|Author||J. D. Salinger|
|Published||1961 Little, Brown|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|Preceded by||Nine Stories|
|Followed by||Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction|
Franny and Zooey is a book by American author J. D. Salinger which comprises his short story "Franny" and novella Zooey //. The two works were published together as a book in 1961, having originally appeared in The New Yorker in 1955 and 1957 respectively. The book focuses on siblings Franny and Zooey, the two youngest members of the Glass family, which was a frequent focus of Salinger's writings.
"Franny" tells the story of Franny Glass, Zooey's sister, undergraduate at a small liberal arts college. The story takes place in an unnamed college town during Franny's weekend visit to her boyfriend Lane. Disenchanted with the selfishness and inauthenticity she perceives all around her, she aims to escape it through spiritual means.
Zooey is set shortly after "Franny" in the Glass family apartment in New York City's Upper East Side. While actor Zooey's younger sister Franny suffers a spiritual and existential breakdown in their parents' Manhattan living room, leaving their mother Bessie deeply concerned, Zooey comes to Franny's aid, offering what she thinks is brotherly love, understanding, and words of sage advice.
The short story concerns Franny's weekend date with her collegiate boyfriend, Lane Coutell. Lane takes her to a fashionable lunch room, where Franny quickly becomes exasperated when he only appears interested in conversing about the minutiae of his academic frustrations. Franny questions the importance of college education and the worth of Lane's friends. She eats nothing, feels faint, and becomes progressively more uncomfortable talking to Lane. Eventually she excuses herself to visit the restroom, where, after a crying spell, she regains her composure.
She returns to the table, where Lane questions her on the small book she has been carrying. She explains that the book is titled The Way of a Pilgrim and tells the story of how a Russian wanderer learns the power of "praying without ceasing". The Jesus Prayer involves internalizing the prayer "Lord Jesus Christ, have mercy on me" to a point where, in a manner similar to a Zen koan, it becomes unconscious, almost like a heartbeat. Lane is less interested in the story than in keeping their timetable for the party and football game, though when Franny faints, he tends to her and postpones the weekend's activities. After she wakes, he goes to call a taxi to take her to her lodging, and leaves Franny alone—practising the act of praying without ceasing.
Zooey reads a four-year-old letter from his brother Buddy in the bath in his family's home. In the letter, Buddy discusses their eldest brother Seymour's suicide several years previously, and encourages Zooey to pursue an acting career if he is drawn to it. Zooey's mother, Bessie, enters the bathroom, and the two have a long discussion, centering upon Bessie's worries about his sister, Franny, who is in a state of emotional collapse and is refusing food. During the conversation, Zooey verbally spars and banters with his mother and repeatedly requests that she leave. Bessie tolerates Zooey's behavior, and simply states that he's becoming more and more like his brother Buddy and wonders what has happened to her children that were once so "sweet and loving".
After Bessie leaves, Zooey gets dressed and goes to the living room, where he finds Franny on the sofa with their cat Bloomberg, and begins speaking with her. After upsetting Franny by questioning her motives for reciting the "Jesus Prayer" and accusing her of selfishness, Zooey retreats into the former bedroom of Seymour and Buddy, and reads the back of their door, covered in philosophical quotations. After contemplation, Zooey telephones Franny, pretending to be Buddy. Franny eventually discovers the ruse, but she and Zooey continue to talk. Zooey shares with her some words of wisdom that Seymour once gave him, suggesting that one should live with optimism and love because, even if nobody else does, Jesus notices. After Zooey hangs up, Franny lies in their parents' bed and smiles at the ceiling.
