The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards the United States. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm or small arm). Gun-related violence may or may not be considered criminal. Criminal violence includes homicide (except when and where ruled justifiable), assault with a deadly weapon, and suicide, or attempted suicide, depending on jurisdiction. Non-criminal violence includes accidental or unintentional injury and death (except perhaps in cases of criminal negligence). Also generally included in gun violence statistics are military or para-military activities.
According to GunPolicy.org, 75 percent of the world's 875 million guns are civilian controlled. Roughly half of these guns (48 percent) are in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun ownership in the world. Globally, millions are wounded or killed by the use of guns. Assault by firearm resulted in 180,000 deaths in 2013 up from 128,000 deaths in 1990. There were additionally 47,000 unintentional firearm-related deaths in 2013.
Levels of gun-related violence vary greatly among geographical regions, countries, and even subnationally. Rates of violent deaths by firearm range from as low as 0.03 and 0.04 per 100,000 population in Singapore and Japan, to 59 and 67 per 100,000 in Honduras and Venezuela. The highest rates of violent deaths by firearm in the world occur in low-income South and Central American countries such as Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Jamaica.
The United States has the 11th highest rate of gun violence in the world and by far the highest of any large or highly developed nation. The United States has a gun homicide rate which is 25 times higher, an unintentional gun death rate which is 6 times higher, a firearm suicide rate which is 8 times higher, and an overall firearm death rate which is 10 times higher than the average respective rates of other high income nations. The United States has a total rate of firearms death which is 50–100 times greater than that of many similarly wealthy nations with strict gun control laws, such as Japan, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. According to nearly all studies, the high rate of gun violence in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun-related deaths per capita among developed countries:29 despite having the highest per capita rate of police officers, is attributable to its extreme rate of gun ownership, and it is in fact the only nation with more guns than people. Nearly all studies have found a positive correlation between gun ownership and gun-related homicide and suicide rates.
According to the United Nations, deaths from small firearms exceed those from all other weapons combined, and more people die each year from gun-related violence than did in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. The global death toll from use of guns may be as high as 1,000 dead each day.
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A number of ideas have been proposed on how to lessen the incidence of gun-related violence.
Some propose keeping a gun at home to keep one safer. Studies show that guns in the home is associated with an increased risk of violent death in the home. According to the FBI, gun-related violence is linked to gun ownership and is not a function or byproduct of crime. Their study indicates that more than 90% of gun-related deaths were not part of a commission of a crime, rather they were directly related to gun ownership. Mother Jones reports that "[a] Philadelphia study found that the odds of an assault victim being shot were 4.5 times greater if he carried a gun" and that "[h]is odds of being killed were 4.2 times greater" when armed. Others propose arming civilians to counter mass shootings. FBI research shows that between 2000 and 2013, "In 5 incidents (3.1%), the shooting ended after armed individuals who were not law enforcement personnel exchanged gunfire with the shooters." Another proposal is to expand self defense laws for cases where a person is being aggressed upon, although "those policies have been linked to a 7 to 10% increase in homicides" (that is, shootings where self-defense cannot be claimed). While the CDC has been studying on possible methods of preventing gun violence, they have not come to many conclusions on good gun violence prevention.
Psychiatry is another method seen to help with gun control, It can be used to see the possibility that someone may commit these violent acts. However, it is not a foolproof prevention method that stops gun violence. It is a method that can prevent huge danger warnings from getting access to firearms, but those who have mental illnesses that aren't as dangerous, but the people are dangerous, can slip by undetected.
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
There is a strong relationship between guns in the home, as well as access to guns more generally, and suicide risk, the evidence for which is strongest in the United States. In 2017, almost half of the nation's 47,173 suicides involved a firearm. A 1992 case-control study conducted in Tennessee and Washington found that individuals in a firearm owning home are close to five times more likely to commit suicide than those individuals who do not own firearms. A 2002 study found that access to guns in the home was associated with an increased risk of suicide among middle-aged and older adults, even after controlling for psychiatric illness. As of 2008, there were 12 case-control studies that had been conducted in the U.S., all of which had found that guns in the home were associated with an increased risk of suicide. However, a 1996 New Zealand study found no significant relationship between household guns and suicide. Assessing data from 14 developed countries where gun ownership levels were known, the Harvard Injury Control Research Center found statistically significant correlations between those levels and suicide rates. However, the parallels were lost when data from additional nations was included.:30 A 2006 study found a significant effect of changes in gun ownership rates on gun suicide rates in multiple Western countries. During the 1980s and 1990s, the rate of adolescent suicides with guns caught up with adult rates, and the 75-and-older rate rose above all others.:20–21 A 2002 study found that 90% of suicide attempts with firearms were successful.
