Flagstaff in 2019, seen from Mount Elden
City of Seven Wonders, Dark Sky City
|• Body||Flagstaff City Council|
|• Mayor||Coral Evans|
|• City||66.08 sq mi (171.13 km2)|
|• Land||66.02 sq mi (171.00 km2)|
|• Water||0.05 sq mi (0.14 km2)|
|Elevation||6,910 ft (2,106 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,120.28/sq mi (432.54/km2)|
|• Metro||139,097 (US: 291st)|
|Demonym(s)||Flagstonian or Flagstaffian|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (MST (no DST))|
86001–86002, 86004, 86011
|GNIS ID(s)||28749, 29046|
|Major airport||Flagstaff Pulliam Airport|
Flagstaff (// FLAG-staf; Navajo: Kinłání Dookʼoʼoosłííd Biyaagi, Navajo pronunciation: [kʰɪ̀nɬɑ́nɪ́ tòːkʼòʔòːsɬít pɪ̀jɑ̀ːkɪ̀]) is a city in, and the county seat of, Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2019, the city's estimated population was 75,038. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097.
Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau and within the San Francisco volcanic field, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. The city sits at around 7,000 feet (2,100 m) and is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m), is about 10 miles (16 km) north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. The geology of the Flagstaff area includes exposed rock from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic eras, with Moenkopi Formation red sandstone having once been quarried in the city; many of the historic downtown buildings were constructed with it. The Rio de Flag river runs through the city.
Originally settled by the pre-Columbian native Sinagua people, the area of Flagstaff has fertile land from volcanic ash after eruptions in the 11th century. It was first settled as the present-day city in 1876. Local businessmen lobbied for Route 66 to pass through the city, which it did, turning the local industry from lumber to tourism and developing downtown Flagstaff. In 1930, Pluto was discovered from Flagstaff. The city developed further through to the end of the 1960s, with various observatories also used to choose Moon landing sites for the Apollo missions. Through the 1970s and '80s, downtown fell into disrepair, but was revitalized with a major cultural heritage project in the 1990s.
The city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, and is home to the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, and Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, and Historic Route 66.
The Sinagua people were a pre-Columbian culture that occupied a large area in Arizona between approximately 500 CE and 1425 CE. The Northern Sinagua were living in the pine forests of northern Arizona before moving into the area that is now Flagstaff in about 700 CE. The 1064 and 1066 eruptions of Sunset Crater covered the area in ash, which greatly enriched the soil for farming; this also caused a population growth in the area, with Ancestral Puebloans and Cohonina people also moving to the Wupatki site near the city.
The Northern Sinagua had various cultural phases, including Sunset Crater, the Rio de Flag (leaving the Picture Canyon site), Angell and Winona, Padre Canyon, Elden Pueblo, Turkey Hill Pueblo, Clear Creek, and Walnut Canyon. The Sinagua peoples left the area by the early 15th century, likely moving north and later becoming the Hopi. The San Francisco Peaks, which overlook Flagstaff, are a sacred site in Hopi culture.
Until western expansion in the 1860s, the Yavapai, specifically the Wi:pukba (Northeastern Yavapai), occupied the land up to the San Francisco Peaks. The Yavapai land in the area saw overlap with the land of the Northern Tonto Apache that stretched across the San Francisco Peaks to the Little Colorado River. Of the Northern Tonto Apache, two tribes lived within the area of present-day Flagstaff: the Oak Creek band and the Mormon Lake band. The Mormon Lake band were centered around Flagstaff and were exclusively hunter-gatherers, traveling around places like the foot of the San Francisco Peaks, at Mount Elden, Lake Mary, Stoneman Lake, and Padre Canyon.
The area of Flagstaff had a wagon road to California in the 1800s, constructed by Edward Fitzgerald Beale's men. The first white (non-Native) settlement in the area was established by Edward Whipple, who opened a saloon on the wagon road in 1871. The first permanent settlement came in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin just north of the present-day main town. McMillan was a key developer of northern Arizona.
During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, and by 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. In 1888, McMillan purchased an unfinished building that sits at the present-day intersection of Leroux Street and Route 66/Santa Fe Avenue, turning it into a bank and hotel known as the Bank Hotel. Coconino County was created in 1891, and Flagstaff was chosen as its county seat over nearby Williams.
In 1894, A. E. Douglass recommended Flagstaff to Percival Lowell as the site for the Lowell Observatory, where it was built on Mars Hill. Flagstaff also became incorporated as a town in 1894. The city grew rapidly, primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States.:65–67 In the 1890s, the Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was founded by the Riordan brothers to process timber. Michael and Tim Riordan worked in Flagstaff, and introduced electricity to the town for this purpose. The CO Bar Ranch was opened in about 1886 by the Babbitt brothers for cattle. The Babbitt family would be very influential in northern Arizona for decades. In 1899, the Northern Arizona Normal School was established; it was renamed to Northern Arizona University (NAU) in 1966.
On January 1, 1900, John Weatherford opened the Weatherford Hotel in Flagstaff. Weatherford opened the town's first movie theater in 1911; it collapsed under heavy snowfall a few years later, but he soon replaced it with the Orpheum Theater. The Weatherford Hotel and Orpheum Theater are still in use today.
The state of Arizona was admitted to the Union in 1912. Flagstaff saw its first tourism boom in the early years of the 1900s, becoming known as the City of Seven Wonders, as the "Seven Wonders" of the wider Flagstaff area – listed as the Coconino National Forest, Grand Canyon, Oak Creek Canyon, San Francisco Peaks, Sunset Crater, Walnut Canyon, and Wupatki National Monument – were more widely known.[a]
In 1926, Route 66 was completed and ran through Flagstaff; the Babbitts and Riordans had staunchly supported it for the town. The railroad, which became the Santa Fe Railroad, had largely controlled Flagstaff until this point. The Santa Fe Railroad opened a new depot in Flagstaff in 1926, to combat Route 66. As part of the celebrations, Front Street was renamed Santa Fe Avenue. The people of Flagstaff collectively funded the Hotel Monte Vista, which opened on January 1, 1927, preparing for the next tourism boom. Flagstaff was then incorporated as a city in 1928, with over 3,000 residents, and in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue.:244–245 Flagstaff became a popular tourist stop along Route 66, particularly due to its proximity to the natural wonders. In the last years of the 1920s, tourism took over from traditional industries.
During the Great Depression, Route 66 brought unemployed workers heading to California, known as "auto nomads" in Flagstaff, who became unpopular as they could not afford to buy gas or food, financially damaging the city by taxing its resources and not contributing to the economy. Flagstaff had also been highlighted on the map by Clyde Tombaugh's 1930 discovery of Pluto from the Lowell Observatory. However, the importance of Route 66 to cross-country travel, and thus to Arizona's interests on a national level, did mean that it received a large share of state funding through the Depression, though, with highway maintenance and unemployment acts providing over $1 million of funding in May 1933. In 1935, many residents had enough disposable income to remodel their homes or build new ones.
In 1955, the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station was established. Through the 1950s the city conducted the Urban Renewal Project, improving housing quality in the Southside neighborhood that was largely populated by people of Spanish, Basque, and Mexican heritage. Flagstaff grew and prospered through the 1960s. During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Lowell Observatory Clark Telescope was used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to map the Moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules.
As the baby boomer generation began to start their own families in the 1970s and 1980s, many moved to Flagstaff based on its small-town feel, and the population began to grow again; there were not enough jobs to support the many educated individuals moving to the city. The city did not expand its infrastructure downtown despite the growing population, causing problems. Several historic buildings from the 1800s were also destroyed for construction of new ones, or leveled completely. Downtown became an uninviting place, and many businesses started to move out of the area, causing an economic and social decline.:161–167
During the 1990s, the city redeveloped. Store owners in downtown supported the Main Street programs of preservation-based revitalization, and in 1992, the city hired a new manager to improve the area: a different mix of shops and restaurants opened up to take advantage of the area's historical appeal. Heritage Square was built as the center of the revitalized downtown, the local Flagstaff Pulliam Airport began running more flights to Phoenix, allowing commuting, and the school district was expanded with a third high school, Sinagua High School.
At the time of Beale's wagon road, the area was known as Antelope Spring, after the spring at the foot of Mars Hill (now called Antelope/Old Town Spring). The name Flagstaff comes from an actual flagstaff made from a stripped pine tree that was erected at the spring, which McMillan was using as his sheep camp, on July 4, 1876.
Various stories have been told of the circumstances, with a common version telling that the instance for which the town was named occurred when a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston (known as the "Second Boston Party") was raised to celebrate the United States Centennial. Another story says that on July 4, 1855, a surveyor for the railroad by the name of Samuel Clark Hudson, accompanied by his team, climbed a tall pine tree and tied a flag, with another saying it was Beale's men who raised the flag in 1859.
After the town took the name Flagstaff, it began to be known as 'Old Town'[b] for a period, and was known by different names when the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was being built through the area in 1882. It may have been known as Flagstaff Spring for a while, and 'Old Town Spring' after this before simply 'Old Town', a name given after a fire destroyed much of the town, with a new community then raised a few hundred yards away called 'New Town'. Another version of the Old and New Town names says that the railroad depot was moved by half a mile to prevent hill starts, and business owners soon followed it, displacing the commerce of the town to Front Street of 'New Town' while the spring was still in 'Old Town' with the houses; when the fire burned down 'Old Town', 'New Town' remained. The name Flagstaff was reinstated in 1884 when a post office was introduced alongside the railroad depot.
The city has different names in local Native languages. In Diné Bizaad, it is known as Kinłání Dookʼoʼoosłííd Biyaagi. This name is formed from Kinłání, meaning "many houses" or city, Dookʼoʼoosłííd, the name for the San Francisco Peaks but literally "the summit which never melts", and Biyaagi, indicating 'below' (see translations of "below; in a place beneath" on wiktionary): the city below the San Francisco Peaks. The word Kinłání alone may refer to Flagstaff, but also can refer to Durango, Colorado. In Havasupai, Flagstaff is known as Wii Hagnbaj. This is also a name for the San Francisco Peaks, and literally means "snowy mountain".
