Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.
In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, and wheat grains. The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body.
Botanic fruit and culinary fruit
Many common language terms used for fruit and seeds differ from botanical classifications. For example, in botany, a fruit is a ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds; e.g., an apple or a pomegranate — or a tomato (see figure). A nut is a type of fruit (and not a seed), and a seed is a ripened ovule. In culinary language, a fruit, so-called, is the sweet- or not sweet- (even sour-) tasting produce of a specific plant (e.g., a peach, pear or lemon); nuts are hard, oily, non-sweet plant produce in shells. Vegetables, so called, typically are savory or non-sweet produce (e.g., zucchini, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato); but some may be sweet-tasting (e.g., sweet potato, watermelon).
Examples of botanically classified fruit that typically are called vegetables include: cucumber, pumpkin, and squash (all are cucurbits); beans, peanuts, and peas (all legumes); corn, eggplant, bell pepper (or sweet pepper), and tomato. The spices chili pepper and allspice are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast, rhubarb is often called a fruit when used in making pies, but the edible produce of rhubarb is actually the leaf stalk, or petiole, of the plant. And edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., ginkgo nuts and pine nuts.
Botanically, a cereal grain such as corn, rice, or wheat is a kind of fruit (termed a caryopsis). However, the fruit wall is very thin and is fused to the seed coat, so almost all the edible grain-fruit is actually a seed.
The outer, often edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked.
Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds. The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process. Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.
There are three general modes of fruit development:
- Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, and they are the simplest fruits.
- Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
- Multiple fruits form from many different flowers.
Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and composite or multiple fruits. The groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop.
Simple fruits are classified as either dry or fleshy. Both result from the ripening to fruit of a simple or compound ovary in a single flower with only one pistil. (In comparison, a single flower with numerous simple pistils typically produces an aggregate fruit.)
To distribute their seeds, dry fruits may split open and discharge their seeds to the winds, (dehiscence). Or they may rely on degredation and decay of the fruit to expose the seeds, or on the eating and excreting of fruit by frugivores to distribute seeds, (indehiscence). Fleshy fruit do not split open; they are indehiscent and they aiso may rely on frugivores for distribution of their seeds. Typically, the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible pericarp.
Types of dry simple fruits (and examples) include:
- achene – most commonly seen in aggregate fruits (e.g., strawberry, see below).
- capsule – (Brazil nut).
- caryopsis – (wheat).
- cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum, (dandelion).
- fibrous drupe – (coconut, walnut).
- follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture, (milkweed); also commonly seen in aggregate fruits, (magnolia).
- legume – (bean, pea, peanut).
- loment – a type of indehiscent legume, (sweet vetch or wild potato).
- nut – (beech, hazelnut, oak acorn).
- samara – (ash, elm, maple key).
- schizocarp, see below – (carrot seed).
- silique – (radish seed).
- silicle – (shepherd's purse).
- utricle – (strawberry).
Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are termed simple fleshy fruits. Types of simple fleshy fruits (with examples) include:
- berry – The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit. The entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp", (see below).
- stone fruit or drupe – The definitive characteristic of a drupe is the hard, "lignified" stone (sometimes called the "pit"). It is derived from the ovary wall of the flower, (apricot, cherry, olive, peach, plum, mango).
- pome – The pome fruits of the family Rosaceae, (including apples, pears, rosehips, and saskatoon berry) are a syncarpous (fused) fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary.
Berries are a type of simple fleshy fruit that issue from a single ovary. (The ovary itself may be compound, with several carpels.) This botanical definition includes grapes, currants, cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines), tomatos, and bananas; but excludes certain fruits that are called "-berry" by the culinary or common usage of the term—such as strawberries and raspberries. Berries may be formed from one or more carpels from the same flower (i.e., from the simple or compound ovary). Seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary.
Examples here and in the table below:
- tomato – In culinary terms, the tomato is regarded as a vegetable; however botanically, it is classified as a fruit and a berry.
- banana – The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence.
- pepo – Berries with skin that is hardened, (gourds, or cucurbits).
- hesperidium – Berries with a rind and a juicy interior, (most citrus fruit).
- cranberry, gooseberry, redcurrant, grape.
