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A guillotine (// GHIL-ə-teen, also US: // GHEE-, French: [ɡijɔtin] (listen)) is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame with a weighted and angled blade suspended at the top. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, swiftly and forcefully decapitating the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket or other receptacle below.
The guillotine is best known for its use in France, particularly during the French Revolution, where the revolution's supporters celebrated it as the people's avenger and the revolution's opponents vilified it as the pre-eminent symbol of the violence of the Reign of Terror. While the name "guillotine" itself dates from this period, similar devices had been in use elsewhere in Europe over several centuries. The use of an oblique blade and the stocks set this type of guillotine apart from others. The display of severed heads had long been one of the most common ways European sovereigns exhibited their power to their subjects.
The guillotine was invented with the intention of making capital punishment less painful in accordance with Enlightenment thought. Prior to the guillotine, France had previously used beheading along with many other methods of execution, many of which were substantially more gruesome and prone to error. After its adoption, the device remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, who was guillotined on 10 September 1977. Djandoubi was the last person executed by guillotine by any government in the world.
The use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use during the French Revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, dated to about 1210. Although the device is imaginary, its function is clear. The text says:
Within these three openings are the hallows set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein ... She setteth her hand toward the openings and draweth forth a pin that was fastened into the wall, and a cutting blade of steel droppeth down, of steel sharper than any razor, and closeth up the three openings. "Even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond."
The Halifax Gibbet was a wooden structure consisting of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres (15 ft). The blade was an axe head weighing 3.5 kg (7.7 lb), attached to the bottom of a massive wooden block that slid up and down in grooves in the uprights. This device was mounted on a large square platform 1.25 metres (4 ft) high. It is not known when the Halifax Gibbet was first used; the first recorded execution in Halifax dates from 1280, but that execution may have been by sword, axe, or gibbet. The machine remained in use until Oliver Cromwell forbade capital punishment for petty theft. It was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a single day, on 30 April 1650.
A Hans Weiditz (1495-1537) woodcut illustration from the 1532 edition of Petrarch's De remediis utriusque fortunae, or "Remedies for Both Good and Bad Fortune" shows a device similar to the Halifax Gibbet in the background being used for an execution.
The Maiden was constructed in 1564 for the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, and was in use from April 1565 to 1710. One of those executed was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581, and a 1644 publication began circulating the legend that Morton himself commissioned the Maiden after he had seen the Halifax Gibbet. The Maiden was readily dismantled for storage and transport, and it is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland.
For a period of time after its invention, the guillotine was called a louisette. However, it was later named after French physician and Freemason Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who proposed on 10 October 1789 the use of a special device to carry out executions in France in a more humane manner. A death penalty opponent, he was displeased with the breaking wheel and other common and gruesome methods of execution and sought to persuade Louis XVI of France to implement a less painful alternative. While not the device's inventor, Guillotin's name ultimately became an eponym for it. The beliefs that Guillotin invented the device, and was later executed by it are not true.
French surgeon and physiologist Antoine Louis, together with German engineer Tobias Schmidt, built a prototype for the guillotine. According to the memoires of the French executioner Charles-Henri Sanson, Louis XVI suggested the use of a straight, angled blade instead of a curved one.
Introduction in France
Sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel. In 1791, as the French Revolution progressed, the National Assembly researched a new method to be used on all condemned people regardless of class, consistent with the idea that the purpose of capital punishment was simply to end life rather than to inflict unnecessary pain.
A committee formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King and Secretary to the Academy of Surgery. Guillotin was also on the committee. The group was influenced by beheading devices used elsewhere in Europe, such as the Italian Mannaia (or Mannaja, which had been used since Roman times), the Scottish Maiden, and the Halifax Gibbet (3.5 kg). While many of these prior instruments crushed the neck or used blunt force to take off a head, devices also usually used a crescent blade to behead as well as a hinged two-part yoke to immobilize the victim's neck.
