Greater Manchester Combined Authority
Greater Manchester within England
|Founded||1 April 2011|
since 27 January 2017
|Seats||11 constituent members|
|Churchgate House, Oxford Road,|
The Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA) is a combined authority for Greater Manchester, England. It was established on 1 April 2011 and consists of 11 members; 10 indirectly elected members, each a directly elected councillor from one of the ten metropolitan boroughs that comprise Greater Manchester together with the directly elected Mayor of Greater Manchester. The authority derives most of its powers from the Local Government Act 2000 and Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009, and replaced a range of single-purpose joint boards and quangos to provide a formal administrative authority for Greater Manchester for the first time since the abolition of the Greater Manchester County Council in 1986.
The planning policies of the GMCA were developed in the 2000s by the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities in the Greater Manchester Strategy. It is a strategic authority with powers over public transport, skills, housing, regeneration, waste management, carbon neutrality and planning permission. Functional executive bodies, such as Transport for Greater Manchester, are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. The GMCA appoints a Chair and Vice-Chairs, from among its ten executive members.
The costs of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority that are reasonably attributable to the exercise of its functions relating to public transport, economic development and regeneration (and any start up costs) are met by its constituent councils. Such costs are funded by direct government grant and, as a precepting authority, with some money collected with local Council Tax apportioned between the constituent councils.
Greater Manchester was created as a metropolitan county composed of ten metropolitan boroughs on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. From its investiture through to 31 March 1986 the county had a two-tier system of local government; district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986 as a result of the Local Government Act 1985, effectively making the ten metropolitan boroughs unitary authority areas. The Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (AGMA) was established in 1986 as a voluntary association to make representations and bids on behalf Greater Manchester and continue to manage strategic public services that were delegated to it by the councils, such as public transport and waste management. In the late-2000s, AGMA began actively seeking a formal government structure for Greater Manchester under the appellation "Manchester City Region".
Development and formation
Following a bid from the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities highlighting the potential benefits in combatting the financial crisis of 2007–2008, it was announced in the 2009 United Kingdom Budget that Greater Manchester and the Leeds City Region would be awarded Statutory City Region Pilot status, allowing (if they desired) for their constituent district councils to pool resources and become statutory combined authorities with powers comparable to the Greater London Authority. The aim of the pilot is to evaluate the contributions to economic growth and sustainable development by combined authorities. The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009, passed with reference to the 2009 United Kingdom Budget, enabled the creation of a combined authority for Greater Manchester with devolved powers on public transport, skills, housing, regeneration, waste management, carbon neutrality and planning permission, pending approval from the ten councils. Between late-2009 and February 2010 AGMA debated the constitution and functions of the new combined authority, including matters such as name, voting system and remit. From February 2010 through to April 2010 the ten metropolitan district councils were consulted for their recommendations before submission of their constitution to central government; changes included extra powers for controlling further education, additional provisions for scrutinising the authority, and swapping the draft name 'Manchester City Region Authority' (MCRA) for the 'Greater Manchester Combined Authority' (GMCA), a name approved by the Executive Board of AGMA.
Consultations made with district councils in March 2010 recommended that all GMCA matters requiring a vote would be decided on via a majority rule system involving ten members appointed from among the councillors of the ten metropolitan boroughs (one representing each borough of Greater Manchester with each council also nominating one substitute) without the input of the UK's central government. The Transport for Greater Manchester Committee would be formed from a pool of 33 councillors allocated by council population, roughly one councillor for every 75,000 residents to scrutinise the running of the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee (Manchester will have 5 councillors, Wigan and Stockport 4, Bury 2 and all other Boroughs 3). The ten district councils of Greater Manchester approved the creation of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority on 29 March 2010, and submitted its final recommendations for its constitution to the Department for Communities and Local Government and the Department for Transport. On 31 March 2010 the Communities Secretary John Denham approved the constitution and launched a 15-week public consultation on the draft bill together with the approved constitution. The Association of Greater Manchester Authorities, will be replaced by the GMCA, has requested that the new authority should be created as from 1 April 2011. On 16 November 2010, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that it had accepted the combined authority proposal and that an order to establish the GMCA would be laid before Parliament. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority Order 2011, which formally establishes the combined authority, was made 22 March 2011 and came into force on 1 April 2011.