The use of firearms in suicides ranges from less than 10 percent in Australia to 50 percent in the United States, where it is the most common method and where suicides outnumber homicides 2-to-1. Those who purchased a firearm were found to be high risk for suicide within a week of the purchase. The United States has both the highest number of Suicides and Gun ownerships for a developed country and firearms are the most popular method to commit suicide. In the United States when Gun ownerships rise so, too, does suicide by firearm. Suicide can be an impulsive act, 40% of those who survived a suicide attempt said that they only considered suicide up to five minutes before attempting the act. This impulsivity can lead to the use of a firearm as it is seen as a quick and lethal method.
According to U.S. criminologist Gary Kleck, studies that try to link gun ownership to victimology often fail to account for the presence of guns owned by other people. Research by economists John Lott of the U.S. and John Whitley of Australia indicates that safe-storage laws do not appear to affect juvenile accidental gun-related deaths or suicides. In contrast, a 2004 study led by Daniel Webster found that such laws were associated with slight reductions in suicide rates among children. The same study criticized Lott and Whitley's study on the subject for inappropriately using a Tobit model. A committee of the U.S. National Research Council said ecological studies on violence and firearms ownership provide contradictory evidence. The committee wrote: "[Existing] research studies and data include a wealth of descriptive information on homicide, suicide, and firearms, but, because of the limitations of existing data and methods, do not credibly demonstrate a causal relationship between the ownership of firearms and the causes or prevention of criminal violence or suicide."
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) defines intentional homicide as "acts in which the perpetrator intended to cause death or serious injury by his or her actions." This excludes deaths: related to conflicts (war); caused by recklessness or negligence; or justifiable, such as in self-defense or by law enforcement in the line of duty. A 2009 report by the Geneva Declaration using UNODC data showed that worldwide firearms were used in an average of 60 percent of all homicides.:67 In the U.S. in 2011, 67 percent of homicide victims were killed by a firearm: 66 percent of single-victim homicides and 79 percent of multiple-victim homicides. In 2009, the United States' homicide rate was reported to be 5.0 per 100,000. A 2016 Harvard study claims that in 2010 the homicide rate was about 7 times higher than that of other high-income countries, and that the US gun homicide rate was 25.2 times higher. Another Harvard study found that higher gun availability was strongly correlated with higher homicide rates across 26 high-income countries. Access to guns is associated with an increased risk of being the victim of homicide. Access to firearms is not the sole contributor to increased homicide rates, however, as one study by the Southern Criminal Justice Association in 2011 found. Equally important seems to be the particular societal conditions in a given area, socio-culturally. These conditions include, but are not limited to societal age structure, economic inequality, cultural symbolism associated with firearms and the cultural value of individual life. A 2001 study examing gun ownership amongst 21 high-income countries found that gun ownership by country was correlated with female firearm homicide rates, but not male firearm and overall homicide rates.
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
Some gun control advocates say that the strongest evidence linking availability of guns to death and injury is found in domestic violence studies, often referring to those by public health policy analyst Arthur Kellermann. In response to suggestions by some that homeowners would be wise to acquire firearms for protection from home invasions, Kellermann investigated in-home homicides in three cities over five years. He found that the risk of a homicide was in fact slightly higher in homes where a handgun was present. The data showed that the risk of a crime of passion or other domestic dispute ending in a fatal injury was higher when a gun was readily available (essentially loaded and unlocked) compared to when no gun was readily available. Kellerman said this increase in mortality overshadowed any protection a gun might have deterring or defending against burglaries or invasions. He also concluded that further research of domestic violence causes and prevention are needed.
Critics of Kellermann's study say that it is more directly a study of domestic violence than of gun ownership. Gary Kleck and others dispute the work. Kleck says that few of the homicides that Kellermann studied were committed with guns belonging to the victim or members of his or her household, and that it was implausible that victim household gun ownership contributed to their homicide. Instead, according to Kleck, the association that Kellermann found between gun ownership and victimization reflected that people who live in more dangerous circumstances are more likely to be murdered, but also were more likely to have acquired guns for self-protection.
In studies of nonfatal gun use, it was found that guns can contribute to coercive control, which can then escalate into chronic and more severe violence. Guns can have a negative impact on victims even without being discharged. Threats of gun use or showing a weapon can create damaging and long-lasting fear and emotional stress in victims because they are aware of the danger of having an abuser who has access to a gun.
Robbery and assault
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines robbery as the theft of property by force or threat of force. Assault is defined as a physical attack against the body of another person resulting in serious bodily injury. In the case of gun-related violence, the definitions become more specific and include only robbery and assault committed with the use of a firearm. Firearms are used in this threatening capacity four to six times more than firearms used as a means of protection in fighting crime. Hemenway's figures are disputed by other academics, who assert there are many more defensive uses of firearms than criminal uses. See John Lott's "More Guns, Less Crime".
In the 18th century, the United States police force was created to capture runaway slaves and stop Black people from seeking freedom in the Northern United States. Its purpose was to protect white wealth at the expense of Black people, immigrants, and other minorities. Slave patrols evolved into modern police departments. During the civil rights movement, police took on the role as suppressors of this progressive revolution against the law. While Black Americans protested police abuse and racial profiling with riots, boycotts, and peaceful protests the police responded with violence and used tear gas, high pressure hoses, and attack dogs against protestors.
