London Euston – Manchester Piccadilly||3||Old Oak Common, Wilmslow (1tph), Stockport||200 m|
|London Euston – Macclesfield||1||Old Oak Common, Stafford, Stoke-on-Trent
Will only run if phase 2a is open.
|London Euston – Liverpool Lime Street||1||Old Oak Common, Stafford, Runcorn
Will call at Crewe in lieu of Stafford if phase 2a is open.
|1||Old Oak Common, Crewe, Runcorn
Will run combined with the Lancaster train (see below) between London and Crewe if phase 2a is open.
|London Euston – Lancaster||1||Old Oak Common, Crewe, Warrington Bank Quay, Wigan North Western, Preston
Will run combined with the Liverpool train (see above) between London and Crewe if phase 2a is open.
|London Euston – Glasgow Central||1||Old Oak Common, Preston, Carlisle||200 m|
When the whole of Phase 2 is open, the following service pattern is proposed:
|London to Birmingham|
|London Euston – Birmingham Curzon Street||3||Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange (2tph)||400 m|
|London to the North West and Scotland|
|London Euston – Manchester Piccadilly||3||Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange (1tph), Manchester Interchange||400 m|
|London Euston – Macclesfield||1||Old Oak Common, Stafford, Stoke-on-Trent||200 m|
|London Euston – Liverpool Lime Street||1||Old Oak Common, Crewe, Runcorn||200 m|
|London Euston – Liverpool Lime Street and Lancaster||1||Old Oak Common, Crewe...
The two portions will divide/attach at Crewe.
Warrington Bank Quay, Wigan North Western, Preston
|London Euston – Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central||2||Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange (1tph), Preston, Carlisle...
The two portions will divide/attach at Carlisle.
|London to Yorkshire and the North East|
|London Euston – Leeds||2||Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange (1tph), East Midlands Hub||400 m|
|London Euston – Leeds and Sheffield||1||Old Oak Common, East Midlands Hub...
The two portions will divide/attach at East Midlands Hub.
|London Euston – York and Sheffield||1||Old Oak Common, East Midlands Hub...
The two portions will divide/attach at East Midlands Hub.
|London Euston – Newcastle||2||Old Oak Common, York, Darlington (1tph)||200 m|
|Birmingham to the North West and Scotland|
|Birmingham Curzon Street – Manchester Piccadilly||2||Manchester Interchange||200 m|
|Birmingham Curzon Street – Edinburgh Waverley/Glasgow Central||1||Wigan North Western, Preston, Lancaster, Oxenholme Lake District (1tp2h),[a] Penrith (1tp2h),[a] Carlisle...
1tp2h will continue to/from Edinburgh Waverley, calling at Haymarket.
1tp2h will continue to/from Glasgow Central, calling at Lockerbie and Motherwell.
|Birmingham to Yorkshire and the North East|
|Birmingham Curzon Street – Leeds||2||East Midlands Hub||200 m|
|Birmingham Curzon Street – Newcastle||1||East Midlands Hub, York, Darlington, Durham||200 m|
Services on High Speed 2 are included within the West Coast Partnership franchise, which was awarded to Avanti West Coast—a joint venture between FirstGroup and Trenitalia—when the franchise commenced in December 2019. Avanti West Coast will be responsible for running all aspects of the service including ticketing, trains and the maintenance of the infrastructure. The new franchise will run for the first five years of HS2's operation.
The government has stated that it would "assume a fares structure in line with that of the existing railway", and HS2 should attract sufficient passengers to not have to charge premium fares. Paul Chapman, in charge of HS2's public relations strategy, suggested that there could be last minute tickets sold at discount rates. He said, "when you have got a train departing on a regular basis, maybe every five or ten minutes, in that last half-hour before the train leaves and you have got empty seats...you can start selling tickets for £5 and £10 at a standby rate."
|Type||Current capacity||Capacity post‑HS2|
HS2 will carry up to 26,000 people per hour, with anticipated annual passenger numbers of 85 million. The line will be used intensively, with up to 17 trains per hour travelling to and from Euston. As all trains will be capable of the same speed, capacity is increased as faster trains will not need to reduce speed for slower freight and commuter trains. By diverting the fastest services to run on HS2, capacity is released on the WCML, East Coast Main Line and Midland Main Line allowing for more slower freight trains and local, regional and commuter services. Andrew McNaughton, Chief Technical Director, said, "Basically, as a dedicated passenger railway, we can carry more people per hour than two motorways. It's phenomenal capacity. It pretty much triples the number of seats long-distance to the North of England".
The Department for Transport report on High Speed Rail published in March 2010 sets out the specifications for a high-speed line. It will be built to a European structure gauge (as was HS1) and will conform to European Union technical standards for interoperability for high-speed rail. HS2 Ltd's report assumed a GC structure gauge for passenger capacity estimations, with a maximum design speed of 400 kilometres per hour (250 mph). Initially, trains would run at a maximum speed of 360 kilometres per hour (225 mph).
Signalling will be based on the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) with in-cab signalling in order to resolve the visibility issues associated with lineside signals at speeds over 200 kilometres per hour (125 mph).
At first, platform height was to be the European standard of 760 millimetres (2 ft 6 in); the trains will instead have a floor height of 1,115 millimetres (3 ft 7.9 in). This means the new HS2 stations will have the conventional British platform height of 915mm, as do domestic platforms for Class 395 trains on High Speed 1.
The first batch of rolling stock for HS2 is specified in technical specifications of the first tender. Bidding for the contract to design, build and maintain the trains was opened in 2017 and was expected to be awarded in 2019. As of September 2020, it is expected to be awarded in Q1 2021. The first batch includes at least 54 trainsets with a maximum speed of at least 360 km/h (225 mph) and capability to operate on both HS2 and existing infrastructure. The following suppliers are shortlisted in tender:
- Alstom Transport
- Bombardier Transportation (acquired by Alstom Transport on 29 January 2021) and Hitachi Rail Europe consortium
- Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles
- Patentes Talgo
- Siemens Mobility
The 2010 DfT government command paper outlined some requirements for the train design among its recommendations for design standards for the HS2 network. A photograph of a French AGV (Automotrice à grande vitesse) was used as an example of the latest high-speed rail technology. The paper addressed the particular problem of designing trains to continental European standards, which use taller and wider rolling stock, requiring a larger structure gauge than the rail network in Great Britain.
