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|General of the Armies|
of the United States
John Pershing's gold star insignia for General of the Armies.
|Service branch||United States Army|
|Non-NATO rank||Six-star rank|
|Formation||September 3, 1919|
|Next higher rank||None|
|Next lower rank||General of the Army|
The General of the Armies of the United States, or more commonly referred to as General of the Armies, is the highest possible rank in the United States Army. The rank is considered equated to that of a six-star general; however, the number of stars has never been officially acknowledged by the Army.
The rank has only been awarded on two occasions: in 1919, to general John J. Pershing in recognition of his service in the First World War, and in 1976, to George Washington, who was posthumously promoted during the United States Bicentennial celebrations. General Pershing, who was promoted by President Woodrow Wilson with the authorization of Congress, remains the only American to have held the rank in their own lifetime.
Appointment to the rank or grade of General of the Armies of the United States has a history spanning over two centuries. In the course of its existence the authority and seniority of the rank, and perceptions by both the American public and the military establishment, have varied. The first mention of the rank "General of the Armies" was in an Act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1799. Congress provided:
That a commander of the army of the United States shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of "General of the Armies of the United States," and the present office and title of Lieutenant=General shall thereafter be abolished.
The rank of General of the Armies was intended for bestowal upon George Washington, who held the rank of "General and Commander-in-Chief" which was a grade senior to all American major generals and brigadier generals from the American Revolutionary War. However, only a few months after the Congressional proposal, Washington died on December 14, 1799. The United States Army at that time had also drastically reduced in size and there was no practical need for a superior General rank, thus the proposal for General of the Armies was soon forgotten.
American Civil War
In 1865, after the close of the American Civil War, Congress again revisited the idea of a superior General rank. The result was the creation of a special rank called "General of the Army of the United States", which was held by Ulysses S. Grant. This early version of General of the Army was in fact a four-star general officer rank although, unlike in modern times, Congress intended for only one Army officer to hold the position, thus granting the rank the same authority as the initial concept of General of the Armies. William T. Sherman and Philip Sheridan would also hold the position. During Sherman's tenure, the insignia was changed to that of a major general superimposed upon a golden national eagle.
First World War
The rank of General of the Army of the United States ceased to exist upon the death of Sheridan in 1888. The next proposal to create a superior general rank would occur thirty-one years later during the First World War. In the interim, the highest possible general officer rank of the United States Army was that of two-star major general. Within the United States Navy, three- and four-star ranks continued into the 20th century, leading to the creation of the Admiral of the Navy rank in 1899. George Dewey was appointed this rank which, at the time of its creation, was considered a four-star admiral with an added honorary title. A comparison between Admiral of the Navy and General of the Armies was first made in 1944, although the rank of Admiral of the Navy was never declared equal in seniority.
During World War I, the United States Congress authorized the appointment of three-star lieutenant generals and four-star generals to be granted temporarily for service in the National Army. Tasker H. Bliss and John J. Pershing were promoted to general in October 1917, and Peyton C. March was promoted to that rank in May 1918. Hunter Liggett and Robert Lee Bullard were both promoted to lieutenant general on October 16, 1918. In 1919, by Congressional directive, the rank of General of the Armies was formally established and John J. Pershing became the first person to hold the rank.
After the close of the First World War, the highest active grade in the U.S. Army again became major general, with all lieutenant generals and generals (except for Pershing) reverted to this permanent rank of major general. Pershing then retired from the United States Army on September 13, 1924, and retained his rank on the U.S. Army retirement rolls until his death in 1948. Four-star generals were reauthorized in 1929, starting with Charles Pelot Summerall. Pershing at this time was no longer on active duty, but his rank was regarded as senior to a full general outside the regular promotion tier.
Second World War
On December 14, 1944, the United States Army established a five-star general position and named this new rank "General of the Army", which was a title that had not been used since the 1880s after the Civil War. Unlike the Civil War version, this new rank was clearly a five-star position, whereas the old version was considered a four-star rank; the five-star rank was also intended to be held by more than one person rather than a single supreme rank for the head of the U.S. Army.