Black people have been 28% of those killed by police since 2013 despite being only 13% of the population. Over the years, countless Black people have been murdered by police, proving that the system is corrupt and in desperate need of reform.
Accidental firearm deaths
From 1979 to 1997, almost 30,000 people in the United States alone died from accidental firearm injuries. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occurred in parts of the United States where firearms are more prevalent. Following the Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting, accidental firearm deaths increased by about five hundred percent until April 2013.
Gun violence has many different psychological and external causes that can be attributed to it.
While only about 1 percent of court cases relating to gun violence end in "not guilty by insanity", about 28 percent of people who commit gun violence are found to have some form of mental illness.
External causes that create gun violence are much more prevalent than the mental illnesses, as many of them create "heat of the moment" killings, which make up almost 85% of all gun violence acts. These causes, which tend to be created by other people, such as friends, relatives, acquaintances, and enemies, are much more likely to occur than a random spur of the moment killing. Loner gunmen also have some external motivations as well, as a lack of a social circle may have left them resentful and angry and likely to become dangerous to those around them.
The economic cost of gun-related violence in the United States is $229 billion a year,[qualify evidence] meaning a single murder has average direct costs of almost $450,000, from the police and ambulance at the scene, to the hospital, courts, and prison for the murderer. A 2014 study found that from 2006 to 2010, gun-related injuries in the United States cost $88 billion.
Emergency medical care is a major contributor to the monetary costs of such violence. It was determined in a study that for every firearm death in the United States for the year beginning 1 June 1992, an average of three firearm-related injuries were treated in hospital emergency departments.
Children exposed to gun-related violence, whether they are victims, perpetrators, or witnesses, can experience negative psychological effects over the short and long terms. Psychological trauma also is common among children who are exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or through the media. Psychologist James Garbarino, who studies children in the U.S. and internationally, found that individuals who experience violence are prone to mental and other health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep deprivation. These problems increase for those who experience violence as children. It is conceivable that over a longer period, physical and emotional sequelae of mass shootings may lead to an array of symptoms and disability among affected individuals and communities who will likely experience lifelong consequences by carrying long-term memories of devastation, violence, injuries, and deaths.
The Port Arthur massacre of 1996 horrified the Australian public. The gunman opened fire on shop owners and tourists, killing 35 people and wounding 23. This massacre, kick started Australia's laws against guns. The Prime Minister at that time, John Howard, proposed a gun law that prevented the public from having all semi-automatic rifles, all semi-automatic and pump-action shotguns, in addition to a tightly restrictive system of licensing and ownership controls.
The government also bought back guns from people. In 1996–2003 it was estimated they bought back and destroyed nearly 1 million firearms. By the end of 1996, whilst Australia was still reeling from the Port Arthur massacre, the gun law was fully in place. Since then, the number of deaths related to gun-related violence dwindled almost every year. In 1979 six hundred and eighty-five people died due to gun violence, and in 1996 it was five hundred and sixteen. The numbers continue to drop, however they were declining also before the gun law was in place.
On the Australia's most mediated gun violence-related incident since Port Arthur, was the 2014 Sydney Hostage Crisis. On 15–16 December 2014, a lone gunman, Man Haron Monis, held hostage 17 customers and employees of a Lindt chocolate café. The perpetrator was on bail at the time, and had previously been convicted of a range of offences.
The following year in August, the New South Wales Government tightened the laws of bail and illegal firearms, creating a new offence for the possession of a stolen firearm, with a maximum of 14 years imprisonment.
Gun violence in Sweden
Gun violence in Sweden (Swedish: skjutningar or gängskjutningar) increased steeply among males aged 15 to 29 in the two decades prior to 2018, in addition to a rising trend in gun violence there was also a high rate of gun violence in Sweden compared to other countries in Western Europe.
|Number of gun homicides in Sweden 2006–2017|
|Source: Police in Sweden|
|Number of shooting incidents with wounded 2010–2015|
|Per city in the Nordic Countries, source NRK.|
According to a report published by academic researchers in 2017, shooting incidents with fatal outcomes are about 4 to 5 times as common in Sweden compared to neighbouring countries such as Germany and Norway when taking population size into account. The city with the highest prevalence of shootings was Malmö. The grave violence in the studied period also changed character, from criminal motorcycle gangs to city suburbs. Sweden also stands out in having a low resolution rate (25%) for gun homicides compared to Germany and Finland at 90%.
In January 2018, police statistics reported an increase in gun homicides from 8 in 2006 to 43 in 2017. Analysis of 2011–2017 gang warfare showed that there were 1500 incidents involving firearms, 131 people had been killed and 520 injured.