Flagstaff, the county seat of Coconino County, Arizona, is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 63.9 square miles (165.5 km2), of which only 0.03 square miles (0.08 km2) (0.08%) is water. Flagstaff lies at approximately 7,000 feet (2,130 m) elevation, and is surrounded by the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in North America. It is in a mountainous area, and lies along the Rio de Flag watercourse. It is about 130 miles (210 km) north of the State capital, Phoenix.
The geology of the area is in line with that of the Colorado Plateau on which it lies, with the Moenkopi red sandstone abundant in the city also used to build many of the distinctive buildings forming its cityscape. The cityscape of Flagstaff is its historic downtown area centered on Heritage Square, with the historic nature of its restored buildings and local theme iconic to the city and representative of its culture. Flagstaff is one of the United States' sunniest and snowiest cities, with a variable "semi-arid" climate and a monsoon season in summer.
The San Francisco Peaks are a main aspect of Flagstaff's local geography and can be seen from everywhere in the city. Humphreys Peak is the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m); from trails up this mountain, the entire State can be seen on a clear day. Several trails around the peaks provide views of the Grand Canyon. While the most popular access point is Arizona Snowbowl (southwest face), the peaks can also be approached from the north and east. The peaks are about 10 miles (16 km) northwest of downtown Flagstaff, with the Snowbowl resort just southwest of Humphreys Peak. The wildlife of the peaks include mule deer, elk, turkey vultures, and black bears, all visible from public trails.
Geology and topography
Flagstaff lies on the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau, and is largely limestone under San Francisco volcanic field. The oldest rock types of the area are part of North America's original crust, Precambrian granite and schist from 1.7 to 1.8 billion years ago. On top of this is Paleozoic sandstone, limestone, shale and siltstone deposited on what was then (544 to 248 million years ago) different surfaces, including a shallow seabed, muddy land, and sandy desert. The rock layers from this period are (bottom to top): Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale and Muav Limestone, Martin Formation, Redwall Limestone, Supai Group, Coconino Sandstone, Toroweap Formation, and Kaibab Limestone. The last three of these are still exposed. On top of the Paleozoic rock is Mesozoic Moenkopi Formation, from 248 to 65 million years ago. Other Mesozoic layers formed on top of this, but were eroded away. In the Flagstaff area, layers of rock from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras accumulated up to 10,000 feet (3,000 m) deep, but most of this was eroded. A soft basalt layer covers some of the rock at the surface.
Moenkopi Formation red sandstone is a distinctive feature of Flagstaff, as it was used as a building material from the 1880s because of its fire retardant properties. The source used for quarrying most of this rock was a deposit 1 mile east of the town, which fell under the control of Charles Begg in 1887, who then began selling the stone across the southwest – after he made a successful sale in California that expanded the business, he was replaced in 1888 by a master quarryman. While it was used as building material across the West, some of Flagstaff's most prominent buildings are famous for the stone, including the Bank Hotel, Weatherford Hotel, Babbitt Brothers Building, Coconino County Courthouse, and various NAU buildings, including Old Main.
In the Laramide orogeny, which began about 65–75 million years ago, the Western United States underwent stress in rock formation; in the Four Corners region this pushed up the preexisting layers and ultimately formed the Colorado Plateau (and the Rocky Mountains). Around Flagstaff more specifically, this process deformed flat rock layers into folds, and allowed surface rivers to cut deep canyons in the younger rock layers. From about 25 million years ago, more faults were broken again in Flagstaff, and volcanic activity began about 6 million years ago with magma flowing up these faults to create lava flows. Eruptions occurred between 3 million and 1,000 years ago, affecting the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. The city's Mount Elden is a lava dome made of dacite, Sunset Crater is the youngest feature of the San Francisco volcanic field and formed in the last 1,000 years by an explosive eruption, while S P Crater was formed between 75,000 and 70,000 years ago by piles of lapilli and volcanic bombs spouting from a lava lake.
In the 1960s, the geology and topography of the Flagstaff area, including formations like Meteor Crater, was seen as similar to environments that would be encountered on the Moon in terms of planetary geology. The Astrogeology Research Program was therefore moved to Flagstaff in 1962, with the program completing in 1963, to train astronauts.
Flagstaff's climate type on the Köppen climate classification system is variously reported as a warm dry-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb), a Hemiboreal climate (Dsb and Dfb), and a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). It is consistently described as "semi-arid". Flagstaff's Köppen type is recorded as Dsb in the city center, with areas of BSk, Csb, Csa (hot-summer Mediterranean), Cwa (humid subtropical), and Dsa (humid hot summer) on the outskirts and bordering the city; it is mostly Dsb, BSk, and Csb.
Northern Arizona experiences a summer monsoon season from July to September, with Flagstaff's wettest months being July and August, and its driest being June, all in the summer; Mediterranean climates have wet season only in the winter. Mediterranean climate categorization does not consider snowfall. Neither a warm Mediterranean climate nor a Hemiboreal climate will have a single summer month with an average temperature above 22 °C (72 °F), while all of Flagstaff's summer averages are hotter than this.[c] Semi-arid climates will receive 10–20 inches (250–510 mm) of annual rainfall, while Flagstaff experiences more.[c]
Flagstaff's hardiness zone is mostly 6a, with some areas 5b, meaning plants withstand temperatures down to −15 °F (−26 °C). It is in the Transition life zone; the concept of life zones was first observed in the Flagstaff area. Wind in Flagstaff typically blows southwesterly throughout the year, based on topographical features. The city's climate data is observed from Flagstaff Pulliam Airport.
The city receives precipitation every year, with two distinct wet periods in the summer and winter; the summer monsoon season accounts for 34% of annual rainfall, with the winter producing 28%. The summer monsoon season, originating from the Mexican monsoon period, is also wetter than winter, with an average 7 inches (180 mm) compared to the winter's 6 inches (150 mm). Before the summer monsoon each year there is a drought in May and June. Long-term average precipitation is 21.6 inches (550 mm) annually, with much heavier rainfall attributed to El Niño events. Comparatively, La Niña events have caused below-average rainfall.
Since 1996 the city has been experiencing its driest period, known as the Early-21st Century Drought. Richard Hereford of USGS speculates that the effects of the drought, predicted to last until the late 2020s, may be severe because of Flagstaff's growing population and global warming. The summer wet season is more reliable and consistent than other times of year, but due to the high temperatures of the area this rainfall is quickly lost to evaporation. During the Early-21st Century Drought, rainfall has been consistently below average in all but the summer season, with temperature averages for all but the summer (which has remained consistent) also increasing.
Equally, snowfall has been lower during the extended dry period, though the city set a new record for its highest daily snowfall on February 21, 2019, with 35.9 inches (910 mm) and was still ranked as the United States' third-snowiest city in 2020 (based on 2018–19 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data). Flagstaff has consistently been among the snowiest cities in the United States, and snow and winter culture is argued by Michael Weeks to be a large part of Flagstaff's identity. The Arizona Snowbowl is a major attraction, though has had to make artifical snow during warmer seasons, and the city tried to launch a bid to be the host city of the 1960 Winter Olympics. The maximum daily snow cover was 83 inches (210 cm) on December 20, 1967, although the mean maximum for a full winter is only 20 inches (510 mm). However, due to the infrequent and scattered nature of the snowstorms, persistent snowpack into spring is rare. One notable exception occurred during the severe winter of 1915–16, when successive Pacific storms buried the city under over 70 inches (178 cm) of snow, and some residents were snowbound in their homes for several days.
Though one of the least-sunny cities in Arizona, Flagstaff still ranks among the United States' sunniest cities, having sunshine for an average 78% of the year. The city receives much more sunshine than other snowy cities, which are primarily in the north of the country.
There are four seasons in Flagstaff, with cool winter temperatures averaging 45 °F (7 °C) and warm summer temperatures averaging 80 °F (27 °C), pleasant compared to the rest of Arizona; the average annual snowfall is 97 inches (250 cm). Spring begins in April with pleasant weather. Sometimes, snow reappears in May (and is not unheard of in June), but the spring period is typically mild and dry, lasting until early June. The summer is measured between days when freezing temperatures occur, beginning in June – the last freezing temperature generally in early June – and ending in September. Flagstaff's summer will receive a few days of daytime temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C), with cooler nighttime temperatures typically in the region of 40 °F (4 °C). Flagstaff's summers are also notable for the monsoon season in July and August, when thunderstorms occur almost daily. Thunderstorm activity happens mostly during the daytime.
Freezing temperatures (below 32 °F (0 °C)) return towards the end of September, with the mild fall season having daytime temperatures around 60 °F (16 °C). With its many trees, leaves do change color in Flagstaff's fall, with the change starting at the end of September and happening throughout October. Fall lasts only until the snow comes in November, with winter marked between periods of snowfall, typically from November until mid-April at the latest. Temperatures in winter are usually below freezing, going no higher than around 40 °F (4 °C) in the day, even in sunshine. A combination of snow cover and high pressure occurring during winter months will cause the temperature to drop further, with a record low of −30 °F (−34 °C). Flagstaff's winter wet season is caused by Pacific storms and lasts from November through April.
|Climate data for Flagstaff Pulliam Airport, Arizona (1981–2010 normals,[d] extremes 1898–present)[e]|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||57.6
|Average high °F (°C)||42.5
|Average low °F (°C)||17.3
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−2.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−30
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.05
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||23.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.6||8.1||8.2||5.8||4.5||2.7||11.6||14.0||7.9||5.5||4.9||7.0||87.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||7.5||6.9||6.6||3.0||0.8||0||0||0||0||0.6||3.0||6.5||34.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.9||59.5||54.9||46.5||39.4||33.6||51.1||58.1||54.7||52.6||56.9||60.6||52.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||231.7||228.6||286.3||321.0||369.5||371.8||324.2||311.9||298.5||282.8||229.3||219.8||3,475.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||74||75||77||82||85||86||73||75||80||81||74||72||78|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990, sun 1973–1990)|
Flora and fauna
Flagstaff is an area "of great ecological variation" due to its diverse habitat life zones. Tree species abound the area, which covers three arboreal life zones: Douglas fir and aspen forest, Ponderosa pine forest, and Pinyon-juniper woodland. It is at the heart of the Coconino National Forest. Within the Transition zone of the forest, including in the city, there are huge stands of ponderosa pine. Other species scattered among this region include Gambel oak, quaking aspen, and Rocky Mountain juniper trees.