The report proposed the development of two new types of train to make the best use of the line:
- wider and taller trains built to a European loading gauge, which would be confined to the high-speed network (including HS1 and HS2) and other lines cleared to their loading gauge.
- conventional trains, capable of high speed but built to a British loading gauge, permitting them to leave the high-speed track to join conventional routes such as the WCML, Midland Main Line and East Coast Main Line.[note 2] Such trains would allow running of HS2 services to the north of England and Scotland, although these non-tilting trains would run slower than existing tilting trains on conventional track. HS2 Ltd has stated that, because these trains must be specifically designed for the British network and cannot be bought "off-the-shelf", these conventional trains were expected to be around 50% more expensive, costing around £40 million per train rather than £27 million for the captive stock.
Both types of train would have a maximum speed of at least 360 km/h (225 mph) and a length of 200 metres (660 ft); two units could be joined together for a 400-metre (1,300 ft) train. It has been reported that these longer trains would have approximately 1,100 seats with Andrew McNaughton, technical director of HS2, stating "family areas will alleviate the stress of parents worried that their children are annoying other passengers who are maybe trying to work."
The DfT report also considered the possibility of 'gauge clearance' work on non high-speed lines as an alternative to conventional trains. This work would involve extensive reconstruction of stations, tunnels and bridges and widening of clearances to allow European-profile trains to run beyond the high-speed network. The report concluded that although initial outlay on commissioning new rolling stock would be high, it would cost less than the widespread disruption of rebuilding large tracts of Britain's rail infrastructure.
Alstom, one of the bidders for the contract to build the trains, proposed in October 2016 tilting HS2 trains to run on HS2 and conventional tracks, to increase overall speeds when running on conventional tracks.
The estimated cost of power for running HS2 trains on the high-speed network is estimated to be £3.90/km for 200 m trains and £5.00/km for 260m trains. On the conventional network, the power costs are £2.00/km and £2.60/km respectively.
A rolling stock depot will be built in Washwood Heath, Birmingham, covering all of Phase 1 and Phase 2a. In July 2018, the Transport Secretary, Chris Grayling, announced that the rolling stock depot for the eastern leg of Phase 2b would be at Gateway 45 near to the M1 motorway in Leeds. An additional depot in Annandale, north of Gretna Green and south of Kirkpatrick Fleming was announced in 2020.
The infrastructure maintenance depot (IMD) for Phase 1 will be constructed roughly halfway along the route, north of Aylesbury, between Steeple Claydon and Calvert in Buckinghamshire. This site is adjacent to the intersection of HS2 and the East West Rail route. In the working draft environmental statement for Phase 2b, the IMD on the eastern leg is proposed near Staveley, Derbyshire on a former chemical works site, while Phase 2b, the western leg, will have one near Stone, Staffordshire.
The DfT's latest revised estimates of journey times for some major destinations have been set out in various government documents, including the business cases for each phase and other related documents.
To HS2 stations
|London to/from||Fastest journey time before HS2
|Estimated time after Phase 1
time after Phase 2
|Estimated Phase 1 reduction||Estimated Phase 2 reduction|
|Manchester||2:07||1:40||Phase 2a: 1:30||Phase 2b: 1:11||0:27||0:54|
|East Midlands Hub||none[note 3]||0:52||none||none[b]|
To other stations
|London to/from||Fastest journey time before HS2
|Fastest journey time after HS2 Phase 2
|Reduction after HS2 Phase 2|
|Birmingham to/from||Fastest journey time before HS2
|Fastest journey time after HS2 Phase 2
|Reduction after HS2 Phase 2|
|East Midlands Hub||N/A||0:20||N/A|
The Department for Transport initially estimated the cost of first 190-kilometre (120 mi) section, from London to Birmingham, at between £15.8 and £17.4 billion, and the entire Y-shaped 540-kilometre (335 mi) network between £30.9 and £36 billion, not including the Manchester Airport station which would be locally funded. In June 2013 the projected cost (in 2011 prices) rose by £10 billion to £42.6 billion, with an extra £7.5 billion budgeted for rolling stock for a total of £50.1 billion. Less than a week later, it was revealed that the DfT had been using an outdated model to estimate the productivity increases associated with the railway. In 2014, the most commonly cited cost applied to the project was £56.6 billion, which corresponds to the June 2013 funding package, as adjusted for inflation by the House of Lords' Economic Affairs Committee in 2015. Over sixty years, the line was estimated to provide £92.2 billion of net benefits and £43.6 billion in new revenue; as a result, the benefit–cost ratio of the project was then estimated to be 2.30; that is, it is projected to provide £2.30 of benefits for every £1 spent.
Cost increases have led to reductions in the planned track; for instance, the link between HS1 and HS2 was later dropped on cost grounds. In April 2016 Sir Jeremy Heywood, a top UK civil servant, was reviewing the HS2 project to trim costs and gauge whether the project could be kept within budget. The cost of HS2 is around 25 per cent higher than the international average, which was blamed on the higher population density and cost of land in a report by PwC. The costs are also higher because the line will run directly into city centres instead of joining existing networks on the outskirts. By 2019, Oakervee estimated that the projected cost, in 2019 prices, had increased to £80.7 billion to £88.7 billion—the budget envelope in 2019 prices is £62.4 billion—and the benefit–cost ratio had dropped to between 1.3 and 1.5. Lord Berkeley, the deputy chair of the Oakervee Review, dissented from Oakervee's findings and contended that the cost of the project could now be as high as £170 billion. As of 2020, the budget envelope set out by the DfT is £98 billion.
Sources of funding other than central government have been mooted for additional links. The City of Liverpool, omitted from direct HS2 access, in March 2016 offered £6 billion to fund a link from the city to the HS2 backbone 20 miles (32 km) away. HS2 received funding from the European Union's Connecting Europe Facility.
A 2008 paper, 'Delivering a Sustainable Transport System' identified fourteen strategic national transport corridors in England, and described the London – West Midlands – North West England route as the "single most important and heavily used" and also as the one which presented "both the greatest challenges in terms of future capacity and the greatest opportunities to promote a shift of passenger and freight traffic from road to rail". They noted that railway passenger numbers had been growing significantly in recent years—doubling from 1995 to 2015—and that the Rugby – Euston section was expected to have insufficient capacity sometime around 2025. This is despite the WCML upgrade on some sections of the track, which was completed in 2008, lengthened trains and an assumption that plans to upgrade the route with cab signalling would be realised.
