|(79,000 cited 1990)|
Galela is the second most populous Papuan language spoken west of New Guinea, with some 80,000 speakers. Its dialects are Kadai (41,000), Morotai (24,000), Kadina (10,000), and Sopi (4,000). Its closest relative is the Loloda language.
Galela is spoken on the eastern side of the northern tip of Halmahera island (in Galela district and in neighbouring villages in Tobelo and Loloda districts), on Morotai Island to the north, on the Bacan and Obi islands to the south of Halmahera, and in scattered settlements along the southwest coast. All are in North Maluku province of Indonesia.
The following sound inventory is based on Shelden (1998).
Galela has a simple five vowel system: /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/.
Galela orthography largely follows Indonesian spelling conventions:
- [ɸ] is spelled f
- [t͡ʃ] is spelled c
- [d̻] is spelled ḋ
- [d̺] is spelled d
- [d͡ʒ] is spelled j
- [ɲ] is spelled ny
- [ŋ] is spelled ng
- [j] is spelled y
Galela has two free pronoun sets, and two sets of bound pronominal prefixes. The use of the pronominal prefixes is governed by semantic alignment: actor prefixes are used to index the S-argument of active intransitive verbs and the A-argument of transitive verbs, while undergoer prefixes index the S-argument of stative intransitive verbs and the P-argument of transitive verbs.
- Materials on Galela are included in the open access Arthur Capell collection (AC2) held by Paradisec.
- Galela at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Shelden, Howard (1998). "Transitivity and Galela pronominal reference". SIL Electronic Working Papers. 1998–005.
- van Baarda, M. J. (1904). "Het Lòda'sch, in vergelijking met het Galela'sch dialect op Halmaheira" [Lòda'sch, compared to the Galela'sch dialect on Halmaheira]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). 56 (3/4): 317–496. doi:10.1163/22134379-90002009.
- Holton, Gary (2008). "The rise and fall of semantic alignment in North Halmahera, Indonesia". In Donohue, Mark; Wichmann, Søren (eds.). The Typology of Semantic Alignment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 252–276.
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