The Coconino National Forest and Flagstaff are within the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in North America. Here, this tree type is formed as a climax forest, with groups of trees containing different ages spread among the forest. Some of the groups are only a few trees, some are acres large; other groups are even-aged. The irregularity of the tree groups leaves natural openings in the forest, allowing for other plants to thrive. A grass cover of Arizona fescue grows around the area and shrub exists, but there are few other tree species. As well as the Gambel oak, quaking aspen, and juniper trees, pinyons can be found among the pines. Some of the open forest space contains bunchgrass, and local animal species that roam on this include elk, mule deer, Merriam's Turkey, and Abert's squirrel.
Coconino is also home to a variety of bird species, which is further diversified by species from desert climates south of the Mogollon Rim still mixing in the area. The nearby lakes also attract wildlife. Birds that live around or visit Flagstaff include the thick-billed kingbird, only documented in the area since 2016, the red-faced warbler, a Madrean species, and waterfowl including the Eurasian wigeon and American wigeon.
Flagstaff's cityscape is largely formed of its historic downtown, a "narrow and slender" area between the NAU campus at its south and the Museum of Northern Arizona at the north. As a smaller city, Flagstaff maintains a "central business district that exists at a more human scale and [relies] more on independent local and regional business entrepreneurs" in its downtown area. DK writes that "it is a lively, easy-going place with a good selection of bars and restaurants among the maze of old red-brick buildings". Architecturally, many of the buildings are historic, with stucco friezes; some stand out in the cityscape more than others, including the 1888 Babbitt Brothers building, the 1926 train station, and the Weatherford Hotel with its "grand two-story wraparound veranda and its sunroom". The train station serves as a visitors center, remaining the heart of Flagstaff's economy; both of the city's train depots were restored in the 1990s. Paradis describes the main station, which is an example of Tudor Revival architecture,[f] as "probably the most prominent landmark in Flagstaff",:135–139 adding that it "has further been described as perhaps the most unique architectural piece in town".:146 Santa Fe Plaza, with the old depot, lies across the road a few hundred yards east of the visitors center/1926 station and includes a bronze sculpture of a railroad worker known as "Gandy Dancer" and an old locomotive.:146–153
A few blocks north of the train depots, turning west into East Aspen Avenue, is Heritage Square. Heritage Square is "one of Flagstaff's most popular public spaces" and contains an array of built-in links to the area's past. Before the square was built, it had been a dirt tract from the demolition of historic Flagstaff buildings, including the Empress Theater – this name is written across an amphitheater in the square.:168 Also on the square is a modern retail building that is a reconstruction of Flagstaff's original city hall, which had once sat a block south before being demolished in the 1970s.:169 Paradis describes the square as "a celebratory railroad-oriented theme park", which he suggest Sante Fe Plaza can also be seen as.:170 In human geography, he suggests that these are places designed by white males from a "perspective that cherishes the values of progress, technology, expansion, and economic growth"; he writes that while there are other elements of Flagstaff's heritage present (including rock strata of the Grand Canyon), the overwhelming theme is the Santa Fe railroad, reflecting Anglo-American expansionism and not representing the Native perspective.:168–172 Heritage Square's design was largely influenced by Jim Babbitt, a local history activist and another original Babbitt descendant, with Paradis also acknowledging that with a wider selection of urban architects, Flagstaff is a population that may embrace more diverse perspectives in its cultural representations.:171–178 When the city council bought the land from a broke developer in 1991, it was seen as an "opportunity to turn downtown into a beautiful area, something it [hadn't] been for the past 25 years".:176–177
The Babbitt Brothers Building from 1888, the city's first two-story building and a simplified Italianate architecture construction with "tall, arched windows and [a] heavy, bracketed cornice on its roofline", was restored to its original appearance in the 1990s after cladding applied in the 1950s and '60s hid the facade.:159–161 It is also a downtown landmark, in appearance and in its historic function as the anchor to the district's success: a department store, smaller businesses nearby relied on its appeal to catch customers already in the area, as well as being a familiar name and a community social fixture with nearly 100 years of trading.:161–163 It sits at the corner of North San Francisco Street and East Aspen Avenue, a few blocks directly north of the train depots (San Francisco Street bisects the railroad plazas) and just east on East Aspen Avenue from Heritage Square. The demolition of part of the building revealed the Empress Theater's shell and was part inspiration for Heritage Square.:174–177
Much of Flagstaff's downtown follows a similar cultural trend, with businesses and residents alike "increasingly applying themes and images to the landscape in an attempt to enhance the local sense of place".:179, 216–223 The downtown area is reflective of Flagstaff's culture, rather than economic industry; when the city was choosing sites for its visitors center, the citizens rejected anywhere that was not downtown, so that it would "reflect Flagstaff, not Walmart".:142
A block north of Heritage Square on the east side of downtown is the old Coconino County Courthouse. Built when Coconino first became a county, this building has served as the political hub since 1895. Despite its importance in administering the second-largest county of the United States, it was "shoved aside" to a random city block during planning, as the grid for downtown had not considered institutional buildings, but was still "by far the most elaborate structure in Flagstaff".:192–194 It is an example of Romanesque Revival architecture, but the "small-town version", featuring "heavy masonry construction, cavernous window and door openings, an impressive square tower, [and] round-arched windows that reflect the Roman architecture of Europe", with the arched entryway "probably its most distinguishing architectural feature".:196–197 In 1956, a modern International Style addition to the building was added, which was contentious from the start not only in style but also for clashing in style with the rest of the city; it was replaced.:200–201
Many of the historic buildings of downtown contain cafés, thanks to the city's "lively café society", which DK attributes to the young student population from NAU.
Just west from Heritage Square and across the intersection at Aspen Avenue and North Leroux Street is the Weatherford Hotel and Orpheum Theater. On the other side of the Weatherford Hotel is Charly's, a restaurant and bar housed in the hotel that is "a popular social venue" for NAU students and other residents, with the hotel itself only regaining popularity in the 1980s (after housing mentally disabled patients) when a café was opened on the first floor. In the 21st century, the building is a functional hotel again.:181–183 The Weatherford is "a centerpiece in the downtown district",:184 and the Orpheum "represents a typical small-town theater located in the heart of downtown".:191 The Orpheum originally had a Neoclassical facade before receiving modern upgrades that still remain, though retro in appearance in the 21st century, unlike other buildings downtown that have seen restoration.:191 Originally a movie theater, the Orpheum no longer serves this function (the only movie theater in the city is a Harkins in East Flagstaff):192 but is instead a traditional concert venue.
Other 20th century styles in downtown include the Art Deco of the Federal Building on San Francisco Street.:208 At the edge of downtown, on the block southeast of the old Courthouse, is "the closest thing to a skyscraper that can be found in Flagstaff"; it is five stories tall but impedes on the aesthetic of the rest of the area.:204, 211 Built in the early 1960s, it represents the end of Flagstaff's downtown development.:204
Historic districts and properties
Flagstaff is home to seven National Register of Historic Places historic districts: Southside, Townsite, Fort Tuthill, North End, Northern Arizona Normal School, the Railroad Addition, and USFS Fort Valley Experimental Forest Station, as well as a variety of many other structures and areas. The Lowell Observatory is a National Historic Landmark.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 65,870. This accounted for a population density of 831.9 people per square mile (321.2/km²), with 26,254 housing units at an average density of 336.5 per square mile (129.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 73.4% White, 1.9% Black or African American, 11.7% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 7.3% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races; 18.4% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. The city's African American population is considerably lower than the U.S. average (1.9% versus 12.6%), while the Native American population is markedly higher (11.7% vs. 0.9%). This is primarily attributable to the city's proximity to several Native American reservations. Flagstaff's Native American community is chiefly Navajo, and there are about 5,500 people of Navajo ancestry living in the city.
A 1970 study found that while the Native American population of Flagstaff was generally under-counted in censuses, the Native residents found that Flagstaff as a border city with reservations was much more welcoming than similar towns, particularly noting Gallup, New Mexico as one that was worse. The study also documented that while there was a distinctly Native neighborhood in the poorer Southside area of Flagstaff, the housing quality varied greatly, with middle class Native residencies elsewhere in the city.
Though Flagstaff has a low African American population, it had seen large immigration of black people from the Southern United States in the middle of the 20th century during the Great Migration. Though most moved to California, there was a significant number that settled in Flagstaff after hearing that the lumber industry of northern Arizona was some of the best paid work going, and a familiar vocation for those from southern states.
Flagstaff has a well-educated population: as of 2018, over 90% of the population has a high school diploma or higher, and over 45% of the population has a bachelor's degree or higher; 100% of the Pacific Islander population in Flagstaff has a higher degree for a total of 30, with the lowest rate per race being 16.21% of the Native American population (at 554). The average earnings for people in Flagstaff is $36,536 p.a., rising to $55,258 for people with a graduate degree, with the low at $22,079 for people without a high school diploma.
Flagstaff has two police departments: Flagstaff PD and NAU PD. NAU PD employs 30 officers and 25 students, and is responsible for law enforcement on the campus. Flagstaff PD will share information of concern about the neighborhoods surrounding the NAU campus to the NAU PD, and NAU PD may also respond to situations off-campus that involve students; NAU PD also investigates the missing person reports of students who are registered as resident on campus. From campus phones, all 911 calls will go to NAU PD.