In February 2018, criminologist Jerzy Sarnecki stated in an interview with magazine Forskning & Framsteg that the increasing levels of gun crime in Sweden had taken him, Swedish criminologists in general and police in Sweden by surprise. He characterised the recent developments as "very serious".
A 2018 systematic review of 25 studies on firearm violence in Sweden by criminologist and physician Ardavan Khoshnood, concluded "that even though knives/sharp weapons continue to be the most common MO in a violent crime in Sweden, firearm-related violence is significantly increasing in the country and foremost when discussing gang-related crimes. Moreover, firearm-related homicides and attempted homicides are increasing in the country. The studies also show that a firearm is much more lethal than a knife/sharp weapon... It is principally the three largest cities of Sweden which are affected by the many shootings in recent years."
According to researcher Amir Rostami at Stockholm University, police statistics for January–November 2018 showed that the number of shootings was at a continued high rate at 274, where up until the end of November 42 people had been shot and killed and 129 wounded compared to 43 in 2017. Rostami also said there had been 100 hand grenade attacks and 1500 shootings in Sweden since 2011, about 40 people are killed annually and 500 had been wounded. Rostami also said that if this violence had been attributed to some form of extremists, this would have considered a form of civil war. Almost half (46%) of all shootings in 2018 happened in public spaces in vulnerable areas. Both victims and perpetrators are becoming younger.
In 2020 there were 366 incidents of shootings in Sweden where 47 people were killed and 117 were wounded, which represented a 10% increase on the previous year. About half the shooting resulting in killings took place in so-called vulnerable areas and represented an increase on the preceding year.
According to police in 2018, at least nine people who were innocent bystanders had been killed in cross-fire incidents in the last few years and the risk to the public was therefore rising.
In the 2011-2020 period 46 bystanders had been killed or wounded in 36 shooting incidents. Of these, 8 were under the age of 15. According to researcher Joakim Skurup, a contributing factor could be the increased use of automatic firearms.
Gun violence in the United States results in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries annually. In 2013, there were 73,505 nonfatal firearm injuries (23.2 injuries per 100,000 U.S. citizens), and 33,636 deaths due to "injury by firearms" (10.6 deaths per 100,000 U.S. citizens). These deaths consisted of 11,208 homicides, 21,175 suicides, 505 deaths due to accidental or negligent discharge of a firearm, and 281 deaths due to firearms use with "undetermined intent". Of the 2,596,993 total deaths in the US in 2013, 1.3% were related to firearms. The ownership and control of guns are among the most widely debated issues in the country.
In 2010, 67% of all homicides in the U.S. were committed using a firearm. In 2012, there were 8,855 total firearm-related homicides in the US, with 6,371 of those attributed to handguns. In 2012, 64% of all gun-related deaths in the U.S. were suicides. In 2010, there were 19,392 firearm-related suicides, and 11,078 firearm-related homicides in the U.S. In 2010, 358 murders were reported involving a rifle while 6,009 were reported involving a handgun; another 1,939 were reported with an unspecified type of firearm.
Firearms were used to kill 13,286 people in the U.S. in 2015, excluding suicide. Approximately 1.4 million people have been killed using firearms in the U.S. between 1968 and 2011, equivalent to a top 10th largest U.S. city in 2016, falling between the populations of San Antonio and Dallas, Texas.
Compared to 22 other high-income nations, the U.S. gun-related murder rate is 25 times higher. Although it has half the population of the other 22 nations combined, the U.S. had 82 percent of all gun deaths, 90 percent of all women killed with guns, 91 percent of children under 14 and 92 percent of young people between ages 15 and 24 killed with guns. In 2010, gun violence cost U.S. taxpayers approximately $516 million in direct hospital costs.
Gun violence is most common in poor urban areas and frequently associated with gang violence, often involving male juveniles or young adult males. Although mass shootings have been covered extensively in the media, mass shootings in the US account for a small fraction of gun-related deaths and the frequency of these events steadily declined between 1994 and 2007, rising between 2007 and 2013.
Legislation at the federal, state, and local levels has attempted to address gun violence through a variety of methods, including restricting firearms purchases by youths and other "at-risk" populations, setting waiting periods for firearm purchases, establishing gun buyback programs, law enforcement and policing strategies, stiff sentencing of gun law violators, education programs for parents and children, and community-outreach programs. Despite widespread concern about the impacts of gun violence on public health, Congress has prohibited the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from conducting research that advocates in favor of gun control. The CDC has interpreted this ban to extend to all research on gun violence prevention, and so has not funded any research on this subject since 1996. However the 'Dickey' amendment only restricts the CDC advocating for gun control with government funds. It does not restrict research into gun violence and the causal links between the gun and the violence, however funding has not yet been yet been granted for that purpose, i.e. epidemiology, the CDC requires congressional approval to proceed.
Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting
On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed his mother at her home and then drove to Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting where he killed 20 children and six adult staff. Adam committed suicide as police arrived at the school. Lanza suffered from severe mental health issues which were not adequately treated. The event reignited a debate regarding access to firearms by people with mental illness and gun laws in the United States.