Schemes and strategies
Localism Act 2011
Following the passage of the Localism Act 2011 on 15 November 2011, the Department for Communities and Local Government began negotiating with groups of local councils for tailored deals to be included in the 2012 United Kingdom budget. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority sought provision for a further transfer of powers that would result in an additional delegation of authority from the UK's central government. This step-change would mean that, instead of the GMCA bidding for government funding on a project-by-project basis, it will receive a sum of money from government ministers and would be able to determine, locally, how it is used. The UK Government is considering a further plan to allow passenger transport executives to raise local rail fares in their areas, and directly invest the money raised in infrastructure and rolling stock alongside the specification of additional or improved rail services.
Greater Manchester City Deal
- A "Revolving Infrastructure Fund" allowing the GMCA to earn-back up to £30 million per year against spending on infrastructure projects.
- The formation of a "Greater Manchester Investment Framework" allowing Greater Manchester to make better use of Central Government and EU funding.
- The establishment of a "Greater Manchester Housing Investment Board" to build new housing in the area.
- The creation of a "City Apprenticeship and Skills Hub" to increase the number of apprenticeships available in the area.
- The formation of a "Low Carbon Hub" to integrate multiple carbon reduction measures.
Reduced carbon and economic growth
In November 2012, Energy and Climate Change Secretary Edward Davey MP, signed an agreement between the Combined Authority and the Department of Energy and Climate Change, in recognition of its deliverance of low carbon initiatives (such as bulk-buying energy from suppliers for consumers in Greater Manchester), and committing the Government to design and deliver new green initiatives in Greater Manchester releasing millions in funding to pioneer new low carbon technologies.
Planning and housing
The GMCA is producing the Greater Manchester Spatial Framework, a joint strategic plan for Greater Manchester including land allocation for housing and other development. The initial GMSF was published in 2016 and a revised version was published in 2019. A further consultation will take place in late 2020. The plan includes proposals for building on some green belt areas. Stockport Council withdrew from the GMSF in December 2020.
In May 2012, the GMCA proposed to set up a franchisor body with neighbouring metropolitan authorities in West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, to take over the Northern and TransPennine Express rail franchises, and, from 2014/15, operate their routes under a single franchise, sharing financial risk and operational responsibilities.
Mayor of Greater Manchester
In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester, along with several other city regions, would elect a 'metro-mayor' with similar powers to the Mayor of London. In May 2015 an interim mayor was appointed by GMCA: there were two candidates for this post; Peter Smith, leader of Wigan Borough Council and incumbent chairman of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority and Tony Lloyd, the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner. Tony Lloyd was selected to be interim mayor on 29 May 2015. The first Greater Manchester mayoral election was held on 4 May 2017. Andy Burnham was elected as the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester.
Greater Manchester Combined Authority
The Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA) is the highest tier of the organisation and is made up of 11 members (indirectly elected councillors) derived from the councillors of Greater Manchester's constituent authorities, together with the Mayor of Greater Manchester. Each member has one vote with the chair not possessing a deciding vote, each council nominates one member and one stand-in member in the case of absence. The constituent council may at any time terminate the membership of its nominee, the nominee will also cease to be a member if at any time they should cease to be an elected representative and a new nominee must be selected as soon as possible. The GMCA will elect a Chair and Vice-Chair from amongst its members. All questions arising before the GMCA are decided by a simple majority vote, and if a vote is tied it is considered to be lost. Several subjects however require an enhanced majority of seven votes in favour, these are:
- The adoption of the Sustainable Community Strategy (i.e. the Greater Manchester Strategy, the Greater Manchester Housing Strategy and other related strategies)
- The adoption of the Multi-Area Agreement
- The approval of the local economic assessment
- The adoption of the Local Transport Plan and policies contained therein
- The combined authority’s annual budget
- The setting of the transport levy
- Approval of new schemes to be financed by the Greater Manchester Transport Fund
- Borrowing limits, Treasury Management Strategy, the investment strategy and the capital budget
- The acceptance of any proposed delegation of functions and budgets to the GMCA by the Secretary of State
- Such other plans and strategies as are determined by the GMCA
Transport for Greater Manchester
Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) is the executive body of the GMCA for the execution of transport functions and will be the executive agency responsible for the running of Greater Manchester's transport services and infrastructure such as Metrolink, subsidised bus and rail services as well as carrying out transport and environmental planning. The organisation carries out the previous functions of the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive (GMPTE). The organisation absorbed the previously separate ITA Policy Unit, the GM Joint Transport Unit, the GMTU and GMUTC. It is supervised by the members of the TfGMC.