The rate of crime in Flagstaff is above average, while its violent crime is below average, for the United States. For 2017, the FBI's Uniform Crime Report indicated for Flagstaff a rate of 290 cases of violent crime per 100,000 people and 2,710 cases of property crime per 100,000 population; the violent crime rate across the US was 382.9 per 100,000. In 2018, Flagstaff had a rate of 469.44 cases of all crimes per 100,000 people, up 10.69% on the total in 2017; this was below the average for Arizona, but above the average for the US. Until 2017, Flagstaff's crime rate was typically in line with the US average.
The safest neighborhood in Flagstaff is Elden Pueblo, with several downtown areas, NAU and the surrounding neighborhoods, Fort Valley, and Cosnino all in the top ten. In 2017, Flagstaff PD responded to four hostage situations, including in Tuba City, and fifteen explosive device removal calls. There were 3,262 criminal investigations. The Flagstaff narcotics task force headed up 'Operation Nightfall' between 2015 and 2017, aiming to prevent the use of I-40 through the city being used by Mexican drug cartels for trafficking, successfully seizing over 138 kg of cocaine. Within Flagstaff, there were over 100 arrests relating to other narcotics crimes.
NAU operates as a weapon-free and drug-free campus (even medical marijuana), with restrictions on alcohol possession for resident students over 21 within certain private areas of certain residence halls. Additionally, alcohol may not be consumed in public on the campus. The overwhelming majority of NAU PD recorded crimes are related to drugs and alcohol, with hundreds of arrests each year and over 1500 disciplinary referrals in 2018. The second-most recorded area of crime on the campus is gender based violence (rape, domestic abuse), with a few dozen cases. There are over 160 blue light phones on the campus; each has a large button that connects directly to NAU PD and provides the location of the call to them.
The police in Flagstaff also deal with skunk-related problems, including suspected burglaries that turn out to be skunks. The skunks can be an issue in the city, as they start rabies epidemics among animals every few years.
In its early days, the city's economic base comprised the lumber, railroad, and ranching industries. Today, that has largely been replaced by tourism, education, government, and transportation. Some of the larger employers in Flagstaff are Northern Arizona University, the Flagstaff Medical Center, and the Flagstaff Unified School District. Tourism is a large contributor to the economy, as the city receives over 5 million visitors per year.
Scientific and high tech research and development operations are in the city, including Lowell Observatory, Northern Arizona University, the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) and the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff campus. Research is involved in observations of near-Earth phenomena such as asteroids and comets. In 2012 the observatory commissioned its Lowell Discovery Telescope, a 4.3-meter telescope with an instrument cube that can hold five instruments at once. Lowell Observatory and NOFS also are collaborators on the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, on nearby Anderson Mesa. NOFS is heavily involved with the science of star catalogs and astrometry, or the positions and distances of stars and celestial objects.
There are five industrial parks in the city, situated near I-40 and I-17. Major manufacturers in Flagstaff include W. L. Gore & Associates, widely known as the maker of Gore-Tex; Nestlé Purina PetCare, manufacturer of pet food; SenesTech, a biotechnology research lab and manufacturer; SCA Tissue, a major tissue paper producer; and Joy Cone, manufacturer of ice cream cones. Walgreens operated a distribution center in the city until 2014.
Flagstaff has a thriving tourism industry, and has since the early 1900s, primarily stemming from its proximity to the Grand Canyon National Park and other natural wonders, giving it the nickname 'City of Seven Wonders'. Other natural wonders and native ruins, Route 66, and its astronomical history also bring tourism from out of state, while people from further south in Arizona visit Flagstaff because of its cooler climate in the summer and its ski resort in the winter. The city has several hotels and restaurants, including its historic hotels. The first hotel of the Ramada Inn chain opened in 1954 at the intersection of Routes 66, 89, and 89A, adjacent to what was then Arizona State College (now NAU). The original building is still intact, operating as a Super 8 motel. Flagstaff is said to attract a lot of the tourism for the entire county as it is the only large population center that can cater to tourists, as well as being the location of information points for the National Park Service (NPS). In 1996, 39% of Coconino County residents were employed in tourism. There are large service sectors, particularly hotels and restaurants, in Flagstaff, with many of these companies having a close connection to NAU's School of Hotel and Restaurant Management, to employ these students.
Tourism to Flagstaff is a well-established industry, but still relies on environmental forces. Nature and weather conditions can damage tourism; having a mild but warm summer temperature attracts tourists from many locales, but storms and forest fires in its climate can be a detraction. Flagstaff also experiences very cold winters, and despite a successful ski resort still sees less tourism in this period; decreasing snow levels also threaten the winter industry. The pristine condition of the natural sites can also experience degradation due to overuse through tourism, losing its main selling point. The development of Tusayan into the Grand Canyon gateway town also affected Flagstaff's capture of some overnight tourists.
The Grand Canyon, a Wonder of the World, is about 80 miles (130 km) northwest of Flagstaff. The first stagecoach tours to the Grand Canyon from the city began running from the Bank Hotel in 1892. In 2000, about 5 million people visiting the Grand Canyon also visited Flagstaff. As Rick Heffernon wrote, "the world recognizes only one Grand Canyon, and northern Arizona has it". However, he also suggested this can act to the area's detriment, as the Grand Canyon is a world-class marvel and competes with other attractions of the same prestige for visitors, which are all equally impressive; Flagstaff itself also competes with its nearby towns for access to the Grand Canyon, several of which have growing themes based on it (like Tusayan and the Grand Canyon Village).
Lowell Observatory celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2019 and continues to be a leading astronomical research center, as well as a popular destination for visitors. More than 100,000 people visited in both 2018 and 2019; in 2019 the observatory opened its new Giovale Open Deck Observatory, an observation plaza with a suite of six advanced telescopes.
Arizona Snowbowl does not publish their revenue or make it public knowledge, which makes it hard to calculate its impact on the Flagstaff economy. The Snowbowl supports approximately 200 full-time jobs and $12.08 million in economic output for the city of Flagstaff.
Heffernon suggested that the perception of tourism from the residents of Flagstaff could affect the industry, something researched in 1990 by NAU's Tim Schroeder. Schroeder saw six main areas of concern from Flagstaff residents: "Standard of Living for Residents; Future Use of Parks; Quality of Fire Protection; Occurrences of Crime; Changes in Community Values, Norms and Customs; and Population Density". He acknowledged that the focus on fire protection was anomalous, and likely caused by a particularly high concern surrounding recent wildfires at the time the survey had been conducted. The respondents to Schroeder's survey generally found that their "Opportunity for Jobs, Opportunity for Shopping, Quality of Fire Protection, Understanding Different People, Quality of Health Care, Availability of Cultural Arts, and Overall Quality of Life" had improved because of tourism to the area, but that standards in terms of "Traffic and Road Conditions, General Prices for Goods and Services, Future Use of Forests, Noise, Litter, Air Quality, and Occurrences of Crime" had worsened.
Flagstaff has its own New Year's Eve tradition; in the city, people gather around the Weatherford Hotel as a 70-pound (32 kg), 6-foot (1.8 m) tall, metallic pine cone is dropped from the roof at midnight. The tradition originated in 1999, when Henry Taylor and Sam Green (owners of the hotel), decorated a garbage can with paint, lights, and pine cones, and dropped it from the roof of their building to mark the new millennium. By 2003 the event had become tradition, and the current metallic pine cone was designed and built by Frank Mayorga of Mayorga Welding in the city.
Local museums include the Museum of Northern Arizona, which features displays of the biology, archeology, photography, anthropology, and native art of the Colorado Plateau, and the Arboretum at Flagstaff, a 200-acre (81 ha) arboretum containing 2,500 species of drought-tolerant native plants representative of the high desert region.
A lot of the local culture is also focused on Route 66, which originally ran between Chicago and Los Angeles, greatly increased the accessibility to the area, and enhanced the culture and tourism in Flagstaff. Route 66 remains a historic route, passing through the city between Barstow, California, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. In early September, the city hosts an annual event, Route 66 Days, to highlight its connection to the famous highway.
Dark Sky City
Flagstaff takes one of its nicknames from its legislative designation as the world's first International Dark Sky City, a deliberate dark sky preserve area with measures to reduce light pollution. This was one of the world's first coordinated legislative efforts to do so. In the city there has been over fifty years of planning and development, with the support of the ecologically-aware population and community advocates, frequent government support, and the assistance of major observatories in the area – including the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station and Lowell Observatory.
The city's designation as an International Dark Sky City was on October 24, 2001, by the International Dark-Sky Association, after a proposal by the city's own Dark Sky Coalition to start the preserve program. It is seen as a world precedent in dark sky preservation. Before this, it had been nicknamed the "Skylight City" in the 1890s, the same decade that the Lowell Observatory opened. In 1958, it passed Ordinance 400, which outlawed using large or powerful searchlights within city limits. In the 1980s a series of measures were introduced for the city and Coconino County, and the Dark Sky Coalition was founded in 1999 by Chris Luginbuhl and Lance Diskan. Luginbuhl is a former U.S. Naval astronomer, and Diskan had originally moved to Flagstaff from Los Angeles so that his children could grow up able to see stars, saying that "part of being human is looking up at the stars and being awestruck." It was reported in an award-winning article that even though greater restrictions on types of public lighting were introduced in 1989, requiring them all to be low-emission, some public buildings like gas stations hadn't updated by 2002, after the Dark Sky designation.
Flagstaff and the surrounding area is split into four zones, each permitted different levels of light emissions. The highest restrictions are in south and west Flagstaff (near NAU and its observatory), and at the Naval, Braeside, and Lowell Observatories. Photographs detecting emissions taken in 2017 show that Flagstaff's light is 14 times less than another Western city of comparable size, Cheyenne, Wyoming, which Luginbuhl described as "even better than [they] might have expected".