According to the DfT, the primary purpose of HS2 is to provide additional capacity on the rail network from London to the Midlands and North. It says the new line "would improve rail services from London to cities in the North of England and Scotland, and that the chosen route to the west of London will improve passenger transport links to Heathrow Airport". Additionally, if the new line were connected to the Great Western Main Line and Crossrail, it would provide links with East and West London and the Thames Valley.
In launching the project, the DfT announced that HS2 between London and the West Midlands would follow a different alignment from the WCML, rejecting the option of further upgrading or building new tracks alongside the WCML as being too costly and disruptive, and because the Victorian-era WCML alignment was not suitable for very high speeds. A study by Network Rail found that upgrading the existing network to deliver the same extra capacity released by constructing HS2 would require fifteen years of weekend closures. This does not include the additional express seats added by HS2 nor would it deliver any journey time reductions.
HS2 is officially supported by the Labour Party, Conservative Party and the Liberal Democrats. The Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government formed in May 2010 stated in its initial programme for government its commitment to creating a high-speed rail network.
In a report brought out in 2019, the High Speed Rail Industry Leaders group (HSRIL) stated that in order to meet 2050 carbon emissions targets, HS2 must be built. Network Rail support the project and state that upgrading the existing network instead of building HS2 would take longer and cause more disruption to passengers.
The Green Party would scrap HS2 and spend the money saved on local transport links. The Brexit Party and the UK Independence Party also oppose the scheme. At the local government level, eighteen councils affected by the planned route set up the 51M group, named for the cost of HS2 for each individual constituency in £millions. Before he became Prime Minister, Boris Johnson was personally against HS2. Other former and current Conservative MPs against HS2 include Cheryl Gillan and Liam Fox.
Stop HS2 was set up in 2010 to co-ordinate local opposition and campaign on the national level against HS2. In June 2020, it organised a "Rebel Trail" with Extinction Rebellion, which was a protest march of 125 miles from Birmingham to London, stopping at camps in Warwickshire, Buckinghamshire and London. Groups such as the Wildlife Trusts and the National Trust oppose the project based on concerns about destruction of local biodiversity.
Environmental and community impact
The impact of HS2 has received particular attention in the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, where the line passes through the Misbourne Valley. The government announced in January 2011 that two million trees would be planted along sections of the route to mitigate the visual impact. The route was changed so as to tunnel underneath the southern end of the Chilterns, with the line emerging northwest of Amersham. The proposals include a re-alignment of more than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) of the River Tame, and construction of a 0.63 km (0.39 mi) viaduct and a cutting through ancient woodland at a nature reserve at Park Hall near Birmingham.
Property demolition, land take and compensation
Phase 1 is estimated to result in the demolition of more than 400 houses: 250 around Euston; 20–30 between Old Oak Common and West Ruislip; around 50 in Birmingham; and the remainder in pockets along the route. No Grade I or Grade II* listed buildings will be demolished, but six Grade II listed buildings will be, with alterations to four and removal and relocation of eight. In Birmingham, the Curzon Gate student residence and The Fox and Grapes, a derelict pub, were demolished; Birmingham City University requested £30 million in compensation after the plans were announced. Once original plans had been released in 2010, the Exceptional Hardship Scheme (EHS) was set up to compensate homeowners whose houses were to be affected by the line at the government's discretion. Phase 1 of the scheme came to an end on 17 June 2010 and Phase 2 ended in 2013.
Ancient woodland impact
The Woodland Trust states that 108 ancient woodlands will be damaged due to HS2, 33 sites of Special Scientific Interest will be affected and 21 designated nature reserves will be destroyed. In England, the term "ancient woodland" refers to areas that have been constantly forested since at least 1600; such areas accommodate a complex and diverse ecology of plants and animals and are recognised as "irreplaceable habitat" by the government. 52,000 such sites exist. According to the Trust, 56 hectares (0.6 km2) are threatened with total loss from the construction of Phases 1 and 2. Rare species such as the dingy skipper and white clawed crayfish could see a decreased population or even localised extinction upon the realization of the project. To mitigate the loss, HS2 Ltd says that seven million trees and shrubs will be planted during Phase 1, creating 900 hectares (9 km2) of new woods. A further 33 km2 of natural habitats are also planned.
Carbon dioxide emissions
In 2007 the DfT commissioned a report, "Estimated Carbon Impact of a New North–South Line", from Booz Allen Hamilton to investigate the likely overall carbon impact associated with the construction and operation of a new rail line to either Manchester or Scotland; including the extent of carbon dioxide emission reduction or increase from a shift to rail use, and a comparison with the case in which no new high-speed lines were built. The report concluded that there was no net carbon benefit in the foreseeable future, taking only the route to Manchester. Additional emissions from building a new rail route would be larger in the first ten years at least when compared to a model where no new line was built.
The 2006 Eddington Report cautioned against the common argument of modal shift from aviation to high-speed rail as a carbon-emissions benefit since only 1.2% of UK carbon emissions are due to domestic commercial aviation, and since rail transport energy efficiency is reduced as speed increases. The 2007 government white paper "Delivering a Sustainable Railway" stated trains that travel at a speed of 350 kilometres per hour (220 mph) used 90% more energy than at 200 kilometres per hour (125 mph); which would result in carbon emissions for a London to Edinburgh journey of approximately 14 kilograms (31 lb) per passenger for high-speed rail compared to 7 kilograms (15 lb) per passenger for conventional rail; air travel emits 26 kilograms (57 lb) per passenger for the same journey. The paper questioned the value for money of high-speed rail as a method of reducing carbon emissions, but noted that with a switch to carbon-free or carbon-neutral electricity production the case becomes much more favourable.
The High Speed Rail Command Paper published in March 2010 stated that the project was likely to be roughly carbon neutral. The House of Commons Transport Select Committee report in November 2011 (paragraph 77) concluded that the government's claim that HS2 would have substantial carbon reduction benefits did not stand up to scrutiny. At best, the select committee found, HS2 could make a small contribution to the government's carbon-reduction targets. However, this was dependent on making rapid progress in reducing carbon emissions from UK electricity generation.
The Phase 1 environmental statement estimates that 5.8–6.2 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions will be involved in the construction of that section of the line, with operation of the line estimated to be carbon negative thereafter; operational emissions, modal shift, and other environmental mitigations—such as tree planting and decarbonisation of the electrical grid—are expected to provide a saving of 3 million tons of CO2-equivalent emissions over sixty years of operation. The carbon dioxide emissions per passenger-kilometre in 2030 are estimated to be 8 grams for high-speed rail, as opposed to 22 grams for conventional intercity rail,[note 4] 67 grams for private car transport, and 170 grams for domestic aviation.
