This article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject.July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)(
The Grail is a community of about a thousand women from 24 countries, many different cultures and very different backgrounds and work situations. The Grail was started in 1921 as the Women of Nazareth by Fr. Jacques van Ginneken, a Dutch Jesuit. He felt that many new possibilities were opening up for women and that a group of lay women, unconfined by convent walls and rules, could make an immense contribution to the transformation of the world. By 1939 the Grail had become a colourful movement involving thousands of young women in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Germany, challenging them to deep personal and spiritual commitment. Pioneers in Catholic feminist theology, the Grail in the USA voted in 1969 to admit women of other Christian denominations, and in 1975, to accept Jewish women as members.
The Grail was started in Australia in 1936, in the United States in 1940, in New Zealand in the late 1930s, in Brazil and South Africa in 1951, in Uganda in 1953, in Portugal in 1958 and subsequently in Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria, Italy, Mexico, Canada, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Mozambique, Kenya and Sweden. Grail members are also working in Belgium, Belize, Cape Verde, Egypt, France, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Malaysia, Switzerland, Ecuador and Zimbabwe.
- "History of the Grail in the U.S." Website grail-us.org. The Grail in the USA. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- A. Healey, The Grail in Australia: An international women’s movement and the Australian Church, Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 31/2 (2010/11), 27-38.
- "The Grail Secular Institute". National Conference of Secular Institutes (England).
- Brown, Alden V. (1983). "The Grail Movement to 1962: Laywomen and a New Christendom". U.S. Catholic Historian. 3 (3): 149–166. JSTOR 25153695.
- Campbell, Debra (1993). "Both Sides Now: Another Look at the Grail in the Postwar Era". U.S. Catholic Historian. 11 (4): 13–27. JSTOR 25153695.