Flagstaff has an active cultural scene. The city is home to the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, which plays concerts from September through April at Ardrey Auditorium on the NAU campus. The city also attracts folk and contemporary acoustic musicians, and offers several annual music festivals during the summer months, such as the Flagstaff Friends of Traditional Music Festival, the Flagstaff Music Festival, and Pickin' in the Pines, a three-day bluegrass and acoustic music festival held at the Pine Mountain Amphitheater at Fort Tuthill Fairgrounds. Popular bands play throughout the year at the Orpheum Theater, and free concerts are held during the summer months at Heritage Square.
Beyond music, Flagstaff has a popular theater scene, featuring several groups. Northern Arizona University Department of Theatre is an active and successful theater program that produces quality productions for the community as well as the campus. The department has won many prestigious awards, including multiple invitations to the Kennedy Center American College Theater Festival. NAU Theatre performs in two facilities: the Clifford E. White Theatre (named for long-time professor Clifford E. White) and the Studio Theatre. Both facilities are housed in the Fine and Performing Arts Building on campus. A local community theater company called Theatrikos was founded in 1972 in the basement of the Weatherford Hotel, and today puts on six major productions per year. In 2002, the company moved into a new venue now known as the Doris-Harper White Community Playhouse, a downtown building which was built in 1923 as an Elks Lodge and later became the Flagstaff library. Since 1995, the Flagstaff Light Opera Company has performed a variety of musical theater and light opera productions throughout the year at the Sinagua Middle School auditorium. There are several dance companies in Flagstaff, including Coconino Community College Dance Program, Northern Arizona Preparatory Company and Canyon Movement, which present periodic concerts and collaborate with the Flagstaff Symphony for free concerts during the summer and holiday seasons.[verification needed]
A variety of weekend festivals occur throughout the year. The annual Northern Arizona Book Festival, held in the spring, brings together authors to read and display their works. The Flagstaff Mountain Film Festival is held every October, and features a variety of independent films and documentaries focusing on extreme sports, environmental issues, and global topics. The festival is four days long and consists of several sessions of films. The screenings are held at the Orpheum Theater in the historic downtown area. The summer months feature several festivals, including Hopi and Navajo Festivals of Arts and Crafts, the Arizona Highland Celtic Festival, Pride in the Pines, and the Made in the Shade Beer Tasting Festival. For more than 20 years Flagstaff has hosted the 10-day Flagstaff Festival of Science in September. It is a family event which features open houses, lectures, informal talks, and hands-on activities at area museums, observatories, other scientific facilities, and the university. In-school programs also are an important part of the festival. The festival begins with the annual Eugene Shoemaker keynote address. Guest speakers have included famous astronauts, arctic explorers, storm chasers, and scientists from many disciplines. The Coconino County Fair is held every September at the Fort Tuthill County Fairgrounds, featuring a demolition derby, livestock auction, carnival rides, and other activities.
Flagstaff has no professional sports of its own, but is home to the successful college sports teams of NAU. It is a popular training destination for a variety of elite sports, largely due to its altitude and climate.
Northern Arizona Lumberjacks
Northern Arizona University sponsors 15 sports at the NCAA Division I level, including a football team that competes at the Division I Football Championship Series level. The NAU football team has a rivalry with the Southern Utah Thunderbirds, known as the Grand Canyon Rivalry, based on the universities residing on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon. All sports are members of the Big Sky Conference with the exception of the Women's Swimming & Diving team, which competes in the Western Athletic Conference. The Men's Cross Country team has featured four straight top ten finishes at the NCAA Division I Cross Country championships. The track and field team is home to several All-Americans, including NCAA Champion and Olympian Lopez Lomong (and brother Peter Lomong), two-time NCAA Champion David McNeill, and 2012 Olympian Diego Estrada.
There are no major-league professional sports teams based in Flagstaff. However, from 1988 to 2012 (with the exception of the 2005 season), the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League held their summer training camp at Northern Arizona University. The 2005 training camp relocated to Prescott because of a norovirus outbreak at the university that emerged from a summer wrestling training camp and infected over 100 people. The NAU training camp was named as one of the top five training camps in the NFL by Sports Illustrated, citing the cooler temperature, scenic area, and the possibility for fans to get close to athletes as key points. Players have said that the altitude of Flagstaff was the key benefit, as well as seeing the dedication of fans traveling to the city, but that they did not enjoy living in the NAU dorm rooms.
The Cardinals left Flagstaff in summer 2013, placing NAU at fault after the team was put in the visitors' facilities, though NAU had offered the home facilities when the concern was raised, and moved their training camp to the University of Phoenix's State Farm Stadium in Glendale. At Glendale, they train in a domed stadium rather than outside,[g] which player Bertrand Berry said took away some of the feeling of training camp, saying "there really isn't that need to practice outside when most of the games are inside, but when you talk about building a team and going through adverse situations and bonding together, I think they miss out on a little bit of that". The Cardinals had trained at NAU since the franchise moved to Arizona, with Fox Sports reporting that "some argued they pulled the plug on the team's only Arizona tradition". Bill Bidwill, owner of the Cardinals, was inducted into the Flagstaff Sports Foundation's Hall of Fame in 2009, after bringing the team and resultant tourism boost to the city for over 20 years.
Altitude training destination
Flagstaff is also a popular destination for altitude training. The first elite athletes to start altitude training in the city were those going to the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. A 2009 analysis showed that groups of 35 athletes spent three to eight weeks training in Flagstaff, to positive effect. This was one of the highest number of athletes and longest periods among seventeen sites used in the research. Australian rules football team Collingwood Magpies regularly train at NAU facilities, as does the Olympic-medal-winning Team GB British Swimming team. Another British Olympian, Mo Farah, trains in Flagstaff, too.
Long-distance runner Andrea Seccafien used to altitude train in Flagstaff but moved to Australia in 2018, saying "We don't go to Flagstaff or St. Moritz anymore which are more populated by runners and the general public. [...] Flagstaff feels quite metropolitan compared to where we are now"; the Canadian Running Magazine noted that the city becomes host to lots of professional runners in the spring. The popularity among runners is because of the altitude and pleasant climate, making it "for distance runners [...] a practically unparalleled paradise", known as the "running mecca". Runner Nick Hilton said that "Flagstaff and Boulder, Colorado, are probably the two biggest centers for elite distance runners in the country".
The HYPO2 altitude training center in the city is used by swimmers and runners alike, and is an elite facility that attracts many teams from around the world. HYPO2 was created in 2012, largely with staff from NAU's Center for High Altitude Training, which closed in 2009. As of 2019, over 85 Olympic medalists from 44 countries trained at the facility. In 2016, the city advertised NAU and the HYPO2 with promotions saying "The Road to Rio Runs Through Flagstaff", prominently noting that if Flagstaff (with its training athletes) was a country, it would be in the top 10 of Olympic-medal winning nations since 1996.
Parks and outdoor recreation
Flagstaff has acquired a reputation as a magnet for outdoor enthusiasts, and the region's varied terrain, high elevation, and amenable weather attract campers, backpackers, climbers, recreation and elite runners, and mountain bikers from throughout the southwestern United States. There are 679.2 acres (274.9 ha) of city parks in Flagstaff, the largest of which are Thorpe Park and Buffalo Park. Wheeler Park, next to city hall, is the location of summer concerts and other events. The city maintains an extensive network of trails, the Flagstaff Urban Trails System, or "FUTS" includes more than 50 miles of paved and unpaved trails for hiking, running, and cycling. The trail network extends throughout the city and is widely used for both recreation and transportation. There are over 56 miles (90 km) of urban trails in Flagstaff.
The area is a recreational hub for road cycling and mountain biking clubs, organized triathlon events, and annual cross country ski races. Several major river running operators are headquartered in Flagstaff, and the city serves as a base for Grand Canyon and Colorado River expeditions.
Flagstaff's proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, about 75 miles (121 km) north of the city, has made it a popular tourist destination since the mid-19th century. Other nearby outdoor attractions include Walnut Canyon National Monument, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Wupatki National Monument, and Barringer Crater. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Lake Powell are both about 135 mi (217 km) north along U.S. Route 89.
The city government is organized under a council-manager form of government. The mayor of Flagstaff is Coral Evans, who was elected in November 2016, and the town council consists of the mayor and six councilmembers: Adam Shimoni (vice mayor), Regina Salas, Jim McCarthy, Jamie Whelan, Charlie Odegaard, and Austin Aslan. On July 2, 2019, the city council named Greg Clifton as city manager among 50 candidates. Regular meetings of the city council are held on the first and third Tuesday of every month.
At the state level, Flagstaff is in the 6th legislative district. In the Arizona State Senate, the 6th is represented by Sylvia Allen (R) of Snowflake. In the House of Representatives, the 6th is represented by Bob Thorpe (R) of Flagstaff and Walter Blackman (R) of Snowflake.
At the federal level, Flagstaff is within Arizona's 1st congressional district, which is the tenth largest congressional district, covering nearly 60,000 sq. miles. The district is represented by Tom O'Halleran (D) of Sedona.
The City of Flagstaff raised its minimum wage above the State minimum wage in 2017. This wage increase was the result of a ballot measure – Proposition 414 – on the November 8, 2016, ballot. The City Council of Flagstaff then passed Title 15 of the City Ordinance, which provided for implementation of the new law. The new minimum wage in Flagstaff on July 1, 2017, was $10.50, fifty cents more than the Arizona state minimum wage. On January 1, 2020, the minimum wage rose to $13.00.
There are 19 public schools, with 11,500 students and 800 faculty and staff, in the Flagstaff Unified School District. In 1997, Mount Elden Middle School was named an A+ School, citing an outstanding school climate, progressive use of technology and zero-tolerance approach to discipline. The 1999 National Science Teacher of the Year, David Thompson, teaches physics at Coconino High School. Three Arizona Teachers of the Year from 2001 through 2003 teach at Flagstaff High School.