The story reflects Salinger's known interest in Eastern religious philosophy such as Zen Buddhism and Hindu Advaita Vedanta, as well as Orthodox Christian spirituality, particularly in a brief section in the second part that includes quotations from spiritual texts. There is also a discussion of whether the book is a "mystical story" or a "love story" in the introduction to the second section, as speculated by the book's narrator, Buddy Glass (who decides it's the latter). Gerald Rosen, in his short 1977 book Zen in the Art of J. D. Salinger, observes that Franny and Zooey could be interpreted as a modern Zen tale, with the main character Franny progressing over the course of the short story and novella from a state of ignorance to the deep wisdom of enlightenment. Jennifer Dunn, in an essay, mentioned that the “disparity between bright busy surfaces and inner emptiness” found in Franny and Zooey can be read as a metaphor for modern society. Carl Bode, in a Wisconsin University journal, suggested that Salinger, while writing in Franny and Zooey that “the phoney and the genuine equally deserve our love”, found this as an answer to some of his own emotional problems.
"Franny" and Zooey were originally published separately in The New Yorker magazine. "Franny" appeared in the magazine in January 1955, and Zooey in May 1957. Salinger published "Franny" and Zooey together as a book in July 1961, through Little, Brown and Company, and dedicated the book to New Yorker editor William Shawn.
Since the misconception that Franny was pregnant was nearly universal at the time of original publication (the New Yorker’s editors themselves believed Franny was pregnant), Salinger first edited the text before reconsidering, torn between his annoyance at the notion readers might interpret the story through the lens of a pregnant Franny on one hand, and his reluctance of delivering clear-cut messages on the other. In the end he made only a single change; having Lane Coutell say "Too goddam long between drinks. To put it crassly," in the hope this was seen as a reference to sex rather than menstruation. According to the Salinger scholar Warren French, the change was insufficient.
The book was very popular with the reading public, spending 26 weeks at the top of The New York Times Fiction Best Sellers list in 1961 and 1962, but critics gave it mixed reviews. John Updike felt that Salinger's work was more than adequate. He praised Salinger's characterizations, saying that they "melt indistinguishably together in an impossible radiance of personal beauty and intelligence". He also pointed out that Salinger has a "correctly unctuous and apprehensive tone". But some thought that Salinger shamed himself with this particular piece of work. Janet Malcolm quotes Maxwell Geismar who called it an "appallingly bad story", and George Steiner who even called it "a piece of shapeless self indulgence". More recently, in 2011 Jay McInerney criticized the creation of the "self satisfied Glass family", but also said that the story showed Salinger's "evolving beliefs".
Adaptations and legacy
The Iranian film Pari (1995) is a loose adaptation of the book.
- 1961, United States, Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-76954-1, Hardback
- 1991, United States & Canada, Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-76949-5, Soft cover, Reprint
- Busis, Hillary (February 10, 2010). "Franny and Who-ey?". Slate. The Slate Group.
- Salinger and the Hindu View of Life. N.K. Elizabeth. Indian Journal of American Studies, 1987. American Studies Research Centre.
- Dunn, Jennifer (2006). "Literary Contexts in Novels: J. D. Salinger's "Franny and Zooey"". Understanding Literature -- Literary Contexts in Novels. Great Neck Publishing. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- Bode, Carl (Winter 1962). "Book Reviews". Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature. University of Wisconsin Press. 3 (1): 65–71. doi:10.2307/1207381. JSTOR 1207381.
- Kenneth; Slawenski (2011). JD Salinger: A Life. Random House. pp. 258–259. ISBN 1-4000-6951-3.
- Warren; French (1963). J. D. Salinger. New York:Twayne. p 139.
- John Bear, The #1 New York Times Best Seller: intriguing facts about the 484 books that have been #1 New York Times bestsellers since the first list, 50 years ago, Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1992, pp. 83
- Updike, John. ""franny and Zooey" by J.D. Salinger". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- Malcolm, Janet (June 21, 2001). "Justice to J.D. Salinger". The New York Review of Books.
- Mcinerney, Jay (February 2011). "J. D. Salinger's Love and Squalor". The New York Times Review of Books. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- Perkins, Claire (2012). American Smart Cinema. Edinburgh University Press. Page 89