Grounding is a topic in metaphysics. One thing is sometimes said to "ground" another when the first in some way accounts for the existence or properties of the second.
A distinction is typically made between grounding relations and other dependence relations, such as causation or realization. Grounding is often considered to be a form of non-causal determination or priority
According to some in favor of the idea, things which are less fundamental are grounded in things that are more fundamental. Here's an example. Many people say that physical particles are more fundamental than tables, cats, mountains and other large, composite objects. Some say that, for this reason, physical particles ground large, composite objects. Or, they say that facts about physical particles ground facts about large, composite objects.
- Bernstein, Sara (2016). "Grounding Is Not Causation". Philosophical Perspectives. 30 (1): 21–38. doi:10.1111/phpe.12074. ISSN 1520-8583.
- Audi, Paul; Journal of Philosophy Inc. (2012). "Grounding: Toward a Theory of the In-Virtue-Of Relation". Journal of Philosophy. 109 (12): 685–711. doi:10.5840/jphil20121091232. ISSN 0022-362X.
- Metaphysical grounding : understanding the structure of reality. Correia, Fabrice,, Schnieder, Benjamin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-1-139-77670-7. OCLC 815970142.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Chalmers, David J., 1966- Manley, David Jeffrey. Wasserman, Ryan. (2013). Metametaphysics : new essays on the foundations of ontology. Clarendon Press. pp. 347–383. ISBN 978-0-19-954600-8. OCLC 1051732160.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Bliss, Ricki; Trogdon, Kelly. "Metaphysical Grounding". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Schaffer, Jonathan. "On What Grounds What." In David Manley, David J. Chalmers & Ryan Wasserman (eds.), Metametaphysics: New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology. Oxford University Press. pp. 347-383 (2009)
- Grounding. Bibliography edited by Kelly Trogdon at Philpapers
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