Laquiante, an officer of the Strasbourg criminal court, designed a beheading machine and employed Tobias Schmidt, a German engineer and harpsichord maker, to construct a prototype. Antoine Louis is also credited with the design of the prototype. France's official executioner, Charles-Henri Sanson, claimed in his memoirs that King Louis XVI (an amateur locksmith) recommended that the device employ an oblique blade rather than a crescent one, lest the blade not be able to cut through all necks; the neck of the king, who would eventually die by guillotine years later, was offered up discreetly as an example. The first execution by guillotine was performed on highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier on 25 April 1792 in front of what is now the city hall of Paris (Place de l'Hôtel de Ville). All citizens condemned to die were from then on executed there, until the scaffold was moved on 21 August to the Place du Carrousel.
The machine was deemed successful because it was considered a humane form of execution in contrast with the more cruel methods used in the pre-revolutionary Ancien Régime. In France, before the invention of the guillotine, members of the nobility were beheaded with a sword or an axe, which often took two or more blows to kill the condemned. The condemned or their families would sometimes pay the executioner to ensure that the blade was sharp in order to achieve a quick and relatively painless death. Commoners were usually hanged, which could take many minutes. In the early phase of the French Revolution before the guillotine's adoption, the slogan À la lanterne (in English: To the lamp post! String Them Up! or Hang Them!) symbolized popular justice in revolutionary France. The revolutionary radicals hanged officials and aristocrats from street lanterns and also employed more gruesome methods of execution, such as the wheel or burning at the stake.
Having only one method of civil execution for all regardless of class was also seen as an expression of equality among citizens. The guillotine was then the only civil legal execution method in France until the abolition of the death penalty in 1981, apart from certain crimes against the security of the state, or for the death sentences passed by military courts, which entailed execution by firing squad.
Reign of Terror
Louis Collenot d'Angremont was a royalist famed for having been the first guillotined for his political ideas, on 21 August 1792. During the Reign of Terror (June 1793 to July 1794) about 17,000 people were guillotined. Former King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed at the guillotine in 1793. Towards the end of the Terror in 1794, revolutionary leaders such as Georges Danton, Saint-Just and Maximilien Robespierre were sent to the guillotine. Most of the time, executions in Paris were carried out in the Place de la Revolution (former Place Louis XV and current Place de la Concorde); the guillotine stood in the corner near the Hôtel Crillon where the City of Brest Statue can be found today. The machine was moved several times, to the Place de la Nation and the Place de la Bastille, but returned, particularly for the execution of the King and for Robespierre.
For a time, executions by guillotine were a popular form of entertainment that attracted great crowds of spectators, with vendors selling programs listing the names of the condemned. But more than being popular entertainment alone during the Terror, the guillotine symbolized revolutionary ideals: equality in death equivalent to equality before the law; open and demonstrable revolutionary justice; and the destruction of privilege under the Ancien Régime, which used separate forms of execution for nobility and commoners. The Parisian sans-culottes, then the popular public face of lower-class patriotic radicalism, thus considered the guillotine a positive force for revolutionary progress.
After the French Revolution, executions resumed in the city center. On 4 February 1832, the guillotine was moved behind the Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie, just before being moved again, to the Grande Roquette prison, on 29 November 1851.
In the late 1840s, the Tussaud brothers Joseph and Francis, gathering relics for Madame Tussauds wax museum, visited the aged Henry-Clément Sanson, grandson of the executioner Charles-Henri Sanson, from whom they obtained parts, the knife and lunette, of one of the original guillotines used during the Reign of Terror. The executioner had "pawned his guillotine, and got into woeful trouble for alleged trafficking in municipal property".
The last public guillotining in France was of Eugen Weidmann, who was convicted of six murders. He was beheaded on 17 June 1939 outside the prison Saint-Pierre, rue Georges Clemenceau 5 at Versailles, which is now the Palais de Justice. Numerous issues with the proceedings arose: inappropriate behavior by spectators, incorrect assembly of the apparatus, and secret cameras filming video and photographing the execution from several storeys above. In response, the French government ordered that future executions be conducted in the prison courtyard in private.
The guillotine remained the official method of execution in France until the death penalty was abolished in 1981. The final three guillotinings in France before its abolition were those of child-murderers Christian Ranucci (on 28 July 1976) in Marseille, Jérôme Carrein (on 23 June 1977) in Douai and torturer-murderer Hamida Djandoubi (on 10 September 1977) in Marseille. Djandoubi's death marked the final occasion that the guillotine would ever be employed as an execution method by any government in the world.