In addition to the numerous public schools, there are several charter schools operating in the Flagstaff area including Flagstaff Junior Academy, Northland Preparatory Academy (ranked No. 52 in US News's America's Top 100 Best High Schools), the Flagstaff Arts and Leadership Academy, Pine Forest Charter School, BASIS Flagstaff (ranked No. 2 in The Washington Post's America's Most Challenging High schools) and the Montessori Schools of Flagstaff.
The city is connected to Phoenix by Interstate 17 (I-17), and to Los Angeles, Las Vegas (via Route 93), Page, and Albuquerque by Interstate 40 (I-40). Page can also be reached on Route 89 from the city, as can Salt Lake City and, ultimately, Canada. The main road through Flagstaff is Route 66/Santa Fe Avenue, which runs parallel to the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway line east–west through the city. Downtown Flagstaff and the surrounding neighborhoods are separated from East Flagstaff by Buffalo Park, with the city connected by Route 66 and I-40. Route 66 is connected to the interstates in downtown by Milton Road, running roughly south alongside the NAU campus; Milton Road then merges into I-17. Flagstaff is connected to Sedona and Prescott by State Route 89A, which Beulah Boulevard merges into, and to the Grand Canyon by Route 180, which Fort Valley Road merges into just northwest of the city. It is the northern terminus of I-17 and Route 89A, and the southern terminus of Route 89.
Several towns are close to Flagstaff along I-40 and I-17. Approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) south are the small urban areas of Kachina Village (west of I-17) and Mountainaire (east of I-17; 2 miles (3.2 km)).[h] About 35 miles (56 km) to the west is Williams, 20 miles (32 km) to the south is Munds Park, and 30 miles (48 km) to the south on Route 89A is Sedona. 15 miles (24 km) to the east of Flagstaff is the town of Winona.
From the city, Amtrak provides connecting Thruway Motorcoach service via Open Road Tours, which has an office inside the rail depot. Local bus service is provided throughout the city by the Mountain Line. Interstate bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines and Flixbus. Groome Transportation provides in-state shuttle service. Bus service to the Hopi Reservation is provided by Hopi Senom Transit, and to Tuba City and the Navajo Nation by Navajo Transit.
The major rail corridor running through Flagstaff is the Southern Transcon, originally built by the Santa Fe Railroad and now owned and operated by the BNSF Railway. Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak at the downtown station, connecting on east–west routes to Los Angeles and Albuquerque via the Southwest Chief line.
Air travel is available through Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG, FAA LID: FLG), just south of the city. The airport is primarily a small, general aviation airport with a single 6,999-foot (2,133 m) runway. The airport finished a major expansion project to add 1,800 feet (550 m) to the north end of the runway and lengthen the taxiway in 2007. The primary purpose of the project was to increase its viability for commercial and regional jets. Service to connecting flights at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is provided by American Airlines operated by Mesa Airlines. As of January 2020 the airport offers year-round direct flights to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, and Denver International Airport, on American Airlines and United Airlines.
Flagstaff is fairly bike-friendly; there are bike lanes on many major streets, and the Flagstaff Urban Trails System (FUTS) includes more than 50 miles of off-street trails that wind throughout the community. In 2006 Flagstaff was designated a Bicycle-Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists. About nine percent of trips in Flagstaff are made by bicycle.
Electricity generation in Flagstaff is provided by Arizona Public Service, an electric utility subsidiary operated by parent company Pinnacle West. The primary generating station near Flagstaff is the coal-fired, 995-MW Cholla Power Plant, near Holbrook, which uses coal from the McKinley Mine in New Mexico. Near Page is the coal-fired, 750-MW Navajo Power Plant, supplied by an electric railroad that delivers coal from a mine on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in northern Arizona. Flagstaff is also home to Arizona's first commercial solar power generating station, which was built in 1997 and provides 87 kW of electricity. Combined with 16 other solar power locations in Arizona, the system provides over 5 MW of electricity statewide.
Drinking water in Flagstaff is produced from conventional surface water treatment at the Lake Mary Water Treatment Plant, on Upper Lake Mary, as well as from springs at the inner basin of the San Francisco Peaks. Groundwater from several water wells throughout the city and surrounding area provide additional sources of drinking water. Water and wastewater services are provided by the City of Flagstaff.
The first hospital in the city was opened in 1936, by Charles Sechrist. The city's primary hospital is the 267-bed Flagstaff Medical Center, on the north side of downtown Flagstaff. The hospital was founded in 1936, and serves as the major regional trauma center for northern Arizona.
Media and popular culture
The major daily newspaper in Flagstaff is the Arizona Daily Sun. Northern Arizona University's weekly newspaper The Lumberjack also covers Flagstaff news, while the other publications that serve the city include weeklies Flagstaff Live and the Navajo Hopi Observer, and monthlies Mountain Living Magazine and The Noise.
Flagstaff is included in the Phoenix Designated market area (DMA), the 13th largest in the U.S. Over-the-air television service is provided mostly by low-powered repeaters of the Phoenix stations. There is one local broadcast television station serving the city, KFPH-13 (TeleFutura).
In the early 20th century, the city was considered as a site for the film The Squaw Man by Jesse Lasky and Cecil B. DeMille, but was abandoned in favor of Hollywood. Scenes from the 1969 film Easy Rider were filmed on Milton Road and Route 66 as well as near Sunset Crater. In 1983 a moment in the film National Lampoon's Vacation was filmed at a truck stop gas station near Little America Hotel. Several recent movies have been filmed, at least in part, in Flagstaff. A small scene in Midnight Run was filmed in Flagstaff at the train depot, the city was also referenced in the film. Several of the running scenes in Forrest Gump were filmed in and around the area, including a memorable scene in which Forrest is seen jogging in downtown Flagstaff and gives inspiration to a bumper sticker designer ("Shit happens"). Parts of 2007 Academy Award winner Little Miss Sunshine were filmed at the junction of I-40 and I-17 in Flagstaff, and Terminal Velocity was partially filmed in the city.
During the 1940s and 1950s, over 100 western movies were filmed in nearby Sedona and Oak Creek Canyon. The Hotel Monte Vista in Flagstaff hosted many film stars during this era, including Jane Russell, Gary Cooper, Spencer Tracy, John Wayne, and Bing Crosby. A scene from the movie Casablanca was filmed in one of the rooms of the hotel.
In 2005, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition built a home just outside Flagstaff for slain soldier Lori Piestewa's two children and parents. Grizzly Peak Films also filmed Sasquatch Mountain, a feature-length film for the Science Fiction Channel about a Yeti, in Flagstaff and nearby Williams. In December 2007, talk show hostess Ellen DeGeneres selected Flagstaff as the winner of her show's "Wish You Were Here" contest.
- Other nearby natural wonders include Canyon de Chelly, Lake Powell, Meteor Crater, Monument Valley, the Painted Desert, the Petrified Forest National Park, Picture Canyon, and Rainbow Bridge National Monument.
- In all sources, 'Old Town' is written within apostrophes or quotation marks.
- See climate data table.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Flagstaff were kept at the Weather Bureau in downtown from September 8, 1898 to January 11, 1950, and at Pulliam Airport since January 12, 1950. For more information, see ThreadEx
- Paradis writes that most of the railroad's depots being constructed at the time followed Spanish architectural styles to match them to their southwestern landscape, while the Tudor Revival style was intended to reflect Flagstaff as a mountain town.:138–139
- While NAU's flagship facility is the Walkup Skydome, the Cardinals also trained on their outdoor football fields.
- Kachina Village and Mountainaire are within Flagstaff city limits under the Flagstaff southern urban areas.
- "Mayor Coral Evans | City of Flagstaff Official Website". www.flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "2018 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
- "Feature Detail Report for: Flagstaff". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Definition of flagstaff". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Sinagua". Logan Museum of Anthropology. Beloit College.
- Gibbon, Guy, ed. (1998). Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 770. ISBN 978-0815307259.
- Kennedy, Frances H., ed. (2008). American Indian places: a historical guidebook. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 978-0-547-52367-5. OCLC 759581887.
- Snow, Dean R. (2010). Archaeology of Native North America. Boston: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-615686-4. OCLC 223933566.
- "Flagstaff, Arizona Culture & Heritage". Discover Flagstaff. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "People - Walnut Canyon National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". US National Park Service. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Linoff, Lindsay (1998). "The Sinagua People of Montezuma Castle". Mesa Community College. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Rio de Flag, Flood Control Study: Environmental Impact Statement. 2000.
- Salzmann, Zdeněk; Salzmann, Joy M. (1997). Native Americans of the Southwest: the serious traveler's introduction to people and places. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8133-2279-0. OCLC 36241644.
- Braatz, Timothy (2003). Surviving conquest: a history of the Yavapai peoples. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8032-1331-9. OCLC 50235078.
- "The Verde River: Jewel of the Southwest". Earth Odyssey Magazine. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "ITCA: Yavapai-Apache Nation". ITCA. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Record, Ian W. (2008). Big Sycamore stands alone: the Western Apaches, Aravaipa, and the struggle for place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-8061-8625-2. OCLC 680632068.
- Collins, Charles (1999). An Apache nightmare: the battle at Cibecue Creek. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-585-12478-7. OCLC 44961022.
- Hook, Jason; Pegler, Martin. To live and die in the West: the American Indian Wars, 1860-90. London. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-135-97797-9. OCLC 869735921.
- Lahti, Janne (October 5, 2017). Wars for empire: Apaches, the United States, and the Southwest borderlands. Norman. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8061-5934-8. OCLC 1004564512.
- United States Indian Claims Commission (1978). Indian Claims Commission Decisions. Native American Rights Fund. pp. 241–243.
