Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg
General Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg, c. 1860
|Governor-General of Finland|
19 December [O.S. 7] 1854 – 20 November [O.S. 8] 1861
|Preceded by||Alexander Menshikov|
|Succeeded by||Platon Rokassovsky|
|Viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland|
31 October [O.S. 19] 1863 – 18 January [O.S. 6] 1874
|Preceded by||Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished (Paul Demetrius von Kotzebue as the Governor-General of Warsaw)|
|Born||15 May [O.S. 26] 1794|
Sagnitz Manor, Sagnitz, Kreis Werro, Riga Governorate, Russian Empire
(in present-day Sangaste, Valga County, Estonia)
|Died||6 January [O.S. 18] 1874 (aged 79)|
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Resting place||Kortenhof Manor, Governorate of Livonia (in present-day Pilskalns, Latvia)|
|Branch/service||Imperial Russian Army|
|Years of service||1812 – 1874|
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Russian: Фёдор Фёдорович Берг, tr. Fëdor Fëdorovič Berg; 15 May [O.S. 26] 1794 – 6 January [O.S. 18] 1874) was a Baltic German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and general who served in the Imperial Russian Army. Berg was a count of the Austrian Empire and Grand Duchy of Finland and the 5th last General-Field Marshal promoted in the history of the Russian Empire. He served as the Governor-General of Finland from 1854 to 1861 and the last Viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland from 1863 to 1874.
Berg was best known for his role in the Russification of Poland and Finland during his time as the viceroy of the two political entities. He was most prominent for his role during the Crimean War as he defended Finland from British invasion. He was also crucial in suppressing and crushing of the Polish January Uprising of 1863, during which the rebels carried out numerous assassination attempts on him, as the attempts failed, Poland was declared martial law and the Russification system was even more harsher than before. But Berg was also responsible for improving the economy and industry of Poland after the uprising. He died in St. Petersburg in 1874 and was buried in his family estate in Korten (in now Pilskalns, Latvia).
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg was born on May 15, 1794 (26 according to the Julian calendar in use in Russia at the time), in the family estate in Sagnitz, Livonia. His father Friedrich Georg von Berg was a state councillor and his mother Getruda Wilhelmine von Ermes was a young noblewoman. Historians still debate where the Livonian Berg family (de) originates in, many speculates they originated in Westphalia. The first known ancestor of the family to appear in Livonia was Otto von Berg. His son Otto was a vassal of the Livonian Knighthood.
Friedrich belonged to the Sagnitz branch of the Luist line of the family. The Luist line was formed by Captain Gustav von Berg (1656-1715), and the further divided Sagnitz branch was formed by Friedrich's grandfather Major Gotthard Ernst von Berg (1714-1766).
Berg spent his childhood in the Sagnitz castle and was home educated by the later famous astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve. After he finished his home education he studied in the Governorate Gymnasium (et) in Dorpat. As he didn't plan to pursue a military career as a family tradition, Berg was enrolled into the Philosophy faculty of Imperial University of Dorpat in 1810. But in 1812, after the Napoleon launched the invasion of Russia, Berg dropped from university and voluntarily entered the Imperial Russian Army.
He entered the army as a Fahnenjunker and was enlisted into the 6th Libau Infantry Regiment which was stationed at the north-western part of Russia to defend against Napoleon. Berg's bravely during the war of 1812 rewarded him the rank of lieutenant personally from Alexander I. He was also appointed second to the quartermaster due to his high education and language skills among Russians at the time.
After Napoleon was pushed out of Russia, Berg was transferred to a partisan unit under the commands of Baron von Tettenborn and Pavel Kutuzov and took part in actions in Germany including the Battle of Leipzig.
Berg was born the eldest son of small family with three siblings, including his brother Gustav "Astaf" Gotthard Karl von Berg, the owner of the Alt-Ottenhof Manor (et). His other brother Alexander was a diplomat and consul in Naples and London. Count von Berg married late in his life. In 1839, he married a rich Milanese aristocrat Leopoldina Cicogna-Mozzoni (it) (1786-1874), with whom Berg had no issues with. However, after his brother Gustav's death in 1861, he adopted his children and brought them under his care:
- Friedrich Georg Magnus Graf von Berg (1845-1938)
- Alexander Rembert Joachim Graf von Berg (1847-1893)
- Georg Erich Rembert Graf von Berg (1849-1920)
- Emilie Wilhelmine "Minni" Anna Marie Ulrike Pauline Gräfin von Berg (1852-1945)
Honours and awards
- Order of St. Anna, 3rd class (1813)
- Order of St. Vladimir, 4th class with a bow (1813)
- Order of St. Anna, 1st class with the Imperial Crown (1828, Imperial Crown in 1831)
- Order of St. George, 3rd class (25.6.181829)
- Order of St. Vladimir, 2nd class (1829)
- Order of Virtuti Militari, Commander's Cross for military distinction (1831)
- Order of the White Eagle (1833)
- Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (1838, diamonds signs in 1845)
- Order of St. Vladimir, 1st class (1848)
- Gold Sword for Bravery with diamonds and the inscription "For a campaign to Hungary in 1849"
- Order of St. Andrew with swords and diamond signs (7.08.1855, diamond signs in 11.8.1861)
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Kingdom of the Netherlands:
- Order of the Netherlands Lion, Great Cross (1849)
- Kingdom of Hungary:
- Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Nagykereszt (1849)
- Kingdom of Sweden:
- Order of the Seraphim with diamond marks (1859, diamonds marks on 17.8.1860)
- Kingdom of Greece:
- Order of the Redeemer, Great Cross (1868)
- Le feldmaréchal-comte Berg, namiestnik dans le royaume de Pologne. Notice biographique. Warsaw 1872 – Autobiography
- Klingspor 1882, p. 10.
- Regarding personal names: Until 1919, Graf was a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names.
- Grevliga ätten nr 11 BERG – Finnish House of Nobility
- Governors-general of Finland
- Stackelberg 1930, pp. 654-655.
- Stackelberg 1930, pp. 659.
- Stackelberg 1930, pp. 661.
- Fr. G. W. Struve Dorpat period
- Stackelberg 1930, pp. 662.
- Military Encyclopaedia & 1911-1915, pp. 478.
- Stackelberg, Otto Magnus (1930). "Genealogische Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, Teil Estland, Band I, seite 654-662 (Genealogical Handbook of the Baltic Knighthood, Part Estonia, Band I, page 654-662)". daten.digitale-sammlungen.de. Starke Verlag, Görlitz.
- Klingspor, Carl Arvid (1882). "Baltisches Wappenbuch Wappen sämmtlicher, den Ritterschaften von Livland, Estland, Kurland und Oesel zugehörigen Adelsgeschlechter, seite 10 (The coat of arms of the coat of arms is the coat of arms belonging to the knighthoods of Livonia, Estonia, Courland and Oesel, page 10)". personen.digitale-sammlungen.de. Stockholm.
- "Deutschbaltisches Biographisches Lexikon, seite 49-52 (Baltic German Biographical Dictionary, page 49-52)". bbld.de. Buchhandlung v. Hirschheydt, Wedemark. 1998.
- "Военная энциклопедия, страница 478 (Military Encyclopaedia, page 478)". ru.m.wikisource.org. Sytin, Moscow. 1911–1915.CS1 maint: date format (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg.|
| Governor-General of Finland
Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich
| Viceroy of Poland
Paul Demetrius von Kotzebue
as Governor-General of Warsaw
|This biographical article related to the Russian military is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|