In 2009 more than 1,100 were killed.
In 2012, a Turkish parliament document stated that 85% of the guns in the country were unregistered.
In 2013 more than 1,800 were killed.
In 2015, more than 1,900 people were killed and 1,200 people were injured from guns.
In 2017, more than 2,100 people were killed and 3,500 people were injured.
In 2020 more than 2,000 people were killed and more than 3,600 were injured, although there were curfews in the country due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The five cities with the most incidents were Istanbul]], Samsun, Adana, İzmir and Bursa. The chairman of the Umut Foundation NGO said that there were 18 million unregistered guns which is 89% of the guns in the country.
- Armed violence reduction
- List of countries by firearm-related death rate
- Global gun cultures
- Gunfire locator
- Gun violence in the United States
- Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 266–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. (Table 4). (PDF).
- Alpers, Philip; Wilson, Marcus (2013). "Global Impact of Gun Violence". gunpolicy.org. Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Kara Fox, CNN Graphics by Henrik Pettersson. "America's gun culture vs. the world". CNN.
- GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
- "Global Study on Homicide 2011". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Countries With The Highest Rates Of Firearm Related Deaths". WorldAtlas.
- Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 1, 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 266–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975 – via www.amjmed.com.
- "Gun Violence: Comparing The U.S. With Other Countries". NPR.org.
- Cook, Philip J.; Ludwig, Jens (2000). Gun Violence: The Real Costs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195137934. OCLC 45580985.
- Morris, Hugh. "Mapped: The countries with the most guns (no prizes for guessing #1)". The Telegraph.
- Wintemute, Garen J. (18 March 2015). "The Epidemiology of Firearm Violence in the Twenty-First Century United States". Annual Review of Public Health. 36 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122535. PMID 25533263.
- "Global Impact of Gun Violence: Firearms, public health and safety". www.gunpolicy.org.
- GunPolicy.org – Facts. The only countries with permissive gun legislation are: Albania, Austria, Chad, Republic of Congo, Honduras, Micronesia, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Tanzania, the United States, Yemen and Zambia. Accessed on August 27, 2016.
- Dahlberg, Linda L.; et al. (November 15, 2004). "Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study". American Journal of Epidemiology. 160 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh309. PMID 15522849.
- Justice, National Center for Juvenile. "Easy Access to the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports". www.ojjdp.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "The Gun Violence Stats the NRA Doesn't Want You to Consider". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "10 Pro-Gun Myths, Shot Down". Mother Jones.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Jaffe, Susan (June 23, 2018). "Gun violence research in the USA: the CDC's impasse". The Lancet. 391 (10139): 2487–2488. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31426-0. PMID 29976460. S2CID 49701539.
- Metzl, Jonathan M.; MacLeish, Kenneth T. (February 2015). "Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms". American Journal of Public Health. 105 (2): 240–249. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302242. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 4318286. PMID 25496006.
- CDC data:
● Data through 2016: "Guns / Firearm-related deaths". NSC.org copy of U.S. Government (CDC) data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. December 2017. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018. (archive of actual data).
● 2017 data: Howard, Jacqueline (December 13, 2018). "Gun deaths in US reach highest level in nearly 40 years, CDC data reveal". CNN. Archived from the original on December 13, 2018. (2017 CDC data)
● 2018 data: "New CDC Data Show 39,740 People Died by Gun Violence in 2018". efsgv.org. January 31, 2020. Archived from the original on February 16, 2020. (2018 CDC data)
● 2019 data: "A Public Health Crisis Decades in the Making" (PDF). efsgv.org. February 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 28, 2021. (2019 CDC data)
- Brent, David A. (25 January 2006). "Firearms and Suicide". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 932 (1): 225–240. Bibcode:2001NYASA.932..225B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05808.x. PMID 11411188. S2CID 2441426.
- Anglemyer, Andrew; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George (21 January 2014). "The Accessibility of Firearms and Risk for Suicide and Homicide Victimization Among Household Members". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (2): 101–110. doi:10.7326/M13-1301. PMID 24592495.
- "Deaths From Drugs and Suicide Reach a Record in the U.S." The New York Times. March 7, 2019.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (August 13, 1992). "Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership". The New England Journal of Medicine. 327 (7): 467–472. doi:10.1056/NEJM199208133270705. PMID 1308093. S2CID 35031090.
- Conwell, Yeates; Duberstein, Paul R.; Connor, Kenneth; Eberly, Shirley; Cox, Christopher; Caine, Eric D. (July 2002). "Access to Firearms and Risk for Suicide in Middle-Aged and Older Adults". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 10 (4): 407–416. doi:10.1097/00019442-200207000-00007. PMID 12095900.
- Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David (4 September 2008). "Guns and Suicide in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (10): 989–991. doi:10.1056/NEJMP0805923. PMID 18768940.