In Germany, the guillotine is known as the Fallbeil ("falling axe") and was used in various German states from the 19th century onwards, becoming the preferred method of execution in Napoleonic times in many parts of the country. The guillotine and the firing squad were the legal methods of execution during the era of the German Empire (1871–1918) and the Weimar Republic (1919–1933).
The original German guillotines resembled the French Berger 1872 model, but they eventually evolved into sturdier and more efficient machines. Built primarily of metal instead of wood, these new guillotines had heavier blades than their French predecessors and thus could use shorter uprights as well. Officials could also conduct multiple executions faster, thanks to a more efficient blade recovery system and the eventual removal of the tilting board (bascule). Those deemed likely to struggle were backed slowly into the device from behind a curtain to prevent them from seeing it prior to the execution. A metal screen covered the blade as well in order to conceal it from the sight of the condemned.
Nazi Germany used the guillotine between 1933 and 1945 to execute 16,500 prisoners, a figure which accounts for 10,000 executions between 1944 and 1945 alone. One political victim the government guillotined was Sophie Scholl, who was convicted of high treason after distributing anti-Nazi pamphlets at the University of Munich with her brother Hans, and other members of the German student resistance group, the White Rose. The guillotine was last used in West Germany in 1949 in the execution of Richard Schuh and was last used in East Germany in 1966 in the execution of Horst Fischer. The Stasi used the guillotine in East Germany between 1950 and 1966 for secret executions.
A number of countries, primarily in Europe, continued to employ this method of execution into the 19th and 20th centuries, but they ceased to use it before France did in 1977.
In Antwerp, the last person to be beheaded was Francis Kol. Convicted of robbery and murder, he received his punishment on 8 May 1856. During the period from 19 March 1798 to 30 March 1856, there were 19 beheadings in Antwerp.
In Sweden, beheading became the mandatory method of execution in 1866. The guillotine replaced manual beheading in 1903, and it was used only once, in the execution of murderer Alfred Ander in 1910 at Långholmen Prison, Stockholm. Ander was also the last person to be executed in Sweden before capital punishment was abolished there in 1921.
In South Vietnam, after the Diệm regime enacted the 10/59 Decree in 1959, mobile special military courts were dispatched to the countryside in order to intimidate the rural population; they used guillotines, which had belonged to the former French colonial power, in order to carry out death sentences on the spot. One such guillotine is still on show at the War Remnants Museum in Ho Chi Minh City.
In the Western Hemisphere, the guillotine saw only limited use. The only recorded guillotine execution in North America north of the Caribbean took place on the French island of St. Pierre in 1889, of Joseph Néel, with a guillotine brought in from Martinique. In the Caribbean, it was used quite rarely in Guadeloupe and Martinique, the last time in Fort-de-France in 1965. In South America, the guillotine was only used in French Guiana, where about 150 people were beheaded between 1850 and 1945: most of them were convicts exiled from France and incarcerated within the "bagne", or penal colonies. Within the Southern Hemisphere, it worked in New Caledonia (which had a bagne too until the end of the 19th century) and at least twice in Tahiti.
Ever since the guillotine's first use, there has been debate as to whether or not the guillotine provided as swift and painless a death as Guillotin had hoped. With previous methods of execution that were intended to be painful, few expressed concern about the level of suffering that they inflicted. However, because the guillotine was invented specifically to be more humane, the issue of whether or not the condemned experiences pain has been thoroughly examined and has remained a controversial topic. While certain eyewitness accounts of guillotine executions suggest anecdotally that awareness may persist momentarily after decapitation, there has never been true scientific consensus on the matter.
The question of consciousness or awareness following decapitation remained a topic of discussion during the guillotine's use.
The following report was written by Dr. Beaurieux, who observed the head of executed prisoner Henri Languille, on 28 June 1905:
Here, then, is what I was able to note immediately after the decapitation: the eyelids and lips of the guillotined man worked in irregularly rhythmic contractions for about five or six seconds. This phenomenon has been remarked by all those finding themselves in the same conditions as myself for observing what happens after the severing of the neck ...
I waited for several seconds. The spasmodic movements ceased. [...] It was then that I called in a strong, sharp voice: "Languille!" I saw the eyelids slowly lift up, without any spasmodic contractions – I insist advisedly on this peculiarity – but with an even movement, quite distinct and normal, such as happens in everyday life, with people awakened or torn from their thoughts.