Transport for Greater Manchester Committee
The Transport for Greater Manchester Committee (TfGMC) and its sub committees are formed from a nominated pool of 33 councillors to manage the TfGM and create transport policy on behalf of the GMCA, TfGMC also elects its own Chair and Vice-Chair. The committee assumeed the roles of the previous Greater Manchester Integrated Transport Authority (GMITA) as well as the newly devolved transport powers and responsibilities from Government and the Councils. These councillors have voting rights on most transport issues despite not being members of the GMCA however some decisions would still require approval by the GMCA, the functions which are referred (but not delegated) to the TfGMC include making recommendations in relation to:
- The budget and transport levy
- Borrowing limits
- Major and strategic transport policies
- The local transport plan
- Operation of Greater Manchester Transport Fund and approval of new schemes
- Appointment of Director General/Chief Executive of TfGM
In addition two functions are delegated solely to the TfGMC without requiring GMCA approval, namely road safety under Section 39, Road Traffic Act 1988 and traffic management under Sections 16–17, Traffic Management Act 2004.
Joint Overview and Scrutiny Committee
A Joint Overview and Scrutiny Committee (JOSC) provides scrutiny of the GMCA, TfGMC, TfGM and CNE, each constituent council appoints three of its elected members to JOSC and sub committees can be formed to examine specific issues.
In anticipation of the combined authority seven commissions were set up to handle the new responsibilities, six commenced operation between May and August 2009 they are:
- Commission For the New Economy (CNE)
- Planning and Housing Commission
- Transport Commission (never activated and superseded by the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee)
- Environment Commission
- Health Commission
- Public Protection Commission
- Improvement and Efficiency Commission
The current intention is that each of the Commissions (except Improvement and Efficiency which consist entirely of local authority members) are formed of a mixture of elected members and representatives from other partners, including the private sector, other public sector agencies and the voluntary sector. Seats are shared out amongst all the local authorities as equally as possible, with no local authority having more than one seat on each Commission with the exception of the Improvement and Efficiency Commission which will have all authorities represented. Each Commission's decisions require approval by the members of the GMCA.
Whilst remaining separate entities the Greater Manchester Police Authority, the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Authority, the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority and The Chair and Vice-Chair of TfGMC have access to all agendas and reports for meetings of the GMCA, enhanced attendance rights for non-public agenda items and speaking rights at meetings.
A partnership board has been established consisting of members of the GMCA, the Chair of TfGMC and senior members of neighbouring authorities to discuss matters of common interest.
The GMCA is made up of 11 constituent members: the elected Mayor of Greater Manchester and 10 members who are elected councillors, nominated by each of Greater Manchester's constituent authorities. The mayor is also supported by a non-constituent Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime – the only salaried portfolio holder. Since 2018, Lord Smith of Leigh has continued in his lead role for Health after retiring from his leadership of Wigan Council. In most cases, the council's nominee is the leader of the authority, although there is no requirement for them to be so.
|Nominating authority||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017||2018||2019||Position within nominating authority||Portfolio within combined authority|
|Greater Manchester Combined Authority||Office not yet established||Tony Lloyd (Interim)||The Rt Hon. Andy Burnham||Mayor of Greater Manchester||Transport|
|Office not yet established||The Rt Hon. The Baroness Hughes of Stretford||Deputy Mayor
for Policing, Crime, Criminal Justice & Fire
|Safe & Strong Communities|
|Previously nominated by Wigan Council||The Rt Hon. The Lord Smith of Leigh||Member||Health & Social Care|
|Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council||Clifford Morris||Linda Thomas||David Greenhalgh||Leader||Environment|
|Bury Metropolitan Borough Council||Mike Connolly||Rishi Shori||Leader||Young People and Cohesion|
|Manchester City Council||Sir Richard Leese||Leader; Deputy Mayor for Business and Enterprise||Economy|
|Oldham Metropolitan Borough Council||Jim McMahon||Jean Stretton||Sean Fielding||Leader||Education, Skills & Apprenticeships|
|Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council||Colin Lambert||Richard Farnell||Allen Brett||Leader||Community, Voluntary & Co-Ops|
|Salford City Council||John Merry||Ian Stewart||Paul Dennett||Mayor||Housing, Planning & Homelessness|
|Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council||Dave Goddard||Sue Derbyshire||Alex Ganotis||Elise Wilson||Leader||Digital City Region|
|Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council||Kieran Quinn||Brenda Warrington||Leader||Age-Friendly Greater Manchester & Equalities|
|Trafford Metropolitan Borough Council||Matthew Colledge||Sean Anstee||Andrew Western||Leader||Digital City Region|
|Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council||The Rt Hon. The Lord Smith of Leigh||David Molyneux||Leader||Resources|
Current office holders are highlighted in bold.
- Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (March 2010). "Greater Manchester Combined Authority Final Scheme" (PDF). agma.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Review of City Region Governance in Greater Manchester". gmita.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (2009). "City Region Governance: A consultation on future arrangements in Greater Manchester" (PDF). agma.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2010. Retrieved on 18 March 2010.
- Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. "City Region". agma.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
- HM Treasury (16 December 2009). "Greater Manchester granted city region status". hm-treasury.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
- "John Denham – Greater Manchester to be country's first ever Combined Authority". communities.gov.uk. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Plan to end rail and road misery". thisislancashire.co.uk. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- "Greater Manchester to become first 'city region'". Oldham Advertiser. oldhamadvertiser.co.uk. 29 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Manchester City Council (29 March 2010). "Greater Manchester agrees to combined authority". manchester.gov.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Greater Manchester Combined Authority Order 2011". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Devolution deal set to push housing and transport powers from Whitehall to Greater Manchester councils – Manchester Evening News". Menmedia.co.uk. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- http://nds.coi.gov.uk/clientmicrosite/Content/Detail.aspx?ClientId=202&NewsAreaId=2&ReleaseID=423061&SubjectId=36[permanent dead link]
- "Manchester City Deal brings 6,000 jobs boost – Announcements – GOV.UK". Communities.gov.uk. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "City Deal Announcement : GMCA : AGMA Policy and Research Unit". Agma.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Vaughan, Henry (1 November 2012). "'Bulk-buying' fuel scheme could see Greater Manchester residents' energy bills slashed". mancunianmatters.co.uk. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "Ministerial visit supports Greater Manchester's low carbon future". greenbuildnews.co.uk. 2 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- bernstein, Howard (5 October 2012). "Greater Manchester Combined Authority is a model for regional cities". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "Heseltine: Give regions strength". placenorthwest.co.uk. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-40673109
- BBC News, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-37729165
- Manchester Evening News, https://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/greater-manchesters-long-awaited-plan-18644435M
- Manchester Evening News https://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/the-gmsf-no-more-stockport-19397997
- Place North West https://www.placenorthwest.co.uk/news/hive-homes-on-board-for-rochdale-rail-corridor-housing/
- Remarkable Group (18 May 2012). "Manchester prepares bid for rail franchise control". Place North West. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Railways could be taken over by Greater Manchester transport chiefs under devolution plan". Manchester Evening News. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Trafford council chiefs lobby ministers for TWO high speed rail stations – including one at Manchester Airport". Manchester Evening News. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Alexandra Topping (3 November 2014). "Manchester to get elected mayor". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Paine, David. "Greater Manchester interim mayor candidates confirmed".
- "PCC and Wigan Council leader announce interim mayor bids". BBC News. 17 April 2015.
- "Date proposed for Manchester mayoral elections". gov.uk. GOV.UK. 1 February 2016.
- Association of Greater Manchester Authorities. "About AGMA". agma.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- GMCA (27 November 2015), "Apologies", in GMCA (ed.), Meeting of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority (PDF), Greater Manchester Combined Authority, p. 1