- Beautrais, Annette L.; Joyce, Peter R.; Mulder, Roger T. (December 1996). "Access to firearms and the risk of suicide: a case control study". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 30 (6): 741–748. doi:10.3109/00048679609065040. PMID 9034462. S2CID 9805679.
- Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David (2001). "Firearm Prevalence and the Risk of Suicide: A Review" (PDF). Harvard Health Policy Review. Exploring Policy in Health Care (EPIHC). 2 (2): 29–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-07-06.
One study found a statistically significant relationship between gun ownership levels and suicide rate across 14 developed nations (e.g. where survey data on gun ownership levels were available), but the association lost its statistical significance when additional countries were included.
- Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Killias, Martin; Hepp, Urs; Gadola, Erika; Bopp, Matthias; Lauber, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf (October 2006). "Changing Times: A Longitudinal Analysis of International Firearm Suicide Data". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (10): 1752–1755. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.075812. PMC 1586136. PMID 16946021.
- Ikeda, Robin M.; Gorwitz, Rachel; James, Stephen P.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Mercy, James A. (1997). "Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States 1962–1994". Violence Surveillance Summary. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 3.
- Owens, David; Horrocks, Judith; House, Allan (September 2002). "Fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm: Systematic review". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 181 (3): 193–199. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.3.193. ISSN 0007-1250. PMID 12204922.
- Harrison, James E.; Pointer, Sophie; Elnour, Amr Abou (July 2009). "A review of suicide statistics in Australia" (PDF). aihw.gov.au. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
- McIntosh, JL; Drapeau, CW (November 28, 2012). "U.S.A. Suicide: 2010 Official Final Data" (PDF). suicidology.org. American Association of Suicidology. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Twenty Leading Causes of Death Among Persons Ages 10 Years and Older, United States". National Suicide Statistics at a Glance. Centers for Disease Control. 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Lewiecki, E. Michael; Miller, Sara A. (2013). "Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy". American Journal of Public Health. 103 (1): 27–31. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300964. PMC 3518361. PMID 23153127.
- Lewiecki, E. Michael; Miller, Sara A (2013), "Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy", American Journal of Public Health, 103 (1): 27–31, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300964, PMC 3518361, PMID 23153127
- Kleck, Gary (2004). "Measures of Gun Ownership Levels of Macro-Level Crime and Violence Research" (PDF). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 41 (1): 3–36. doi:10.1177/0022427803256229. S2CID 145245290. NCJ 203876. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-20.
Studies that attempt to link the gun ownership of individuals to their experiences as victims (e.g., Kellermann, et al. 1993) do not effectively determine how an individual's risk of victimization is affected by gun ownership by other people, especially those not living in the gun owner's own household.
- Lott, John R.; Whitley, John E. (2001). "Safe-Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime" (PDF). Journal of Law and Economics. 44 (2): 659–689. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.180.3066. doi:10.1086/338346. S2CID 154446568.
It is frequently assumed that safe-storage laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides. We find no support that safe-storage laws reduce either juvenile accidental gun deaths or suicides.
- Webster, Daniel W. (4 August 2004). "Association Between Youth-Focused Firearm Laws and Youth Suicides". JAMA. 292 (5): 594–601. doi:10.1001/jama.292.5.594. PMID 15292085.
- National Research Council (2004). "Executive Summary". In Wellford, Charles F.; Pepper, John V.; Petrie, Carol V. (eds.). Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09124-4.
● Murder Victims by Weapon, 2012–2016, Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020. (used only for 2012 and 2013 data)
● Murder Victims by Weapon, 2014–2018, Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020.
● Murder Victims by Weapon, 2015–2019, Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020.
- "Lethal Encounters: Non-conflict Armed Violence" (PDF). Global Burden of Armed Violence 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67–88. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. by Geneva Declaration editors using UNODC data.
- Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica L. (December 30, 2013). "Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011". bjs.gov. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Global Study on Homicide" (PDF). Unodc.org. 2011. Retrieved 2016-04-01.
- Grinshteyn, E; Hemenway, D (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 266–73. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975.
- Hemenway, D; Miller, M (December 2000). "Firearm availability and homicide rates across 26 high-income countries". The Journal of Trauma. 49 (6): 985–8. doi:10.1097/00005373-200012000-00001. PMID 11130511.
- Altheimer, I; Boswell, M (December 2012). "Reassessing the Association between Gun Availability and Homicide at the Cross-National Level". American Journal of Criminal Justice. 37 (4): 682–704. doi:10.1007/s12103-011-9147-x. S2CID 143649301.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (October 7, 1993). "Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home". The New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (15): 1084–1091. doi:10.1056/NEJM199310073291506. PMID 8371731.
- Suter, Edgar A. (March 1994). "Guns in the medical literature—a failure of peer review". Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia. 83 (13): 133–148. PMID 8201280.