Next Languille's eyes very definitely fixed themselves on mine and the pupils focused themselves. I was not, then, dealing with the sort of vague dull look without any expression, that can be observed any day in dying people to whom one speaks: I was dealing with undeniably living eyes which were looking at me. After several seconds, the eyelids closed again [...].
It was at that point that I called out again and, once more, without any spasm, slowly, the eyelids lifted and undeniably living eyes fixed themselves on mine with perhaps even more penetration than the first time. Then there was a further closing of the eyelids, but now less complete. I attempted the effect of a third call; there was no further movement – and the eyes took on the glazed look which they have in the dead.
Names for the guillotine
During the span of its usage, the French guillotine has gone by many names, some of which include:
- La Monte-à-regret (The Regretful Climb)
- Le Rasoir National (The National Razor)
- Le Vasistas or La Lucarne (The Fanlight)
- La Veuve (The Widow)
- Le Moulin à Silence (The Silence Mill)
- Louisette or Louison (from the name of prototype designer Antoine Louis)
- Madame La Guillotine
- Mirabelle (from the name of Mirabeau)
- La Bécane (The Machine)
- Le Massicot (The Cutter)
- La Cravate à Capet (Capet's Necktie, Capet being Louis XVI)
- La Raccourcisseuse Patriotique (The Patriotic Shortener)
- La demi-lune (The Half-Moon)
- Les Bois de Justice (Woods of Justice)
- La Bascule à Charlot (Charlot's Rocking-chair)
- Le Prix Goncourt des Assassins (The Goncourt Prize for Murderers)
- R. Po-chia Hsia, Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith, The Making of the West, Peoples and Culture, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340, Second Edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007), 664.
- Janes, Regina. "Beheadings." Representations No. 35.Special Issue: Monumental Histories(1991):21–51. JSTOR. Web. 26 Feb. 2015. Pg 24
- (in French) Loi n°81-908 du 9 octobre 1981 portant abolition de la peine de mort Archived 31 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
- Khan, L. Ali. "Beheadings in France". CounterPunch. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- High History of the Grail, translated by Sebastian Evans ISBN 9781-4209-44075
- History of the guillotine Archived 6 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Guillotine Headquarters 2014.
- Maxwell, H Edinburgh, A Historical Study, Williams and Norgate (1916), pp. 137, 299–303.
- "The Maiden". Nms.ac.uk. National Museums Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
- "Origins of the Guillotine". Snopes.com. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- Sanson, Charles-Henri (1831). Mémoires de Sanson. Tôme 3. pp. 400–408.CS1 maint: location (link)
- R. F. Opie (2003) Guillotine, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd, p. 22, ISBN 0750930349.
- Executive Producer Don Cambou (2001). Modern Marvels: Death Devices. A&E Television Networks.
- Parker, John William (26 July 1834). "The Halifax Gibbet-Law". The Saturday Magazine (132): 32.
- Croker, John Wilson (1857). Essays on the early period of the French Revolution. J. Murray. p. 549. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- Edmond-Jean Guérin, "1738–1814 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin : biographie historique d'une figure saintaise" Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Histoire P@ssion website, accessed 2009-06-27, citing M. Georges de Labruyère in le Matin, 22 Aug. 1907
- Memoirs of the Sansons, from private notes and documents, 1688–1847 / edited by Henry Sanson. pp 260–261. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) accessed 28 April 2016
- "Crime Library". National Museum of Crime & Punishment. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
[I]n 1792, Nicholas-Jacques Pelletier became the first person to be put to death with a guillotine.
- Chase's Calendar of Events 2007. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2007. p. 291. ISBN 0-07-146818-8.
- Scurr, Ruth (2007). Fatal Purity. New York: H. Holt. pp. 222–223. ISBN 0-8050-8261-1.
- Abbott, Jeffery (2007). What a Way to Go. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 144. ISBN 0-312-36656-6.
- Pre-1981 penal code, article 12: "Any person sentenced to death shall be beheaded."
- Pre-1971 Code de Justice Militaire, article 336: "Les justiciables des juridictions des forces armées condamnés à la peine capitale sont fusillés dans un lieu désigné par l'autorité militaire."
