Gabriel Amisi Kumba
|Allegiance||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Commands held||8th Military Region (North Kivu)|
Military operation in Kindu
Major General Gabriel Amisi Kumba (Tango Four) was Chief of Staff of the Forces Terrestres, the army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Amisi was a former Forces armees Zairoises (FAZ) officer who was recruited into the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL) in 1996. During the Second Congo War, Amisi was assistant chief of staff for logistics of the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD-G). This position was the origin of his nickname, as T-4 was the abbreviation for his position. He was implicated by Human Rights Watch in the execution of soldier Joe Lona Bifuko and in the torture of prisoners in the ANC[who?] military intelligence detention centre in Goma in 2001.
After the Kisangani massacre, he commanded an ANC brigade based at Mbuji-Mayi. In September 2002, it allegedly took part in the executions of 82 civilians and Mayi-Mayi fighters in Kindu in a military operation together with the Rwandan Defence Forces.
He was the former commander of the 8th Military Region in North Kivu, appointed in January 2005. In August 2006, it appears he was moved from command of the 8th Military Region to become chief of staff of the FARDC Land Forces (Forces Terrestre). There are credible allegations, some made by the BBC, that General Kumba personally profited from his position, benefiting from mining in the east of the country, during the past few years.
Many reports link Amisi to mining operations in North Kivu. In particular, Amisi appears to have protected and profited from the operations of Colonel Samy Matumo, the former commander of the 85th Brigade that occupied the Bisie mine for several years. The report, written for the U.N. by the specialist Group of Experts on the DRC, said that Amisi oversaw a network providing arms and ammunition to criminal groups and rebels who roam the hills and forests of Congo's resource-rich but troubled east. According to the report, ammunition bought in neighboring Congo Brazzaville, is smuggled through the Congolese capital Kinshasa to the east by a close network of Amisi's associates, including members of his family.
On 22 November 2012, Amisi was suspended from his position in the Forces Terrestres by president Joseph Kabila due to his alleged role in the arms sales to rebel groups in the eastern part of the country, which may have implicated the rebel group M23.
Sanctions announced by the United States on 28 September 2016 because units under his command "reportedly have engaged in violent repression of political demonstrations”, including January 2015 protests in which at least 42 people died, barred U.S. citizens from financial transactions with him. These measures were seen as a warning to president Joseph Kabila to respect the country's constitution.
In 2017 a UN report alleged that Amisi was mining gold on the Awimi River in Tshopo province, and that the management of La Conquete, a company he allegedly owns, were guarded by Congo’s military (FARDC).
- Congo Siasa, Congo Army Chief Caught in Gold Deal, November 2010
- Human Rights Watch, 'War Crimes in Kisangani: The Response of Rwandan-backed rebels to the May 2002 mutiny, HRW, August 2002, 12.
- Stanis Nkundiye, 'War in the East: The RDC massacres 82 civilians in Kindu,' L'Avenir, English Translation, 20 September 2002, via Barouski, 'Laurent Nkundabatware, His Rwandan Allies, and the ex-ANC Mutiny,' 13 February 2007, 29 of 457, privately distributed.
- (in French) Jean Omasombo, RDC: Biographies des acteurs de la Troisieme Republique, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Brussels, 24-25
- U.S. Embassy Kinshasa, 06KINSHASA1846: North Kivu Update: FARDC Launches Failed Offensive On Nkunda Positions, Monday, December 11, 2006, para 6.
- BBC, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11722142
- Olivier, Mathieu (November 22, 2012). "RDC : le général Amisi, numéro deux des FARDC, accusé par l'ONU de vendre des armes aux rebelles dans l'Est" (in French). Jeune Afrique. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- "RDC : le président Kabila suspend le général major Amisi, le chef des forces terrestres" (in French). Radio Okapi. November 22, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- Burke, Jason (28 September 2016). "US imposes sanctions on top DRC officials after election delay". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- Kate Hairsine (January 9, 2017). "Democratic Republic of Congo army general profits from illegally mining conflict gold: As gold continues to fuel the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a UN report says". Deutche Welle: Major General Gabriel Amisi Kumba with a history of serious human rights abuses is illegally running a gold mining operation.
- William Clowes (August 14, 2017). "UN Experts Accuse Congo Army General of Mining Gold Illegally". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- Nicholas Garrett; Sylvia Sergiou; Koen Vlassenroot, 'Negotiated Peace for Extortion: the case of Walikale territory in Eastern DR Congo,' Journal of Eastern African Studies, vol. 3, issue 1, 2009