- "Flagstaff, Arizona – City of Seven Wonders – Legends of America". www.legendsofamerica.com. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Rio de Flag: History/Architecture". www2.nau.edu. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Community Profile." Official City Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- P. Lowell to A. E. Douglass, April 16, 1894, Lowell Observatory Archives.
- Gilbert, Sarah (March 23, 2016). "A Brief History of a Legendary Telescope". Lowell Observatory. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Paradis, Thomas Wayne (2003). Theme Town: A Geography of Landscape and Community in Flagstaff, Arizona. iUniverse. ISBN 0595270352.
- Trimble, Marshall (January 20, 2017). "The Babbitt Brothers & The CO Bar Ranch". True West Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Who Are the Babbitts, One of Flagstaff's Most Famous Families? – Arizona Oddities". Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Johnson, James W. (2002). Arizona politicians: the noble and the notorious. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-8165-2203-0. OCLC 48661604.
- Zeman, Scott C. (1998). "MONUMENT VALLEY: Shaping the Image of the Southwest's Cultural Crossroads". The Journal of Arizona History. 39 (3): 307–324. ISSN 0021-9053. JSTOR 41696442.
- Heffernon, Rick (2000). "Destination Flagstaff:How Important is the Flagstaff-Area Tourism Cluster?" (PDF). Flagstaff Convention and Visitors Bureau. Arizona State University.
- Southard, John Larsen (2013). "RICHES, RUIN, AND RECOVERY: The Impact of Route 66 on Flagstaff, 1926 to 1938". The Journal of Arizona History. 54 (2): 153–174. ISSN 0021-9053. JSTOR 24459232.
- Olberding, Susan (July 18, 2014). "Flagstaff grows up: 1920s – 1970s". Arizona Capitol Times. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Kaiser, James (March 28, 2018). Grand Canyon : the complete guide (7th ed.). ISBN 978-1-940754-33-8. OCLC 1029870515.
- Ferguson, Joe (September 28, 2009). "Ever wonder who makes your GPS work?". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "City of Flagstaff Records, 1958". www.azarchivesonline.org. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Putnam, William Lowell. "The explorers of Mars Hill : a centennial history of Lowell Observatory, 1894–1994." West Kennebunk, Me. : Published for Lowell Observatory by Phoenix Pub., c1994.
- Olberding, Susan (August 15, 2014). "Modern Flagstaff". Arizona Capitol Times. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Flagstaff's Heritage Square". Flagstaff Top Producers Real Estate. March 9, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Flagstaff is the world's first "International Dark-Sky City"". flagstaffdarkskies.org. May 2, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Staff Writer. "Stellar ideas keep astronomy in state." Arizona Republic. November 19, 2006. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- DeGraff, John G. (2011). Flagstaff. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Pub. ISBN 978-0-7385-8510-9. OCLC 773944194.
- "Springs of the Rio". Friends of the Rio de Flag. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 80.
- "Flagstaff Flag - Raising Historical Marker". www.hmdb.org. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Community Profile | City of Flagstaff Official Website". www.flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "Flagstaff, Arizona History". Discover Flagstaff. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "Kinłání". Navajo Language (Diné Bizaad). March 12, 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Whiteley, Peter M. (2011). "Who Were the Napac? Decoding an Ethnohistorical Enigma". Kiva. 77 (1): 59–86. doi:10.1179/kiv.2011.77.1.004. ISSN 0023-1940. JSTOR 41307170.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Flagstaff: The destination for all seasons". flagstaffarizona.org. Archived from the original on October 18, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "Biotic Communities of the Colorado Plateau". Northern Arizona University. Archived from the original on April 29, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
- Reporter, ADRIAN SKABELUND Sun Staff. "Rio de Flag flood control project receives $52 million in federal funding". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Google (April 7, 2020). "Flagstaff, Arizona" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Bezy, John V. (2003). A guide to the geology of the Flagstaff area (PDF). Tucson, AZ: Arizona Geological Survey. ISBN 1-892001-17-9. OCLC 53701547.
- Stein, Pat H. (1987). "Arizona Red, Flagstaff's sandstone industry". UNM: 16–19.
- Paradis, Thomas Wayne (2003). Theme Town: A Geography of Landscape and Community in Flagstaff, Arizona. iUniverse. ISBN 0595270352.
- Staudenmaier, Jr., Mike; Preston, Reginald; Sorenson, Paul; Johndrow, Justin (2014). "NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS WR-273 Climate of Flagstaff, Arizona (Revision 7)" (PDF). Science and Technology Infusion Division. Salt Lake City: NOAA National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office, Flagstaff Arizona.
- "San Francisco Peaks Loop". Arizona Highways. September 7, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "San Francisco Peaks | Flagstaff Arizona". www.arizona-leisure.com. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- "Rio de Flag: Geology". www2.nau.edu. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Wilhelms, Don (1993). "To a Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration".
- Vaughan, R. Greg; Schindler, Kevin; Stevens, Jeanne; Hough, Ian (2019), "Walk in the footsteps of the Apollo astronauts: A field guide to northern Arizona astronaut training sites", Geologic Excursions in Southwestern North America, Geological Society of America, doi:10.1130/2019.0055(12), ISBN 978-0-8137-5655-4, retrieved April 9, 2020
- "Flagstaff, Arizona Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Chase, John; Fouquier, Jennifer; Zare, Mahnaz; Sonderegger, Derek L.; Knight, Rob; Kelley, Scott T.; Siegel, Jeffrey; Caporaso, J. Gregory (April 26, 2016). Gilbert, Jack A. (ed.). "Geography and Location Are the Primary Drivers of Office Microbiome Composition". mSystems. 1 (2): e00022–16, /msys/1/2/e00022–16.atom. doi:10.1128/mSystems.00022-16. ISSN 2379-5077. PMC 5069741. PMID 27822521.
- "Arizona, USA - Climate data and average monthly weather". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Pulliam Airport - SKYbrary Aviation Safety". www.skybrary.aero. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Newnham, E. V. (1933). "METEOROLOGY". Science Progress (1933- ). 28 (110): 284–286. ISSN 0036-8504. JSTOR 43410836.
- Weeks, Michael (May 1, 2007). "Constructing winter : Flagstaff and the culture of snow, 1937-1990". Cite journal requires
- "Interactive United States Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- US Department of Commerce, NOAA. "Northern Arizona Monsoon Season". www.weather.gov. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Dallman, Peter R. (1998). Plant life in the world's Mediterranean climates: California, Chile, South Africa, Australia, and the Mediterranean Basin. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. ISBN 0-520-20808-0. OCLC 38206653.
- Harding, Andrew E. (2006). "The Mediterannean environment" (PDF). Changes in Mediterranean Climate Extremes: Patterns, Causes, and Impacts of Change. Climatic Research Unit. University of East Anglia. p. 44.
- Ahrens, C. Donald; Henson, Robert (January 1, 2015). Meteorology Today. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-305-48062-9.
- "What Are The Characteristics Of A Semi-arid Climate Pattern?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Flagstaff, Arizona Hardiness Zones". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Arizona Life Zones". Arizona State University. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- McColl, R. W. (2005). Encyclopedia of world geography. 1, A-G. New York, NY: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3. OCLC 85844781.
- Hereford, Richard (2007). "Climate Variation at Flagstaff, Arizona--1950 to 2007". United States Geological Survey. Open File Report 2007-1410.
- "Flagstaff, Arizona, Shatters Century-Plus Old All-Time Snowiest Day Record". The Weather Channel. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Cappucci, Matthew (February 22, 2019). "'Highly unusual event' leaves Arizona digging out from a 36-inch snowfall that shattered records". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Snowiest Cities In The US 2020". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "Snowfall – Average Total in Inches". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on February 16, 2003. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- "Flagstaff Community Profile." Official City Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- "Arizona’s Most Notable Storms." National Weather Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Annual Days of Sunshine in Arizona - Current Results". www.currentresults.com. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". The Weather Channel. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- "Best Fall Leaf Colors in Flagstaff | Fall Leaves in Northern AZ". www.flagstaff.com. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Station Name: AZ FLAGSTAFF PULLIAM AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "NOAA". NOAA.
- Stein, Walter T. (1964). "Comparison and Analysis of Modern and Prehistoric Tree Species in the Flagstaff Area, Arizona". Tree-Ring Bulletin. ISSN 0041-2198.
- "Native Plants of Arizona". Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry. Archived from the original on May 26, 2006. Retrieved August 13, 2006.
- Clary, Warren P. (1975). Range management and its ecological basis in the ponderosa pine type of Arizona: the status of our knowledge. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
- "Penstemon - Colorado Plateau, Arizona species | American Public Gardens Association". www.publicgardens.org. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Wilder, Jason A. (2017). "Checklist of the Birds of Coconino County" (PDF). Journal of Arizona Field Ornithologists.
- Southwest USA & Las Vegas (New ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. 2012. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4053-7064-6. OCLC 779245027.
- Paradis, Thomas W. (2007). "From Downtown to Theme Town". In Lukas, Scott A. (ed.). The themed space: locating culture, nation, and self. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-2141-2. OCLC 148926192.
- Google. "Santa Fe Plaza to Flagstaff Amtrak" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- Google. "From Flagstaff depots past Babbitt building to Heritage Square" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- Google. "Coconino County Superior Court" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- Google. "Heritage Square to Weatherford Hotel" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- Hendricks, Larry. "A Century of Life: The Orpheum Theater garners community support to keep Flagstaff entertained". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Google. "Office block of Sunwest Bank" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- "Flagstaff Southside Historic District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Townsite Historic Residential District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Fort Tuthill Historic District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "North End Historic Residential District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Northern Arizona Normal School Historic District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Railroad Addition Historic District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "USFS Fort Valley Experimental Forest Station Historic District". npgallery.nps.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "Flagstaff (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- American Factfinder, U.S. Census Bureau
- Chaudhuri, Joyotpaul (1974). Urban Indians of Arizona--Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8165-4033-4. OCLC 948459938.