General of the Armies
Pershing was still living during World War II, although he was over eighty years old when the United States entered the war. Nevertheless, the question was immediately raised by both the media and the public as to whether Pershing's rank "fit in" with the new five-star position. It was decided that Pershing would outrank all five-star generals by order of seniority, meaning that even if he did not have a higher rank, he was considered senior by virtue of an earlier date of promotion into that rank. There was still rampant speculation, however, that Pershing was a six-star general, and the media put the matter directly to the War Department for a clear and concise answer.
It appears the intent of the Army was to make the General of the Armies senior in grade to the General of the Army. I have advised Congress that the War Department concurs in such proposed action.
The situation with Pershing was seemingly solved, but the matter of a six-star general in the United States military would reappear in only a few months during the summer of 1945 at which time Douglas MacArthur was proposed for promotion to General of the Armies. Efforts to promote MacArthur, although never successful, would continue for the next twenty years and lapse only with his death in 1964.
Developments since the 1970s
The rank of General of the Armies was revisited with a posthumous promotion of George Washington in 1976. In 1981, upon the death of Omar Bradley, brief consideration was given for another posthumous promotion; however, no action was taken beyond designing a potential "modern day" insignia for General of the Armies.
Officers appointed as General of the Armies
John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing is the only Army officer to hold the rank of General of the Armies while serving on active duty. On September 3, 1919, Congress enacted Public Law 66-45, approving the promotion of a single "general officer of the Army...distinguished in the higher command of military forces of the United States" to the rank of "General of the Armies of the United States." That same day, in accordance with Pub.L. 66−45, President Woodrow Wilson promoted Pershing to the rank. The official nomination message from Wilson that Vice President Thomas R. Marshall presented to the Senate on September 4 read as follows:
The White House, Washington, Sept. 3, 1919.
To the Senate of the United States:
Under the provisions of an act of Congress approved Sept. 3, 1919, I nominate the officer herein named for appointment in the Regular Army of the United States.
General officer—Gen. John J. Pershing, United States Army (emergency), to be general, with rank from Sept. 3, 1919.
The rank was primarily intended to recognize Pershing's performance as commander of the American Expeditionary Forces.
General Pershing chose to wear the four stars of a general, but in gold, to signify his new position.
|General of the Armies of the United States|
As part of the American bicentennial celebrations, a proposal was raised in Congress to commemorate the leadership and historical importance of George Washington by appointing him to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States. In his own day, Washington had been appointed and served as "General and Commander in chief of the Army of the [United States]". but only wore the three-star insignia of an Army lieutenant general. As of 1782, when Washington was listed as a lieutenant general on the rolls of the United States Army, his rank was informally called "three-star general". The United States at this point had no four-star general rank and would not until 1866. At that time, the European rank of captain general was shortened to simply "general"; there would also be no lieutenant generals in the American army until Winfield Scott was "brevetted" to the rank of lieutenant general in 1855.
On March 13, 1978, Washington was posthumously promoted to the full grade of General of the Armies of the United States, with effective date from July 4, 1976.
The formal promotion order signed by Secretary of the Army Clifford Alexander, Jr., simply formalized the promotion. It did not mention six-star status, nor did it include, as the legislation did, the phrasing "such grade to have rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present". The legislation implicitly clarified the relationship of Washington's rank to Pershing's. Public Law 94-479, which codified the rank of General of the Armies of the United States, did not create a separate rank from Pershing's but rather simply clarified that, while Washington and Pershing held the same rank, Washington was to be considered senior.
Whereas Lieutenant General George Washington of Virginia commanded our armies throughout and to the successful termination of our Revolutionary War;
Whereas Lieutenant General George Washington presided over the convention that formulated our Constitution; Whereas Lieutenant General George Washington twice served as President of the United States of America; and Whereas it is considered fitting and proper that no officer of the United States Army should outrank Lieutenant General George Washington on the Army list; Now, therefore, be it
- Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That
- (a) for purposes of subsection (b) of this section only, the grade of General of the Armies of the United States is established, such grade to have rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present.