The government claims that one-third of the carbon footprint from constructing Phase One results from tunnelling, the amount of which has been increased following requests from local residents to mitigate the impact of the railway on habitats and its visual impact.
HS2 Ltd stated that 21,300 dwellings could experience a noticeable increase in rail noise and 200 non-residential receptors (community, education, healthcare, and recreational/social facilities) within 300 metres (330 yards) of the preferred route have the potential to experience significant noise impacts. The government has announced that trees planted to create a visual barrier will reduce noise pollution.
HS2 Ltd announced in March 2012 that it would conduct consultations with local people and organisations along the London to West Midlands route through community forums, planning forums and an environment forum. It confirmed that the consultations would be conducted in line with the terms of the Aarhus Convention. HS2 Ltd set up 25 community forums along Phase 1 in March 2012. The forums were intended to allow local authorities, residents associations, special interest groups and environment bodies in each community forum area to engage with HS2 Ltd. Jeremy Wright, Member of Parliament for Kenilworth and Southam stated in his area the community forums were not a success since HS2 had not provided clear details about the project and took up to 18 months to respond to his constituents.
Since the announcement of Phase 1, the government has had plans to create an overall 'Y shaped' line with termini in Manchester and Leeds. Since the intentions to further extend were announced an additional compensation scheme was set up. Consultations with those affected were set up over late 2012 and January 2013, to allow homeowners to express their concerns within their local community.
The results of the consultations are not yet known, but Alison Munro, chief executive of HS2 Ltd, has stated that it is also looking at other options, including property bonds. The statutory blight regime would apply to any route confirmed for a new high-speed line following the public consultations, which took place between 2011 and January 2013.
The revision of the route through South Yorkshire, which replaced the original plans for a station at Meadowhall with a station off the HS2 tracks at Sheffield, was cited as a major reason for the collapse of the Sheffield City Region devolution deal signed in 2015; Sheffield City Council's successful lobbying for a city-centre station in opposition to Barnsley, Doncaster, and Rotherham's preference for the Meadowhall option caused Doncaster and Barnsley councils to seek an all-Yorkshire devolution deal instead.
Before construction could begin on the new Euston station, archaeologists had to remove roughly 40,000 skeletons from the former burial ground of St James's Church which was in use between 1790 and 1853 and lies on the site of the new station. Many of the skeletons were identifiable by surviving lead coffin plates, including the long lost remains of explorer Captain Matthew Flinders, who is to be re-buried in his home town of Donington, Lincolnshire. The rest of the remains are to reburied at Brookwood Cemetery, Surrey. There were also excavations to remove roughly 6,500 skeletons from a burial ground on the site of the new Curzon Street station in Birmingham. Other notable finds in the burials were grave goods such as coins, plates, toys and necklaces as well as evidence of body snatching. Excavations in Birmingham also uncovered the world's oldest railway roundhouse.
In July 2020, archaeological teams announced a number of discoveries near Wendover, Buckinghamshire. The skeleton of an Iron Age man was discovered face down in a ditch with his hands bound together under his pelvis, suggesting that he may be a victim of a murder or execution. Archaeologists also discovered the remains of a Roman person buried in a lead coffin and stated that he may have been someone of high status due to the expensive method of burial. One of the most significant finds was that of a large circular monument of wooden posts 65 metres in diameter with features aligned with the winter solstice, similar to that of Stonehenge in Wiltshire. A golden Stater from the 1st century BC was also discovered with archaeologists stating that it was almost certainly minted in Britain. Medieval graffiti which warded off evil spirits were discovered at the remains of a 12th-century church just a few miles away in Stoke Mandeville.
A scheme has been announced to use the chalk excavated from the Chiltern tunnel to rewild a section of the Colne Valley Western Slopes. The 127 ha (310 acres) scheme will take its inspiration from the Knepp wilding and stretch along the line from the viaduct at Denham Country Park to the Chiltern tunnel's southern portal. The slopes will be seeded with 70 grass and flower species and planted with 32 species of native trees and shrubs. 
- Rail transport in Great Britain
- High Speed 1
- Channel Tunnel
- Department for Transport
- West Coast Main Line
- High-speed rail
- High-speed rail in Europe
- High-speed rail in the United Kingdom
- UK Ultraspeed
- Northern Powerhouse Rail
- High Speed UK
- In British usage, a parkway station is one with car parking, which may be at a distance from the area it serves
- The British Rail Class 373 trains used by Eurostar are an example of a high-speed train that is compatible with French/Belgian high-speed lines and British lines.
- The nearest existing station to the proposed East Midlands Hub, Long Eaton, has a fastest journey to London of 1 hour and 28 minutes.
- High Speed 2's estimates for intercity rail emissions assume a mix of electric and diesel traction on the intercity network, taking into account current electrification plans.
- Trains between Birmingham and Scotland will call alternately at Oxenholme Lake District and Penrith. It has not yet been confirmed which station will be linked with which Scottish destination.
- A reduction of 0:36 when compared to Long Eaton.