The strawberry, regardless of its appearance, is classified as a dry, not a fleshy fruit. Botanically, it is not a berry; it is an aggregate-accessory fruit, the latter term meaning the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries. Numerous dry, apparent "seeds" (termed achenes) are attached on the outside of the fruit-flesh; but each is actually an ovary of a flower with a seed inside (see image).
Schizocarps are dry fruits though some appear to be fleshy. They originate from syncarpous ovaries but do not actually dehisce; rather, they split into segments with one or more seeds. They include a number of different forms from a wide range of families, including carrot, parsnip, parsley, cumin.
Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have an etaerio of berries.
An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a single flower with numerous simple pistils.
- Magnolia and peony, collection of follicles developing from one flower.
- Sweet gum, collection of capsules.
- Sycamore, collection of achenes.
- Teasel, collection of cypsellas
- Tuliptree, collection of samaras.
The raspberry, whose pistils are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit. The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes. In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils.
A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an inflorescence). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass. Examples are the pineapple, fig, mulberry, osage-orange, and breadfruit.
In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarp.
Some or all of the edible part of accessory fruit is not generated by the ovary. Accessory fruit can be simple, aggregate, or multiple, i.e., they can include one or more pistils and other parts from the same flower, or the pistils and other parts of many flowers.
Table of fruit examples
|True berry||Pepo||Hesperidium||Aggregate fruit||Multiple fruit||Accessory fruit|
|Banana, Blackcurrant, Blueberry, Chili pepper, Cranberry, Eggplant, Gooseberry, Grape, Guava, Kiwifruit, Lucuma, Pomegranate, Redcurrant, Tomato||Cucumber, Gourd, Melon, Pumpkin||Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Orange||Blackberry, Boysenberry, Raspberry||Fig, Hedge apple, Mulberry, Pineapple||Apple, Pineapple, Rose hip, Stone fruit, Strawberry|
Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel oranges), satsumas, table grapes, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.
Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy, which requires normal pollination and fertilization.
Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals, or to stick to the feathers, hairs, or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.
The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited (i.e., defecated) at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels), which hoard them in the soil to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.
Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally, and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e.g., elm, maple, and tuliptree. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent, via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny "parachutes", e.g., dandelion, milkweed, salsify.
Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits (like apple, kiwifruit, mango, peach, pear, and watermelon) are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also used in manufactured foods (e.g., cakes, cookies, ice cream, muffins, or yogurt) or beverages, such as fruit juices (e.g., apple juice, grape juice, or orange juice) or alcoholic beverages (e.g., brandy, fruit beer, or wine). Fruits are also used for gift giving, e.g., in the form of Fruit Baskets and Fruit Bouquets.
Many "vegetables" in culinary parlance are botanical fruits, including bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, green bean, okra, pumpkin, squash, tomato, and zucchini. Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil. Spices like allspice, black pepper, paprika, and vanilla are derived from berries.
All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone ethylene causes ripening. Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life.
Excessive intake of added sugar is broadly acknowledged as harmful to humans. Adults and children who regularly consume high amounts of sugar in foods and beverages have a high risk of becoming chronically overweight (see metabolic syndrome) and to incur the serious health maladies that typically follow that status. Because fruits are relatively high in sugar it is often questioned whether fruits are a healthy food.
In fact however, it is difficult to consume excessive amounts of sugar (e. g. fructose) merely by eating fresh fruit. Various culinary fruits provide significant amounts of fiber and water and present significant resistance to chewing; many are generally high in vitamin C. An overview of numerous studies show that fruits (e.g., whole apples or whole oranges) are very satisfying (filling) in the acts of simply eating and chewing them. The fiber consumed in eating fruit promote satiety and help to control weight gain and to provide cholesterol-lowering effects.
Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging. A current review for meta-analyses concludes that even current assessments might significantly underestimate the protective associations of regularly eating fruits and vegetables.
For food safety, the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice.
All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage.
Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.
All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food. For example:
- Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles;
- Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements (e.g., annual honesty, cotoneaster, lotus, milkweed, unicorn plant, and wheat). Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including beautyberry, cotoneaster, holly, pyracantha, skimmia, and viburnum.
- Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium, which contains the drugs codeine and morphine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthesized.
- Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches.
- Many fruits provide natural dyes (e.g., cherry, mulberry, sumac, and walnut).
- Dried gourds are used as bird houses, cups, decorations, dishes, musical instruments, and water jugs.
- Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween.