- Kates, Don B.; Schaffer, Henry E.; Lattimer, John K.; Murray, George B.; Cassem, Edwin H. (1995). Kopel, David B. (ed.). Guns: Who Should Have Them?. New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 233–308. ISBN 9780879759582. OCLC 32393136. in chapter "Bad Medicine: Doctors and Guns." Orig. pub. 1994 in Tennessee Law Review as "Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda?"
- Kleck, Gary (February 2001). "Can Owning a Gun Really Triple the Owner's Chances of being Murdered?". Homicide Studies. 5 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1177/1088767901005001005. S2CID 55024658.
- Sorenson SB, Schut RA. Nonfatal gun use in intimate partner violence: a systematic review of the literature. Trauma Violence & Abuse. 2016 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]
- "United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: Data". unodc.org. UNODC. August 29, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, D (2000). "The Relative Frequency of Offensive and Defensive Gun Uses: Results from a National Survey". Violence and Victims. 15 (3): 257–272. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.15.3.257. PMID 11200101. S2CID 37512812.
- Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew (2000). "Gun use in the United States: results from two national surveys". Injury Prevention. 6 (4): 263–267. doi:10.1136/ip.6.4.263. PMC 1730664. PMID 11144624.
- Zimring, Franklin E.; Hawkins, Gordon (1997). Crime Is Not the Problem: Lethal Violence in America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195131055. OCLC 860399367.
- "The History Of Police In Creating Social Order In The U.S." NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
- "A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing | Police Studies Online". plsonline.eku.edu. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
- Potter, Gary. "The History of Policingin the United States" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- "Mapping Police Violence". Mapping Police Violence. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
- "Police brutality in the United States - Police brutality after World War II". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
- Miller, M; Azrael, D; Hemenway, D (July 2001). "Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 33 (4): 477–84. doi:10.1016/s0001-4575(00)00061-0. PMID 11426678.
- Levine, Phillip B.; McKnight, Robin (2017-12-08). "Firearms and accidental deaths: Evidence from the aftermath of the Sandy Hook school shooting". Science. 358 (6368): 1324–1328. Bibcode:2017Sci...358.1324L. doi:10.1126/science.aan8179. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29217576.
- Gilligan, James (February 21, 2018). "Look at the Root Causes of Gun Violence". US News. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
- (A. Peters. (2015) The Staggering Costs Of Gun Violence In The U.S. Every Year retrieved from http://www.fastcoexist.com/3047682/the-staggering-costs-of-gun-violence-in-the-us-every-year)
- Lee, Jarone; Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Zafonte, Ross D.; Masiakos, Peter T. (May 2014). "The economic cost of firearm-related injuries in the United States from 2006 to 2010". Surgery. 155 (5): 894–898. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2014.02.011. PMID 24684950.
- Annest, Joseph L.; Mercy, James A.; Gibson, Delinda R.; Ryan, George W. (June 14, 1995). "National Estimates of Nonfatal Firearm-Related Injuries: Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg". JAMA. 273 (22): 1749–54. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520460031030. PMID 7769767.
- (Kathleen R. Patti L. Richard E.B. (2002) children, youth and gun violence. Retrieved from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=42&articleid=162§ionid=1035 )
- Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Vorrasi, Joseph A. (2002). "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence" (PDF). The Future of Children. 12 (2): 72–85. doi:10.2307/1602739. ISSN 1054-8289. JSTOR 1602739. PMID 12194614. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04.
- Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali (October 1, 2019). "Long-lasting Consequences of Gun Violence and Mass Shootings". JAMA. 321 (18): 1765–1766. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.5063. PMID 30977768.
- Kreisfeld, Renate. 2006. ‘Australia Revised Firearm Deaths 1979–2003.’ National Injury Surveillance Unit / NISU. Adelaide: Research Centre for Injury Studies, Flinders University of South Australia. 1 March
- GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Calculated Numbers of Gun Deaths - Australia.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2014; 3303.0, Table 1.2 (Chapter XX). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 14 March.
- "Sydney siege: What we do and don't know". 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- "Victims of Sydney siege hailed as heroes after they die protecting hostages". Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- "Firearms and prohibited weapons offences". www.judcom.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- Sturup, Joakim; Rostami, Amir; Mondani, Hernan; Gerell, Manne; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Edling, Christofer (2018-05-07). "Increased Gun Violence Among Young Males in Sweden: a Descriptive National Survey and International Comparison". European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 25 (4): 365–378. doi:10.1007/s10610-018-9387-0. ISSN 0928-1371.
- Nyheter, SVT. "Siffrorna visar: Kraftig ökning av dödsskjutningar". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- NRK. "Svenske politifolk frykter at de taper kampen mot kriminelle". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Radio, Sveriges. "Fler skjutningar i Sverige än i många andra länder - P4 Stockholm". Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Studie: Fler skjutningar i Sverige än i många andra länder - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 5 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Nyheter, SVT. "Siffrorna visar: Kraftig ökning av dödsskjutningar". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Aftonbladets granskning avslöjar: 131 döda – över 450 skottskadade". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "Läget är jävligt allvarligt". Forskning & Framsteg (in Swedish). Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- Khoshnood, Ardavan (2018). "Firearm-related violence in Sweden – A systematic review". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 42: 43–51. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.008. ISSN 1359-1789.