- "HS2 Phase One full business case". DfT. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Review of the Technical Specification for High Speed Rail in the UK A report to Government by HS2 Ltd" (PDF). Gov.UK. HS2 Ltd/Department for Transport. January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Oakervee Review". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
original rationale for HS2 – still holds: there is a need for greater capacity (both more trains on tracks and more seats on trains and reliability on the GB rail network)
- Britain's Transport Infrastructure High Speed Two (PDF). DfT. January 2009. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-906581-80-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- "Transport secretary unveils HS2 compensation plan". Railnews. Stevenage. 29 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "London-to-Birmingham high speed train route announced". BBC News. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "'Redrawn' high speed rail plan unveiled". Channel 4 News. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- "High Speed Rail – Oral Answers to Questions – Education – House of Commons debates". 20 December 2010. question to the Minister by Maria Eagle, shadow secretary for Transport, 1st para. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "Britain to have new national high-speed rail network". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Transport Select Committee HS2 Report – House of Commons, November 2011 Archived 9 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 1 July 2012
- "HS2 Hybrid Bill receives Royal Assent". 23 February 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "Oral statement to Parliament, HS2 update: Phase 2a and Phase 2b". GOV.UK. 18 July 2017. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- "Phase 2a Act to bring HS2 to the north". gov.uk. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "Capacity - helping reduce overcrowding". High Speed 2. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- "Upgrading existing railways instead of building HS2 would cause 'absurd disruption' for passengers, Network Rail chief warns". The Independent. 20 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "Government announces independent review into HS2 programme". GOV.UK. Department for Transport. 21 August 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "HS2 independent review: terms of reference". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "HS2 Update:Written statement – HCWS1809". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
- "HS2HS2 Oakervee review delayed until 2020". Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Berkeley, Tony. "A Review of High Speed 2". Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- "PM confirms HS2 will go ahead alongside revolution in local transport". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Corrigan, Phil (11 February 2020). "Stoke-on-Trent WILL get an HS2 link on £100 billion railway". Stoke-on-Trent Live. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Walker, Jonathan (26 February 2020). "New review of HS2 will look at cutting the speed of the trains". Birmingham Mail. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
- "Construction on HS2 can begin, government says". The Guardian. 15 April 2020. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Barkham, Patrick (3 April 2020). "HS2 wood clearance to go ahead as Chris Packham legal bid fails". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Shaw, Neil (8 July 2020). "Chris Packham in Court of Appeal in bid to block HS2". walesonline. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Ibrahim, Magda (28 June 2020). "Springwatch presenter Chris Packham wins right to hearing over HS2". The Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Chris Packham loses appeal against HS2 rail project". The Guardian. 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
- "HS2 route map" (PDF). HS2 Ltd. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- "High Speed Rail – Department for Transport" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- "HS2 tunnel extended under west London to cut chaos". Evening Standard. 23 April 2013. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "Glossary of terms and list of abbreviations". gov.uk. DfT. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "HS2 Phase 2a: economic case – Publications". GOV.UK. 30 November 2015. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- "HS2: North West and Yorkshire routes confirmed". 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018 – via BBC.
- "High Speed Two: From Crewe to Manchester, the West Midlands to Leeds and beyond" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- "Rail leaders respond as HS2 vote passes". www.railtechnologymagazine.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Harrabin, Roger (11 February 2021). "HS2: Next phase of controversial rail network gets green light". BBC News. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Government confirms commitment to Crewe Hub vision". GOV.UK. Department for Transport. 9 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- "High Speed Two: From Crewe to Manchester, the West Midlands to Leeds and beyond" (PDF). GOV.UK. Department for Transport. November 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- "Government confirms provision to join HS2 and Northern Powerhouse Rail for Liverpool City Region – Liverpool BID Company". www.liverpoolbidcompany.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Nick Giesler et al., for Environmental Resources Management (ERM). "HS2 Phase Two Initial Preferred Scheme : Sustainability Summary, section 4.2.13" (PDF). High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Government pledge on Sheffield rail line amid HS2 'funding gap' fear". Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "HS2 phase two initial preferred route plan and profile maps". Transport planning and infrastructure. Department for Transport. January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Proposed high speed rail network North of Birmingham confirmed" (Press release). Department for Transport. 4 October 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "The Yorkshire Hub" (PDF). Department for Transport. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "Counting the real cost of HS2 Meadowhall station plan". The Star. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- "Violent outbursts at Doncaster HS2 meeting". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- "HS2 South Yorkshire route change threatens new estate". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- "Council claim victory over Sheffield HS2 station move". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- "Chesterfield – High Speed 2". Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "HS2 Phase 2b Western Leg". High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd. 7 October 2020. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "HS2 Phase 2b Eastern Leg". High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd. 7 October 2020. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Topham, Gwym (23 February 2016). "Liverpool offers £2bn to be included in HS2 network". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "HS2 could be extended to Liverpool from Manchester under plans being considered by Chris Grayling and Philip Hammond". www.yorkshirepost.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Liverpool needs a new station for high-speed rail, says Steve Rotheram". 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Steve Rotheram Announces Commission to Deliver New Station for Liverpool City Centre | Liverpool City Region Combined Authority – News". Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Plans to build new train station to connect city centre to HS2". Wirral Globe. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- Collins, David (26 May 2019). "Government looking to axe Liverpool's HS2 link". The Sunday Times. ISSN 0956-1382. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "High Speed Two: Phase 2b – Design Refinement Consultation" (PDF). Department for Transport. June 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- Fast Track Scotland: Making the Case for High Speed Rail Connections with Scotland (PDF). Scottish Partnership Group for High Speed Rail. December 2011. p. 10. ISBN 9781908181213. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "HS2 will be the 'Union Railway' of England and Scotland – Adonis". Railnews. 29 September 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "High-speed rail plan for Glasgow to Edinburgh line". BBC News. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "High speed Glasgow-Edinburgh rail link plans 'shelved'". BBC News. 15 January 2016. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Leftly, Mark (24 May 2015). "SNP fury as HS2 finds 'no business case' for taking fast train service to Scotland". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "High speed rail: investing in Britain 's future phase two – the route to Leeds, Manchester and beyond summary" (PDF). DfT. 23 January 2013. pp. 5, 16–17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Dennis, Gareth (25 February 2020). "Is the end already in sight for Britain's tilting trains?". Medium. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- DfT 2009, p. 16 para. 37.
- Savage, Michael (2 February 2010). "Adonis in all-party talks on high-speed rail link". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Conclusions and recommendations – conclusions and the way ahead". UK Parliament. 1 November 2011. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "3. HS1-HS2 Link" (PDF). HS2 London – West Midlands Design Refinement Consultation. Department for Transport. May 2013. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- DfT 2010, p. 9.
- "High Speed Rail: Oral statement by: The Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP". Department for Transport. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010.
- "New High Speed Rail Proposals Unveiled" (Press release). Department for Transport. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
- Arup (20 December 2010). "Review of HS1 to HS2 Connection Final Report" (PDF). Department for Transport. Section 2.1 "Structural modifications" , p.4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011.
- "Plan of the route connecting HS2 to HS1 showing which map covers which area – drawing number HS2-ARP-00-DR-RW-05140" (PDF). Arup/DfT. 5 January 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "HS2's cost to Camden". London Borough of Camden. July 2013. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "HS2 plans 'threaten jobs' in Camden's markets". BBC News. 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "London mayor Boris Johnson calls for tunnel to link HS2 at Euston to St Pancras". Evening Standard. 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "High Speed Rail (London – West Midlands) Bill". Hansard. UK Parliament. 28 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Review of HS2-HS1 connectivity and rail links to the Continent" (PDF). November 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2019.