- Pre-1981 penal code, article 13: "By exception to article 12, when the death penalty is handed for crimes against the safety of the State, execution shall take place by firing squad.".
- Arasse, Daniel (1989). "The Guilloine and the Terror". London: Penguin. pp. 75–76.
- Higonnet, Patrice (2000). "Goodness Beyond Virtue: Jacobins During the French Revolution ". Cambridge, MA: Harvard. p. 283.
- Leonard Cottrell (1952) Madame Tussaud, Evans Brothers Limited, pp. 142–43.
- Robert Frederick Opie (2013). Guillotine: The Timbers of Justice. History Press. p. 131.
- "According to Nazi records, the guillotine was eventually used to execute some 16,500 people between 1933 and 1945, many of them resistance fighters and political dissidents." https://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-guillotine
- Scholl, Inge (1983). The White Rose: Munich, 1942–1943. Schultz, Arthur R. (Trans.). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8195-6086-5.
- Rolf Lamprecht (5 September 2011). Ich gehe bis nach Karlsruhe: Eine Geschichte des Bundesverfassungsgerichts – Ein SPIEGEL-Buch. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-641-06094-7.
- Jörg Osterloh; Clemens Vollnhals (18 January 2012). NS-Prozesse und deutsche Öffentlichkeit: Besatzungszeit, frühe Bundesrepublik und DDR. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 368. ISBN 978-3-647-36921-1.
- John O. Koehler (5 August 2008). Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police. Basic Books. p. 18.
- Gazet van Mechelen, 8 May 1956
- Bolmstedt, Åsa. "Änglamakerskan" [The angel maker]. Populär Historia (in Swedish). LRF Media. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Rystad, Johan G. (1 April 2015). "Änglamakerskan i Helsingborg dränkte åtta fosterbarn" [The angel maker in Helsingborg drowned eight foster care children]. Hemmets Journal (in Swedish). Egmont Group. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Nguyen Thi Dinh; Mai V. Elliott (1976). No Other Road to Take: Memoir of Mrs Nguyen Thi Dinh. Cornell University Southeast Asia Program. p. 27. ISBN 0-87727-102-X.
- Farrara, Andrew J. (2004). Around the World in 220 Days: The Odyssey of an American Traveler Abroad. Buy Books. p. 415. ISBN 0-7414-1838-X.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Wren, Christopher S. A BIT OF FRANCE OFF THE COAST OF CANADA. The New York Times July 27, 1986. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Accessed July 13, 2017.
- Kruzel, John (1 November 2013). "Bring Back the Guillotine". Slate. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- "Georgia House of Representatives – 1995/1996 Sessions HB 1274 – Death penalty; guillotine provisions". The General Assembly of Georgia. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Guillotine death was suicide". BBC News. 24 April 2003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- Sulivan, Anne (16 September 2007). "Man kills himself with guillotine". The News Herald. Tennessee. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Staglin, Douglas. "Russian engineer commits suicide with homemade guillotine". USA Today. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Buncomber, Andrew (3 December 1999). "Guillotine used for suicide". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Dr. Beaurieux. "Report From 1905". The History of the Guillotine. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
- Clinical Journal. Medical Publishing Company. 1898. p. 436.
- abbaye de monte-à-regret : définition avec Bob, dictionnaire d'argot, l'autre trésor de la langue Archived 14 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Languefrancaise.net. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
- Joseph-Ignace GUILLOTIN (1738–1814) Archived 15 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Medarus.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
- guillotine du XIVeme arrondissement Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Ktakafka.free.fr. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
- Guillotine Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Whonamedit. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
- Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution in Three Volumes, Volume 3: The Guillotine. Charles C. Little and James Brown (Little Brown). New York, NY, 1839. No ISBN. (First Edition. Many reprintings of this important history have been done during the last two centuries.)
- Croker, John Wilson (1853). . London: John Murray.
- Gerould, Daniel (1992). Guillotine; Its Legend and Lore. Blast Books. ISBN 0-922233-02-0.
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- The Guillotine Headquarters with a gallery, history, name list, and quiz.
- Bois de justice History of the guillotine, construction details, with rare photos (English)
- Fabricius, Jørn. "The Guillotine Headquarters".
- Does the head remain briefly conscious after decapitation (revisited)? (from The Straight Dope)