- Reid, Jack (2014). "THE "GREAT MIGRATION" IN NORTHERN ARIZONA: Southern Blacks Move to Flagstaff 1940–1960". The Journal of Arizona History. 55 (4): 469–498. ISSN 0021-9053. JSTOR 24459928.
- "Flagstaff Population Review". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Police Department | City of Flagstaff Official Website". www.flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "NAU Police Department". NAU Police Department. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- NAU PD Clery Report 2019 (PDF). Flagstaff: NAU PD. 2019.
- "FBI Uniform Crime Report." Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "Violent Crime". FBI. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Flagstaff AZ Crime Rate 1999-2018". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Crime Rates and Statistics - NeighborhoodScout". www.neighborhoodscout.com. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "2017 Flagstaff Police Department Annual Report Revised". Issuu. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- NAZ Today (September 18, 2015). "Flagstaff Police Department Video Goes Viral". NAZ Today on Youtube. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Blaker, Elizabeth. "Earth Notes: Skunks and Rabies". www.knau.org. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Science and Research | 2018". Issuu. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Wotkyns, Steele. "Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications, Inc., Announce Partnership to Build Innovative Telescope Technology". Lowell Observatorydate=October 15, 2003. Archived from the original on December 10, 2006. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- Cowan, Emery. "With revenues still small, Flagstaff's SenesTech looks to sales growth in 2018". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Behind the scenes: Joy Cone in Flagstaff, world's largest ice cream cone manufacturer". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- Reporter, SUZANNE ADAMS-OCKRASSA Sun Staff. "Walgreens layoff might be largest ever in Flagstaff". Arizona Daily Sun.
- "W.L. Gore & Associates: Celebrating 50 years in Flagstaff". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- McDonough, Brian. "Building Type Basics for Hospitality Facilities." 2001. John Wiley and Sons, p. 11. ISBN 0-471-36944-6
- "125-Year Celebration and Events". Lowell Observatory. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "The Giovale Open Deck Observatory". Lowell Observatory. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "The breakdown of Snowbowl's impact in Flagstaff". The Lumberjack. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "The SAVE THE PEAKS COALITION v. UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE". 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Schroeder, Tim (1990). "Preliminary Assessment of the Social Impacts of Tourism in Flagstaff, Arizona". Visions in Leisure and Business. 9 (2).
- Craven, Scott. "Dec. 31: New Year's Eve Block Party and Pinecone Drop." Arizona Republic. December 28, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- "Museum of Northern Arizona (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
- "The Arboretum at Flagstaff (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
- "Route 66 in the Flagstaff Area." theroadwnaderer.net. 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Route 66 Days Archived June 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Annual Report 2018". darksky.app.box.com. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition. Flagstaffdarkskies.org (October 24, 2011). Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- Coconino County Lighting and General Codes Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Coconino.az.gov (January 7, 2008). Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- Arizona IDA presentation on Lighting issues (PowerPoint) Archived July 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. darksky.org.
- Lowell Observatory. Lowell.edu. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- "International Dark Sky City – Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition". Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "Flagstaff: The World's First Dark Sky City". Dark Sky Diary. October 2, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "Satellite images show Flagstaff's dark-sky success, National Park Service says". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "Dark Skies". Flagstaff, Arizona CVB. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "Flagstaff's Battle for Dark Skies" (PDF). Griffith Observer. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
- "History of the FSO Archived August 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine." Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Friends of Traditional Music (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Music Festival (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Pickin' in the Pines – Bluegrass and Acoustic Music Festival (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Thursdays on the Square Archived July 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Theatrikos: A Brief History Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ." theatrikos.com. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Light Opera Company (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Canyon Movement Company (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- Northern Arizona Book Festival Archived November 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Four Spectacular Days of Films (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "History". northernazpride.org. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- "Made in the Shade Beer Tasting Festival". azbeer.com. Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Miller, Cindy. "Summer's worth of festival fun." Arizona Republic. June 18, 2006. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- "Big Sky Conference - Member Institutions". Bigskyconf.com. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- Miller, Ryan. "SUU football: Demario Warren faces former teammate in Grand Canyon Rivalry". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "WAC team champion". Western Athletic Conference. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- "NCAA Men's Division I Cross Country Championship" (PDF). NCAA. NCAA.org. pp. 3–4. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Bashore, Cody. "Learning to love running, NAU's Peter Lomong makes a name for himself". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "David McNeill - Track & Field". Northern Arizona University Athletics. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Gugala, Jon (June 3, 2011). "NAU's Estrada Chases the American Dream". Runner's World. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "NAU and the Arizona Cardinals Solidify Partnership". Northern Arizona University Athletics. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "How the Cardinals' camp tradition in Flagstaff died". FOX Sports. July 24, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Fong, Theng Theng; Hoque, Shamia; Masago, Yoshifumi; Romero-Gomez, Pedro; Spicknall, Ian (August 12, 2006). Gerba, Charles (ed.). "NOROVIRUSES OUTBREAK AT NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY" (PDF). Michigan Statue University/University of Arizona.
- King, Peter. "My top five training camps: Places to get up close and personal with NFL players." Sports Illustrated. July 6, 2005. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
- "'Sports Illustrated' gives high marks to Cardinals camp – NAU News". Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- "Little but memories remain of Cardinals training camp in Flagstaff". Arizona Sports. August 1, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- Anthony, Sean (June 29, 2016). "Road to Rio Runs Through Flagstaff". Discover Flagstaff. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Hamlin, Michael; Draper, Nick; Kathiravel, Yaso, eds. (2013). Current issues in sports and exercise medicine. Rijeka: InTech. pp. 214–216. ISBN 978-953-51-1031-6. OCLC 852715498.
- "Athletes still training in Flagstaff's high altitude". www.knau.org. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "Arizona altitude camp putting swimmers through their paces". British Swimming. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Kuzma, Cindy (August 26, 2019). "Mo Farah's 6 Best Tips for Bouncing Back From a Bad Race—or a Good One". Runner's World. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "A day in the life of an elite training in Flagstaff". Canadian Running Magazine. April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "New Mo Farah documentary gives a glimpse of the unglamorous life of elite runners". Canadian Running Magazine. August 6, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "Distance runners flocking to Flagstaff for high-altitude training". Cronkite News - Arizona PBS. July 12, 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "2019 Clients & Countries". Hypo2Sport - Turning Thin Air into Gold. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "City Parks Archived March 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." City of Flagstaff Website. Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Urban Trails System." City of Flagstaff Website. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Staff Writer. "What to Do in Flagstaff." flagstaff.com. May 10, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
- National Park Service; Flagstaff Area National Monuments. "The Flagstaff Area National Monuments – Walnut Canyon National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". nps.gov. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Council-Manager Charter for the City of Flagstaff, Arizona Archived April 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine." City Government Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- "Mayor & Council | City of Flagstaff Official Website". www.flagstaff.az.gov. March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- https://www.flagstaff.az.gov/1414/City-Manager. Retrieved on March 1, 2020
- "City Council Meetings." City Government Website. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- Adams-Ockrassa, Suzanne. "2016 in Review: Minimum wage hikes shock some Flagstaff employers". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- "Flagstaff Minimum Wage". Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- "23-363 – Minimum wage". www.azleg.gov. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- Google. "North Campus NAU" (Map). Google Maps. Google.
- "District Information Archived June 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." Flagstaff Unified School District. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- "Past Teachers of the Year and Ambassadors Archived May 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ." Arizona Education Foundation. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff – Greyhound Station, AZ (FGG)". Amtrak. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Shuttle – Groome Transportation". Groome Transportation. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Department of Public Works & Transportation". The Hopi Tribe. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Navajo Transit System – Route Schedules". Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Flagstaff, AZ (FLG)". Amtrak. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Pulliam Airport Archived April 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine." City Government Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
- "Flagstaff Airport | City of Flagstaff". www.flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "City of Flagstaff – Bicycle Program". Flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- "City of Flagstaff – Flagstaff Urban Trails System (FUTS)". Flagstaff.az.gov. July 31, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- "League of American Bicyclists * Bicycle Friendly Community Campaign". Bikeleague.org. Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- "About APS: Power Plants Archived June 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine." Arizona Public Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "About APS: APS Solar Power Plants Archived July 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine." Arizona Public Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Drinking Water Archived August 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine." City of Flagstaff. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
- "Utilities Division | Arizona Corporation Commission". Sitefinity-2020.
- "Suddenlink buying NPG Cable for $350 million : Business". stltoday.com. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- "About KNAU". August 16, 2000. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Holmes, Gary. "Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006–2007 Season Archived July 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Nielsen Media Research. August 23, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- Faber, Daniel M. "Television and FM Translators: A History of Their Use and Regulation Archived May 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine." 1993. danielfaber.com. Retrieved on April 11, 2007
- "KFPH-DT FLAGSTAFF, AZ". www.rabbitears.info. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- Mangum, Richard & Sherry (2003). Flagstaff Past & Present. Northland Publishing. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-87358-847-9.
- Moody, Annemarie. "Arizona in autofocus: Movies put state on road map." Arizona Republic. November 7, 2006. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- "Legends of the High Desert: Haunted Monte Vista Hotel in Flagstaff." Legends of America. May 2005. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- Staff Writer. "Flagstaff economy held steady in 2005." Arizona Republic. December 28, 2005. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- Parra, Jerome. "Ellen DeGeneres coming to Flagstaff." Arizona Republic. December 3, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
- "Candidate's Father Dies in Flagstaff". Associated Press News Archive. January 25, 1988. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- Editor, SETH MULLER Features. "Homecoming for a favorite son: Actor Ted Danson back in Flagstaff for MNA fundraiser". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved April 13, 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Foley in Denver to meet with Shanahan". espn.com. ESPN, Inc. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Eckman-Onyskow, Bev (August 26, 2009). "Santa Fe author ready to release new book". Alamogordo Daily News. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- "Sister cities in Arizona". Archived from the original on March 29, 2010.