- "High Speed North – National Infrastructure Commission" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Budget 2016: HS3 and wider M62 announced". BBC News. 16 March 2016. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Progress of High Speed Two examined – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "HS2 needs rethinking, says Lords Committee – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Smale, Katherine (28 June 2019). "HS2 fights for its future". Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- "HS2 Euston station design development released". New Civil Engineer. 20 November 2018. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "Five things we already know about Crossrail 2's Euston-St. Pancras mega-station | CityMetric". www.citymetric.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- DfT 2010, p. 107.
- "Old Oak Strategic Transport Study" (PDF). June 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 February 2020.
- "Planning permission granted for Britain's largest new-build railway station". The Construction Index. 20 May 2020. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- DfT 2010, p. 118.
- "High Speed Two Phase One Information Paper H2: Birmingham Interchange Station" (PDF). gov.uk. High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. 23 February 2017. pp. 3, 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "East Birmingham to Solihull Metro Extension – Midland Metro Alliance". Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- Nielsen, Beverley (29 October 2010). "Up, Up and Away – Birmingham Airport spreads its wings as powerful driver of growth and jobs". Birmingham Post Business Blog. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "3". High Speed Rail: London to the West Midlands and Beyond. A Report to Government by High Speed Two Limited (PDF). p. 117. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
- Ing, Will (23 April 2020). "First HS2 station approved: Grimshaw's Curzon Street plans waved though". Architects Journal. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "The first half of the new concourse at Birmingham New Street station will open on 28 April 2013". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "High Speed Two Information Paper H4: Birmingham Curzon Street Station" (PDF). gov.uk. High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. pp. 4.1 and 6.3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Network Rail. Transforming Birmingham New Street. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2012.[dead link]
- Young, Graham (14 September 2018). "Outrage at demolition of landmark city centre pub". Birmingham Mail. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "Birmingham Eastside Metro Extension – Midland Metro Alliance". Archived from the original on 6 September 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- Walker, Jonathan (16 March 2010). "Birmingham City University wants £30m refund after high speed rail hits campus plan". Birmingham Post. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- DfT 2010, p. 115.
- Ikon Gallery. Curzon Square – A vision for Birminghams New Museum Quarter (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "HS2 begins search for contractors to build Curzon Street station". Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- "Notice of land preparation works – Curzon Street Station site". Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Millward, David (6 January 2013). "HS2 route: Manchester and Liverpool win while Sheffield loses out". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Stoke-on-Trent 'ignored' under HS2 rail route plans". BBC News. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Route section HSM09 plan and profile sheet 2 of 2 – drawing number HS2-MSG-WCM-ZZ-DT-RT-60902" (PDF). HS2 phase two initial preferred route plan and profile maps. Department for Transport. January 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "UPDATE: HS2 in Crewe by 2027 – chairman backs Crewe hub station plan (From Crewe Guardian)". Creweguardian.co.uk. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "HS2 Birmingham to Crewe link planned to open six years early". BBC News. 30 November 2015. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Route section HSM28 plan and profile sheet 5 of 9 – drawing number HS2-MSG-MA0-ZZ-DR-RT-52805" (PDF). HS2 phase two initial preferred route plan and profile maps. Department for Transport. January 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Council chiefs lobby ministers for TWO high speed rail stations". Manchester Evening News. 22 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Manchester Airport may be high-speed rail network hub". Manchester Evening News. 13 March 2011. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "High Speed Two Phase 2b Crewe to Manchester Route Engineering Report: 4.2 Manchester Airport High Speed Station" (PDF). Dft/High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. July 2017. p. 53. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Manchester Airport High Speed Station" (PDF). UK Government website. High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Department for Transport (2013). High Speed Rail: Investing in Britain's Future – Phase Two, the Route to Leeds, Manchester and Beyond. The Stationery Office. p. 38. ISBN 9780101850827. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- "Hopes for 'western loop' tram line". BBC News. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Cox, Charlotte (19 March 2018). "This is how Manchester Airport's HS2 station could look". men. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Arnett, George (17 March 2014). "How will HS2 change journey times to and from London?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- HS2 workers face jobs cuts amid doubts over project’s future Archived 28 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine Financial Times
- Transport Committee chair slams HS2 bill delay Archived 3 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine New Civil Engineer
- ['YOU must support HS2 or it won't happen' - Council and business leaders urge parties to back high speed line across Staffordshire] Stoke on Trent Live
- HS2 work has finally started - but doubts grow over when it will finish Archived 2 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Telegraph
- Transport minister ‘expects’ HS2 northern section to be built in full at the same time Archived 29 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine New Civil Engineer
- High Speed Rail Bill Archived 3 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine Hansard House of Lords
- Walker, Jonathan (20 March 2021). "Grant Shapps says eastern leg of HS2 high speed rail line will be built". BirminghamLive. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- "Options for Phase 2 of the High Speed rail network". 28 January 2013. p. 96. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- "HS2 to enter Manchester via tunnel under city". BBC News. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- HS2 Drawings for Greater Manchester Tunnel HS2-MSG-MA0-ZZ-DR-RT-52805 Archived 6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine and HS2-MSG-MA0-ZZ-DR-RT-52809 Archived 6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Options for Phase Two" (PDF). 28 January 2013. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "HS2 Cost and Risk – Infrastructure rate comparison" (PDF). 28 January 2013. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Options for Phase 2 of the High Speed rail network". 28 January 2013. p. 110. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- "Options for High Speed Two Phase 2" (PDF). 28 January 2013. p. 120. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "Options for Phase 2 of the High Speed rail network". 28 January 2013. p. 120. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- "New 'parkway' station could be built in East Midlands". Nottingham Evening Post. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Tram route could link Derby and Nottingham in ambitious new plans". derbytelegraph. 27 March 2019. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "HS2 South Yorkshire route change threatens new estate – BBC News". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- "HS2: Spur to take high-speed trains into Sheffield – but Yorkshire faces long wait until 2033". Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Burn, Chris (29 November 2017). "HS2 boss: South Yorkshire politicians must decide 'M18 route' parkway station location". Yorkshire Post. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- "HS2 rail project work begins with pledge of 22,000 jobs". BBC News. 4 September 2020. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- Simpson, Jack (19 July 2018). "HS2 civils start delayed another three months". Construction News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- "First look at HS2's Euston tunnel portal site". High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. 4 October 2018. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- "Euston Station Throat (C221-MMD-CV-DPP-010-200500-FPD)" (PDF). gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- "Euston HS2 works ramp up with towers demolition". 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "Construction preparation for HS2 Euston station reaches milestone". Global Railway Review. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- Sapién, Josephine Cordero (26 June 2020). "HS2 Euston Station Demolition Milestone Reached". Railway-News. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "Progress at Chiltern tunnel site as HS2 prepares for arrival of first tunnelling machines". Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "HS2 Casts First of 112,000 Chiltern Tunnel Wall Segments". Railway-News. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- Taylor, Diane (7 January 2020). "HS2 begins evicting activists from protest site after two years". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Taylor, Diane (18 July 2019). "Case against HS2 environmental protesters collapses". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "HS2 protesters block sites and call for money to go to NHS". The Guardian. P. A. Media. 4 May 2020. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Taylor, Diane (20 June 2020). "Anti-HS2 protesters begin 125-mile walk along proposed route". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Dean, Sam (6 March 2020). "HS2 protesters setup camp in Roald Dahl wood near Aylesbury". Bucks Herald. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Humphries, Will (8 October 2020). "Swampy is last man standing at HS2 camp". The Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
- "HS2 protesters dig tunnel to thwart Euston eviction". BBC News. 26 January 2021. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- "HS2 protesters dig 100ft tunnel under London park". The Guardian. 27 January 2021. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- "HS2 construction workers attacked by 30-strong mob". Construction Enquirer News. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- "High Speed Two From Concept to Reality July 2017" (PDF). GOV.UK. Department for Transport. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Full Business Case: High Speed 2 Phase One" (PDF). Department for Transport. 15 April 2020. pp. 132–133. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "West Coast Mainline and HS2 franchise race started". New Civil Engineer. 29 March 2018. Archived from the original on 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "New West Coast rail franchise to run HS2 services". BBC News: Business. 4 November 2016. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- West Coast Partnership: stakeholder briefing document Archived 30 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Department for Transport 27 March 2018
- McArdle, Helen (25 October 2016). "West Coast franchise winner 'will run first HS2 trains'". The Herald, Scotland. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "High-speed rail's long journey". 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "HS2 tickets could cost as little as five pounds". 20 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- McCann, Kate. "HS2 should be renamed 'Grand Union Railway'". Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Competition is key as high speed rail keeps growing". Railway Gazette. DVV Media International Ltd. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- DfT 2010, p. 130.
- "HS2 – The story so far". 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- DfT 2010, p. 127 s.8.4.
- HS2 Report 2010, p. 40–41 Chapter 2, section 2.3.11.
- DfT 2010, p. 127.
- DfT 2010, p. 129.
- "About High Speed Rail". High Speed 2 Ltd. Table 3. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "High Speed 2 Railway Line:Written question – HL3980". Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
- Train Technical Specification (PDF). HS2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- "Contract opportunities". High Speed 2. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- "Supplies – 151144-2017 – TED Tenders Electronic Daily". ted.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- "High Speed 2 rolling stock bids submitted". Railway Gazette International. 5 June 2019. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- dpa (29 January 2021). "Alstom schließt Megafusion mit Bombardier-Zugsparte ab". onvista.de.
- "HS2 Cost and Risk Model Report" (PDF). p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "HS2 trains will never be late, claims boss". www.expressandstar.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "Tilting trains could run from HS2 onto the rest of the rail network". www.imeche.org. Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018. Cite uses generic title (help)
- HS2 Ltd. "HS2 Cost and Risk Model Report" (PDF). p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Rolling Stock Maintenance Depot (Washwood Heath Depot)". hs2inbirmingham.commonplace.is. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- "HS2 depot to be located in Leeds". BBC News. 4 July 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- "HS2 eastern leg rolling stock depot confirmed for Leeds". Rail Technology Magazine. 4 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "HS2's journey north accelerates as public consultation opens on latest proposals". Rail Business Daily. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- HS2 Phase One Environmental Statement – Non-technical summary (PDF) (Report). DfT. November 2013. pp. 20, 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- "High Speed Rail (Crewe to Manchester and West Midlands to Leeds) Working Draft Environmental Statement Non-technical Summary" (PDF). gov.uk. DfT. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- Train times Archived 12 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine – East Midlands Railway
- HS2 Phase 1 Environmental Statement Non-technical summary (PDF) (Report). Department for Transport. November 2013. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Our story and key facts" (PDF). High Speed Two Ltd. August 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
- "High Speed Two (HS2) Phase Two" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "HS2 Journey Planner". High Speed 2. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- "High-speed rail plans announced". BBC News. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- High Speed Two (HS2) Limited (March 2012). "HS2 Cost and Risk Model Report: A report to Government by HS2 Ltd" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2020.
- "HS2 Phase Two Manchester Airport High Speed station factsheet" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Topham, Gwyn (26 June 2013). "Cost of HS2 up £10bn to £42.6bn, transport secretary tells MPs". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Pickard Jim (1 July 2013). "Growth of handheld computers hits economic argument for HS2". Financial Times. London. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "House of Lords – The Economics of High Speed 2 – Economic Affairs Committee". publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "House of Lords – The Economics of High Speed 2 – Economic Affairs Committee". publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- [permanent dead link]
- Mark Leftly. "Top UK civil servant reviews HS2 project | UK news". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- Andrew Gilligan, London Editor (14 May 2016). "HS2 may not even reach Manchester as Department for Transport faces having project taken out of its control". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
- Transport Correspondent, Graeme Paton (19 October 2018). "HS2 set to cost 25% more than overseas rail schemes". Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018 – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
- Paton, Graeme (4 November 2020). "HS2 'on track to cost taxpayer £170bn'". The Times. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
- Horgan, Rob (5 November 2020). "HS2 | DfT slams review deputy's £170bn cost estimate as 'baseless' and 'false'". New Civil Engineer. Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Topham, Gwyn (23 February 2016). "Liverpool offers £2 billion to be included in HS2 network". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- News (15 July 2015). "HS2 secures EU funding". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Delivering a Sustainable Transport System (DaSTS)" (PDF). Department for Transport. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2008.
- DfT 2009, p. 12 para. 31.
- "GB rail: dataset on financial and operational performance 1997–98 – 2012–13" (PDF). Association of Train Operating Companies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- DfT 2009, p. 5 para. 6.
- DfT 2009, p. 12 para. 34.
- "HS2 isn't about reducing CO2 or the North–South divide, says DfT". TransportXtra. London. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- DfT 2009, p. 4 para. 5.
- DfT 2009, p. 17 para. 41.
- DfT 2009, p. 18 para. 43.
- DfT 2009, p. 16 para. 36.