- The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur inspired the invention of Velcro.
- Coir fiber from coconut shells is used for brushes, doormats, floor tiles, insulation, mattresses, sacking, and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make bird houses, bowls, cups, musical instruments, and souvenir heads.
- Fruit is often a subject of still life paintings.
Fruit flies are species of flies that lay their eggs in the flesh of fruit. The pupae then consume the fruit before maturing into adult flies. Some species lay eggs in fruit that is done maturing or rotten; however, some species select hosts that are not yet ripe. Thus, these fruit flies cause significant damage to fruit crops. An example of this type of fruit fly is the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni) B. tyroni causes more than $28.5 million in damage to Australian fruit crops a year. Combating this pest without the use of harmful pesticides is an active area of research.
- Lewis, Robert A. (2002). CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2327-0.
- Schlegel, Rolf H J (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects. Haworth Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6.
- Mauseth, James D. (2003). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett. pp. 271–72. ISBN 978-0-7637-2134-3.
- "Sporophore from Encyclopædia Britannica". Archived from the original on 2011-02-22.
- McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Simon & Schuster. pp. 247–48. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- For a Supreme Court of the United States ruling on the matter, see Nix v. Hedden.
- McGee (2004). On Food and Cooking. p. 367. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- Lewis (2002). CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-8493-2327-0.
- "Glossary of Botanical Terms". FloraBase. Western Australian Herbarium. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
-  Archived December 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Mauseth, James D. (2003). Botany: an introduction to plant biology. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-7637-2134-3.
- Rost, Thomas L.; Weier, T. Elliot; Weier, Thomas Elliot (1979). Botany: a brief introduction to plant biology. New York: Wiley. pp. 135–37. ISBN 978-0-471-02114-8.
- Mauseth (2003). Botany. Chapter 9: Flowers and Reproduction. ISBN 978-0-7637-2134-3.
- Singh, Gurcharan (2004). Plants Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Science Publishers. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-57808-351-0.
- Schlegel (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6.
- Schlegel (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6.
- Evolutionary trends in flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press. 1991. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-231-07328-8.
- Sinha, Nirmal; Sidhu, Jiwan; Barta, Jozsef; Wu, James; Cano, M. Pilar (2012). Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-35263-2.
- Mark Abadi (26 May 2018). "A tomato is actually a fruit — but it's a vegetable at the same time". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Smith, James P. (1977). Vascular Plant Families. Eureka, Calif.: Mad River Press. ISBN 978-0-916422-07-3.
- Esau, K. (1977). Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York. ISBN 0-471-24520-8
- Gupta, Prof. P.K. (2007). Genetics Classical To Modern. Rastogi Publication. pp. 2–134. ISBN 978-81-7133-896-2.
- http://www.rkv.rgukt.in/content/Biology/47Module/47fruit.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Schlegel (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6.
- McGee (2004). On Food and Cooking. pp. 361–62. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- McGee (2004). On Food and Cooking. pp. 364–65. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- Schlegel (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-56022-950-6.
- Spiegel-Roy, P.; E.E. Goldschmidt (1996). The Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-0-521-33321-4.
- Capon, Brian (2005). Botany for Gardeners. Timber Press. pp. 198–99. ISBN 978-0-88192-655-2.
- Heiser, Charles B. (2003). Weeds in My Garden: Observations on Some Misunderstood Plants. Timber Press. pp. 93–95. ISBN 978-0-88192-562-3.
- Heiser (2003). Weeds in My Garden. pp. 162–64. ISBN 978-0-88192-562-3.
- Feldkamp, Susan (2002). Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 634. ISBN 978-0-88192-562-3.
- McGee (2004). On Food and Cooking. Chapter 7: A Survey of Common Fruits. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- "Best Gift Baskets for the Holidays - Consumer Reports". www.consumerreports.org. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
- O'Connor, Clare. "How Edible Arrangements Sold $500 Million Of Fruit Bouquets In 2013". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
- McGee (2004). On Food and Cooking. Chapter 6: A Survey of Common Vegetables. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
- Farrell, Kenneth T. (1999). Spices, Condiments and Seasonings. Springer. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-0-8342-1337-1.
- Why Cold Chain for Fruits: Kohli, Pawanexh (2008). "Fruits and Vegetables Post-Harvest Care: The Basics". Crosstree Techno-visors. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-04. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. World Health Organization. 2015. ISBN 978-92-4-154902-8.