- (b) The President is authorized and requested to appoint George Washington posthumously to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States, such appointment to take effect on July 4, 1976.
Approved October 11, 1976.
Campaigns for appointment as General of the Armies
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was considered for appointment to the rank of General of the Armies both during and after World War II, but a formal promotion order for his appointment "to the office of General of the Armies of the United States" was never issued. Supporters of MacArthur would lobby for over two decades to have the general promoted to "six-star general".
World War II
As part of the preparation for Operation Downfall (the planned invasion of Japan), the United States War Department began drawing up invasion manpower requirements for a large force organized into several Navy fleets and Army groups. The Army also saw the need for a possible promotion of more officers to the rank of General of the Army, depending on the size of the invasion force, as well as the participation of American allies in the Pacific (such as the Royal Navy, Red Army and the Chinese Army) all of which maintained their own equivalents to five-star rank.
It became obvious that the supreme commander for the attack of Japan would hold an enormous amount of power and would command an invasion force larger than any seen to date in the Second World War. It was also clear that whoever this commander was would have direct command authority of not one, but several five-star officers. To that end, a proposal was discussed in the War Department to appoint then General Douglas MacArthur to the rank of "General of the Armies" and have this position be considered a six-star general rank.
The Army draft for the promotion specified three key points regarding the renewed proposal for General of the Armies:
- The position would clearly be a six-star general rank
- The rank would be senior to General of the Army
- The rank would require a new insignia which incorporated a sixth star into the five-star design of General of the Army.
At the beginning of August 1945, a member of MacArthur's staff drew a single sketch of a five-star general insignia superimposed in its center with a sixth star of rank. This sketch was the first known design for a "six-star general" insignia, but just a few weeks later the proposal for MacArthur's promotion was dropped. The United States Army formally closed the file on MacArthur's promotion on August 18, 1945, four days after Japan's surrender announcement which rendered the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands unnecessary. MacArthur's service record was then annotated that the promotion package had been closed due to "lack of necessity for such a rank".
In 1955, the United States Congress considered a bill authorizing President Dwight D. Eisenhower to promote MacArthur to the rank of General of the Armies. The language used in the bill states that the rank was to be "re-activated" and that MacArthur was to be "promoted" to the position. With such terms, the proposed legislation all but confirmed that General of the Armies was a senior rank to that of General of the Army, but Congress did not pass, or vote on, the proposed legislation.
Because of the various complications, MacArthur advised Dwight Eisenhower that he wished to decline promotion and the bill to promote MacArthur was dropped. Supporters of MacArthur continued with further petitions, however, and the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia, possesses numerous letters from 1962 through 1964 attempting to obtain MacArthur a "six-star promotion". In the letters, as well as a congressional record appendix from February 1962 (pages A864-A865), this promotion was referred to as both "six-star general" and "general of the armies".
Failed posthumous promotion
When MacArthur died in 1964, proponents for his promotion petitioned both the Army and Congress to grant a posthumous promotion to General of the Armies, and even went so far as to obtain a vote of neutral support from Harry S. Truman (meaning he would neither support nor attempt to scuttle the promotion). In 1965, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Army Personnel contacted the Institute of Heraldry and requested the feasibility of creating a six-star general insignia in the event that MacArthur was in fact posthumously promoted. At the same time, the Army Personnel Office began attempting to resolve the confusion surrounding the status of General of the Armies.
The Army Personnel Office determined that, because of the number of living five-star generals still on the Army rolls in 1964, to introduce a rank of General of the Armies would require a formal regulation dealing with seniority, insignia, and retirement benefits. The Army Judge Advocate General also advised that, should MacArthur receive promotion to rank of General of the Armies, salary and benefits associated with the much more firmly established rank of five-star General of the Army would have to be reexamined. The Joint Chiefs of Staff further stated that because George C. Marshall was senior to MacArthur on the Army rolls, that should MacArthur be made a General of the Armies, a similar measure would have to be passed posthumously promoting Marshall as well (Marshall had died in 1959).