- Sholli, Sam (31 October 2019). "General election: Where parties stand on HS2, Heathrow and net zero goal". New Civil Engineer. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "The Coalition: our programme for government" (PDF). HM Government. May 2010. p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2011.
- Devereux, Nigel (2 November 2019). "Leaked draft confirms Oakervee support for full HS2 route". The Railway Hub. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "UKIP set to make HS2 an issue in local elections". Rail News. 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Reporters, Telegraph (9 December 2019). "Brexit Party manifesto 2019: key policies, at a glance". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 30 December 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Jenkins, Simon (7 June 2016). "HS2: the zombie train that refuses to die | Simon Jenkins". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Bamford, Thomas (21 October 2019). "Dame Cheryl Gillan MP visits Great Missenden HS2 protesters". Bucks Herald. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Watts, Joseph (4 July 2016). "Liam Fox will 'scrap HS2' if he becomes PM". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Wolmar, Christian (16 April 2014). "What's the point of HS2?". London Review of Books. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Stretton, Rachel (20 June 2020). "Extinction Rebellion on 125-mile 'Rebel Trail' protest". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Drury, Colin (15 January 2020). "HS2 will destroy ancient woodlands and 'huge swathes of irreplaceable' wildlife, report warns". The Independent. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Walker, Peter (11 March 2010). "Beauty of Chilterns may be put at risk by fast rail link, say critics". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Historic environment Map 6: The Lee – Kingsash" (PDF). High Speed 2 – Impact on the Chilterns. Chilterns AONB. Retrieved 10 January 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Milmo, Dan (7 January 2011). "High-speed rail route to get 2m trees for shelter". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "High Speed 2". Chilterns Conservation Board. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "West Midlands Map 4" (PDF). High Speed 2. Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- "Park Hall". Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country. Retrieved 18 March 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Appraisal of Sustainability: A Report for HS2 Non Technical Summary" (PDF). Department for Transport. December 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2012.
- HS2 Phase One Environmental Statement Non-technical summary (PDF). Department for Transport. November 2013. p. 45. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- High Speed 2(2010), page 118.
- "EHS Phase Two". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Phase 2a – Take action now". Woodland Trust. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "Ancient woodland, ancient trees and veteran trees: protecting them from development". gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- "Protection of Ancient Woodland and Trees". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 603. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 10 December 2015. col. 414WH–442WH. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- [dead link]Archived 24 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine/
- "HS2 could threaten irreplaceable natural habitats, report warns". BBC News. 15 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020.
- "HS2 launches plans for unprecedented 'green corridor' stretching alongside the railway". Gov.uk. 25 June 2018. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- BAH 2007.
- BAH 2007, p. 6, s.1.20.
- "The Eddington Transport Study, The case for action: Sir Rod Eddington's advice to Government" (PDF). December 2006. Figure 15: The case for new very High Speed Lines (HSLs) p.49 (also p.33). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011.
- "Delivering a Sustainable Railway" (PDF). Department for Transport. July 2007. Section 6.14 – 6.17, pp.62–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2010.
- DfT 2010, p. 53, s.2.57.
- "HIGH SPEED TWO PHASE ONE INFORMATION PAPER: E10 CARBON" (PDF). gov.uk. 23 February 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2019.
- High Speed Rail: Consultation & Engagement HS2 Ltd Archived 18 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 1 July 2012
- "HS2 Consultation & Engagement". High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "High Speed Rail: Investing in Britain's Future – Community forums". Department for Transport]. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Wright, Jeremy. "Follow-up inquiry on PHSO investigation into HS2 complaints". Jeremy Wright MP. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Property and Compensation Consultation". High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013.
- "Property and compensation scheme consultation schedule" (Press release). High Speed Two (HS2) Limited. 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013.
- "High Speed Rail". Civic Voice. n.d. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- Philip Hammond, Secretary of State for Transport (28 June 2010). "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 28 Jun 2010 (pt 0003)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. col. 364W. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- Burn, Chris (21 September 2017). "How HS2 Sheffield Station saga helped derail devolution hopes". Yorkshire Post. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Sir Steve Houghton: Snubbing devolution in Sheffield City Region was not revenge for HS2". The Star. Sheffield. 11 December 2017. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- "St. James Gardens - A Casualty Of HS2". A London Inheritance. 6 August 2017. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Remains of Captain Matthew Flinders discovered at HS2 site in Euston". UK Government. 25 January 2019. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Katy.Kay (17 September 2020). "London's deceased from Euston's St James's Gardens to be reburied at Brookwood Cemetery". www.woking.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Balloo, Stephanie (23 September 2020). "'HS2 – The Biggest Dig' reveals how 6,500 skeletons were found in Brum". BirminghamLive. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Curzon Street station archaeology". High Speed 2. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Wellwick Farm archaeology". High Speed 2. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "Skeleton of 'murdered' Iron Age man found during HS2 works in Buckinghamshire". Sky News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "HS2: Medieval graffiti to 'ward off evil spirits' found". BBC News. 21 October 2020. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "HS2 dig finds 16th Century gardens in Warwickshire". BBC News. 28 January 2021. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- Barkham, Patrick (3 March 2021). "HS2 to 'rewild' 127 hectares around its 10-mile Chilterns tunnel". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- Booz Allen Hamilton (2007). "Estimated Carbon Impact of a New North South Line" (PDF). Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2010.
- Atkins (2009). "High Speed Line Study: Summary Report" (PDF). Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- DfT (2009): Britains Transport Infrastructure High Speed Two (PDF). Department for Transport. 2009. ISBN 978-1-906581-80-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- DfT (2010): Department for Transport (11 March 2010). High Speed Rail – Command Paper (PDF). The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-10-178272-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- HS2 (2010): High Speed Two (HS2) Limited (11 March 2010). "High Speed Rail London to the West Midlands and Beyond: A Report to Government by High Speed Two Limited". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2010.Additional archives: 13 May 2010.
- HS2 Phase One (2012 Maps): High Speed Two (HS2) Limited (10 January 2012). "HS2 revised line of route maps". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- HS2 Phase Two (2013 Maps): High Speed Two (HS2) Limited (28 January 2013). "HS2 Phase Two initial preferred route plan and profile maps". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to High Speed 2.|
- Official website
- High Speed 2 Limited (11 March 2010). "High Speed Rail London to the West Midlands and Beyond: A Report to Government by High Speed Two Limited". Department for Transport – via The National Archives.
- HS2 maps