|Died||March 7, 1919 (aged 84)|
Fukuoka was born in Tosa District in present-day Kōchi Prefecture, and served the Yamauchi daimyō of Tosa as a domain official. Together with fellow Tosa samurai Gotō Shōjirō, he went to Kyoto in 1867 to convince shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to return power peacefully to the Emperor, thus bringing about the Meiji Restoration.
After the Meiji Restoration, while serving as a San'yo (senior councillor), he helped draft the text of the Charter Oath which set the tone and direction for the new Meiji government. In the new government, he concurrently served in a variety of offices, including Political system Affairs Officer and Parliament System Examination Officer. It was in this capacity that he was afterwards, asked to help draft the Seitaisho, which set up the organizational structure of the early Meiji government.
In 1870, Fukuoka was transferred back to Kōchi and focused on the reforms of domain's administration, just prior to the abolition of the han system.
In 1872, Fukuoka re-entered the central government as Taifu (Senior Vice Minister) of Education and of Justice, but resigned in 1873 due to his opposition to the government policy with regards to the Seikanron debate on the invasion of Korea
- Beasley, William G. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political, Economic and Social Change Since 1850. St. Martin's Press, New York 1995.
- Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds. (1986). Japan in Transition: from Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691054599; OCLC 12311985
- Keene, Donald. (2002). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12340-2; OCLC 46731178
- Totten, George O. (1996). Democracy in Prewar Japan: Groundwork or Facade?. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company.