Due to various logistical and administrative difficulties, as well the United States having recovered from the John F. Kennedy assassination coupled with the expansion of the Vietnam War, efforts to promote MacArthur were ultimately dropped and no further petitions to the Army were received after 1966.
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- June 1775: George Washington appointed as General and Commander-in-Chief
- November 1783: Highest rank in the United States' military declared as Major General
- March 1799: Congress proposes George Washington be appointed as "General of the Armies of the United States"
- December 1799: Washington dies; proposal to promote to higher rank is dropped
- March 1855: Winfield Scott promoted to Lieutenant General, technically the same rank as George Washington
- April 1861: The American Civil War begins
- July 1866: Congress established the rank of "General of the Army of the United States" and promotes Ulysses Grant to the position
- March 1869: William Sherman promoted to General of the Army
- June 1888: Philip Sheridan promoted to General of the Army
- August 1888: Sheridan dies. Highest rank in Army is again Major General
- March 1903: George Dewey promoted to "Admiral of the Navy", with date of rank from 1899
- October 1917: John J. Pershing promoted to four-star general, now known simply as "General"
- October 1918: First promotions to Lieutenant General since the American Civil War
- September 1919: John J. Pershing promoted to General of the Armies of the United States
- September 1924: Pershing retires. Two star Major General again highest rank in Army
- February 1929: Three and four star general ranks again issued on a temporary basis
- November 1930: Douglas MacArthur becomes a four star general and Army Chief of Staff
- December 1941: United States enters World War II
- December 1944: Five star "General of the Army" rank established
- July 1945: Douglas MacArthur proposed for promotion to "General of the Armies"
- August 1945: World War II ends. Promotion proposal for MacArthur is closed
- July 1948: John J. Pershing dies
- January 1955: Congress considers a bill to promote MacArthur to General of the Armies.
- April 1964: MacArthur dies. No further efforts for promotion after 1966.
- March 1976: George Washington posthumously promoted to General of the Armies of the United States with seniority over all other officers of the United States armed forces
- Six-star rank in US armed forces
- General officers in the United States
- United States Army officer rank insignia
- Public Law 94-479 of 1976 to provide for the appointment of George Washington to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States
- "John J. Pershing". Biography. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Public Law 66-45 - Wikisource, the free online library". en.wikisource.org. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Act of March 3, 1799, ch. 48, § 9, 1 Stat. 749, 752.
- Office of the Judge Advocate General, United States Army (1915). The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915 (also The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
- Only Major Generals Now; March, Liggett and Bullard Lose War Rank The New York Times, June 30, 1920
- "How many U.S. Army five-star generals have there been and who were they?". United States Army Center of Military History.
- "General of the Armies of the United States and General of the Army of the United States". US Military. About.com. 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- "Pershing, John, GEN". Together we Served. 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- "5 Star Generals". Militaryfactory.com. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- The United States Army and Navy Journal and Gazette of the Regular and Volunteer Forces. Army and Navy Journal Incorporated. 1919. p. 76.
- The United States Army and Navy Journal and Gazette of the Regular and Volunteer Forces. Army and Navy Journal Incorporated. 1919. p. 76.
- Public Law 66-45 of September 3, 1919 to revive the office of General of the Armies
- Cont'l Cong., Commission for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 96-7 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Cont'l Cong., Instructions for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 100-1 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Cont'l Cong., Resolution Changing "United Colonies" to "United States", in 5 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 747 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Senate Joint Resolution 26 of January 21, 1955
- 84th Congress 1st session, S.J.Res.26
- Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff (United States Army Center of Military History)
- How many U.S. Army five-star generals have there been and who were they? from the United States Army Center of Military History
- Military service record of Douglas MacArthur, Military Personnel Records Center
- Naval service record of Chester Nimitz, Military Personnel Records Center
- The Origin of the Ranks and Rank Insignia Now Used by the United States Armed Forces at history.navy.mil
- Abandoned proposal for six-star rank in Second World War at eisenhowermemorial.org
- General of the Armies of the United States and General of the Army of the United States at us.military.com