- "Polisen: Varannan skjutning sker i utsatta områden". Metro (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Frenker, Clarence (2020-12-29). "Ny högstanivå för antalet skjutningar i Sverige 2020". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-01-03.
- Selåker Hangasmaa, Karin (2021-02-01). "Damberg: Skjutningarna ökade med 10 procent". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-02-01.
- "Polisen: Risken att oskyldiga skjuts till döds har ökat". Metro (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Justitieministern: Liten risk att oskyldiga drabbas". Expressen TV (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-01-17.
- Committee on Law and Justice (2004). "Executive Summary". Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. National Academy of Science. ISBN 978-0-309-09124-4.
- "Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence". The National Academies Press. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- Institute of Medicine (5 June 2013). Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence. doi:10.17226/18319. ISBN 978-0-309-28438-7.
- https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf Page 84, Table 18 (accessed July 31, 2016)
- FastStats: Mortality - All firearm deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm (accessed July 27, 2015).
- https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf Page 5 (accessed July 31, 2016)
- Homicides by firearms UNODC. Retrieved: 28 July 2012.
- "Expanded Homicide Data Table 8". FBI.gov. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- Wintemute, Garen J. (18 March 2015). "The Epidemiology of Firearm Violence in the Twenty-First Century United States". Annual Review of Public Health. 36 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122535. PMID 25533263.
- "10 Leading Causes of Injury Death by Age Group Highlighting Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States" (PDF). National Vital Statistics System. National Center for Health Statistics, CDC. 2010.
- "FBI — Expanded Homicide Data Table 8". Fbi.gov. 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- "Guns in the US: The statistics behind the violence". BBC News. 5 January 2016.
- "How U.S. gun deaths compare to other countries". CBS. October 7, 2017.
- Howell, Embry M. (September 13, 2013). "The Hospital Costs of Firearm Assaults". Urban Institute. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Bjerregaard, Beth; Lizotte, Alan J. (1995). "Gun Ownership and Gang Membership". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86 (1): 37–58. doi:10.2307/1143999. JSTOR 1143999. NCJ 162688.
- Wright, James D.; Sheley, Joseph F.; Smith, M. Dwayne (1993). "Kids, Guns, and Killing Fields". Society. 30 (1). NCJ 140211.
- Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence. The National Academies Press. 2013-11-03. ISBN 978-0-309-28438-7.
- Duwe, Grant (January 4, 2013). "Seven Mass Shootings in 2012 Most since 1999". The Washington Times (Washington, DC). Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- FBI Confirms Rise in Mass Shootings in Us. States News Service. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015.
- Zwillich, Todd. "Quietly, Congress extends a ban on CDC research on gun violence". Public Radio International (PRI). Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Rubin, Rita (26 April 2016). "Tale of 2 Agencies: CDC Avoids Gun Violence Research But NIH Funds It". JAMA. 315 (16): 1689–91. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.1707. PMID 27050067.
- Laslo, Matt (7 August 2019). "The CDC could totally study gun violence - It just needs money". Wired.com. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Report of the Office of the Child Advocate, p.107
- "An open secret: Gun ownership in Turkey". aa.com.tr. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- "Turkey's Umut Foundation calls for gun ownership reform as violence toll soars". hurriyetdailynews.com. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Gun violence in Turkey increased 69 percent in last 4 years: Association". hurriyetdailynews.com. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Gun violence in Turkey fails to slow down despite pandemic, report says". hurriyetdailynews.com. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Turkey home to 18 million unregistered guns - expert". ahvalnews.com. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
Library resources in your library about gun violence
- Reich, K., Culross P. and Behram R. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations. The Future of Children.
- Gun Violence: Prediction, Prevention, and Policy, APA Report 2013.
- Milne, Tony (2017-03-09). Man with Gun. Handmaid Books. ISBN 978-1544085227. This thought-provoking review considers culture, especially film publicity, as a symptom of gun malaise.
- Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high- and upper-middle-income countries Krug, Powell, and Dahlberg (1998)
- Gun ownership, suicide and homicide: An international perspective Killias (1992)
- GunPolicy.org Armed violence and gun laws, country by country
- Guns and suicide: Possible effects of some specific legislation Rich, Young, Fowler et al. (1990)
- Guns, Violent Crime, and Suicide in 21 Countries Killias, van Kesteren, Rindlisbacher (2001)
- State of crime and criminal justice worldwide United Nations (2010)
- World crime trends and emerging issues and responses in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice United Nations (2013)
- Gun Violence Archive (GVA) Data on each verified gun-related incident, with annual statistics
- Report US Anti-gun violence activist art project, Eileen Boxer (2016)