- Malik VS, Pan A, Willett WC, Hu FB (October 2013). "Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 98 (4): 1084–102. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.058362. PMC 3778861. PMID 23966427.
- Hulme, A.C (editor) (1970). "The Biochemistry of Fruits and their Products". 1. London & New York: Academic Press. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Is Fruit Good or Bad for Your Health? The Sweet Truth". Healthline. Retrieved 2020-05-03.
- Holt, S. H.; Miller, J. C.; Petocz, P.; Farmakalidis, E. (September 1995). "A satiety index of common foods". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 49 (9): 675–690. ISSN 0954-3007. PMID 7498104.
- Slavin, J.; Green, H. (March 2007). "Dietary fibre and satiety". Nutrition Bulletin. 32 (s1): 32–42. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00603.x. ISSN 1471-9827.
- Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Farrés, Xavier; Luque, Xavier; Narejos, Silvia; Borrell, Manel; Basora, Josep; Anguera, Anna; Torres, Ferran; Bulló, Mònica; Balanza, Rafel; Fiber in Obesity-Study Group (June 2008). "Effect of two doses of a mixture of soluble fibres on body weight and metabolic variables in overweight or obese patients: a randomised trial". The British Journal of Nutrition. 99 (6): 1380–1387. doi:10.1017/S0007114507868528. ISSN 1475-2662. PMID 18031592.
- Brown, L.; Rosner, B.; Willett, W. W.; Sacks, F. M. (January 1999). "Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 69 (1): 30–42. doi:10.1093/ajcn/69.1.30. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 9925120.
- Lim, Stephen S.; Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Danaei, Goodarz; Shibuya, Kenji; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus; Anderson, H. Ross; Andrews, Kathryn G. (2012-12-15). "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2224–60. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8. ISSN 1474-547X. PMC 4156511. PMID 23245609.
- Wang X, Ouyang Y, Liu J, Zhu M, Zhao G, Bao W, Hu FB (2014). "Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". BMJ. 349 (Jul 29): g4490. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4490. PMC 4115152. PMID 25073782.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Yip, Cynthia Sau Chun; Chan, Wendy; Fielding, Richard (March 2019). "The Associations of Fruit and Vegetable Intakes with Burden of Diseases: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 119 (3): 464–481. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2018.11.007. ISSN 2212-2672. PMID 30639206.
- "Nutrition for Everyone: Fruits and Vegetables – DNPAO – CDC". fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-05-09.
- "Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America". Aafa.org. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Roy Mankovitz (2010). The Wellness Project. ISBN 978-0-9801584-4-1. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Porcelain vine". The Morton Arboretum. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- K, Amber (December 1, 2001). Candlemas: Feast of Flames. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7387-0079-3.
- Adams, Denise Wiles (2004). Restoring American Gardens: An Encyclopedia of Heirloom Ornamental Plants, 1640–1940. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-619-4.
- Booth, Martin (1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-20667-3.
- Cothran, James R. (2003). Gardens and Historic Plants of the Antebellum South. University of South Carolina Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-57003-501-2.
- Adrosko, Rita J. (1971). Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing: A Practical Guide with over 150 Recipes. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-22688-0.
- Wake, Warren (2000). Design Paradigms: A Sourcebook for Creative Visualization. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 162–63. ISBN 978-0-471-29976-9.
- "The Many Uses of the Coconut". The Coconut Museum. Archived from the original on 2006-09-06. Retrieved 2006-09-14.
- Lloyd, Annice C.; Hamacek, Edward L.; Kopittke, Rosemary A.; Peek, Thelma; Wyatt, Pauline M.; Neale, Christine J.; Eelkema, Marianne; Gu, Hainan (May 2010). "Area-wide management of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Central Burnett district of Queensland, Australia". Crop Protection. 29 (5): 462–469. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2009.11.003. ISSN 0261-2194.
- Gollner, Adam J. (2010). The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-7432-9695-3
- Watson, R. R., and Preedy, V.R. (2010, eds.). Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374628-3
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Fruit|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fruits.|
|Look up fruit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Images of fruit development from flowers at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu
- Fruit and seed dispersal images at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu
- Fruit Facts from California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
- Photo ID of Fruits Archived 2021-01-09 at the Wayback Machine by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .