Giovanni Paolo Panini
Portrait of Panini by Louis Gabriel Blanchet
|Died||21 October 1765 (aged 74)|
Giovanni Paolo Panini or Pannini (17 June 1691 – 21 October 1765) was a painter and architect who worked in Rome and is primarily known as one of the vedutisti ("view painters"). As a painter, Panini is best known for his vistas of Rome, in which he took a particular interest in the city's antiquities. Among his most famous works are his view of the interior of the Pantheon (on behalf of Francesco Algarotti), and his vedute—paintings of picture galleries containing views of Rome. Most of his works, especially those of ruins, have a fanciful and unreal embellishment characteristic of capriccio themes. In this they resemble the capricci of Marco Ricci. Panini also painted portraits, including one of Pope Benedict XIV.
As a young man, Panini trained in his native town of Piacenza, under Giuseppe Natali and Andrea Galluzzi, and with stage designer Francesco Galli-Bibiena. In 1711, he moved to Rome, where he studied drawing with Benedetto Luti.
In Rome, Panini earned a name for himself as a decorator of palaces. Some of his works included the Villa Patrizi (1719–1725), the Palazzo de Carolis (1720), and the Seminario Romano (1721–1722). In 1719, Panini was admitted to the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. He taught in Rome at the Accademia di San Luca and the Académie de France, where he is said to have influenced Jean-Honoré Fragonard. In 1754, he served as the prince (director) of the Accademia di San Luca.
Panini died in Rome on 21 October 1765.
Panini's studio included Hubert Robert and his son Francesco Panini. His style influenced other vedutisti, such as his pupil Antonio Joli, as well as Canaletto and Bernardo Bellotto, who sought to meet the need of visitors for painted "postcards" depicting the Italian environs. Some British landscape painters, such as Marlow, Skelton and Wright of Derby, also imitated his capricci.
In addition to being a painter and architect, Panini was a professor of perspective and optics at the French Academy of Rome. His masterful use of perspective was later the inspiration for the creation of the "Panini Projection", which is instrumental in rendering panoramic views. 
Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, c. 1734
Saint Paul Preaching in Athens, 1734, National Gallery of Art
The Lottery at Palazzo Montecitorio, now in the National Gallery, London
St. Peter's Basilica, from the entrance
A Concert Given by the duc de Nivernais to mark the Birth of the Dauphin, 1751 at Waddesdon Manor
- Anna Maria Ferrari. "Panini, Giovanni Paolo." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. 27 March 2010.
- Arisi, Ferdinando (1986). Gian Paolo Panini e i fasti della Roma del '700 [Gian Paolo Panini and events in 18th c. Rome.] (in Italian). ISBN 88-7003-016-4.
- Arisi, Ferdinando,Giovanni Paolo Panini 1691-1765, Milano, 1993.
- Horak, Marco, Ritornato a Piacenza il dipinto di Panini passato all'asta lo scorso anno a Londra: si tratta dell' "opera prima", pendant di quello esposto alla Glauco Lombardi di Parma, in "Strenna Piacentina 2013", Piacenza, 2013.
- Horak, Marco, Quell'opera prima di Panini gemella del dipinto esposto al Lombardi di Parma, in "L'Urtiga - Quaderni di cultura Piacentina", Piacenza, n. 4, 2013.
- Horak, Marco, L'opera prima del Panini in una collezione privata, in "Panorama Musei", anno XVIII, n.3, dicembre 2013
- Horak, Marco, G.P. Panini al Fine Art Museum di San Francisco, in "Panorama Musei", anno XXI, n. 2, settembre 2016
- 68 paintings by or after Giovanni Paolo Panini at the Art UK site
- Media related to Giovanni Paolo Pannini at Wikimedia Commons
- Art and the empire city: New York, 1825-1861, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Panini (see index)
- Europe in the age of enlightenment and revolution, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Panini (see index)
- Capriccio of Roman Ruins with Figures, from the Permanent Collection of the Utah Museum of Fine Arts
- Panini at Waddesdon Manor