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|Common languages||Maya, Oromo, Hadiya, Amharic|
|Today part of||Ethiopia|
Fatagar was a province that separated Muslim and Christian dominions in the medieval Horn of Africa. In the eleventh century it was part of the Muslim states, then was invaded by the Christian kingdom led by Emperor Amda Seyon in the fourteenth century.
The now extinct Maya ethnic group once inhabited Fatagar. Local tradition claims that the province was a Gurage kingdom, but early Arab sources cited by Brakumper record that Oromos were already living in the area and had founded many kingdoms, one of which was Fetegar, after their conversion to Islam by Ifat.
Fatagar separated Ifat from Showa and was south of the kingdom of Lasta. It is also described as having been located in eastern Ethiopia, where several kingdoms, such as Ifat, Mora, Dawaro, Hadiya and Bali, also existed. The area is now part of the modern Arsi and Shewa Zone southeast of Addis Ababa.
Establishment and early campaigns
Fetegar was founded during the arrival of Islam in Eastern Ethiopia in the early 10th century, along with other kingdoms such as Adal, Ifat, Showa, Mora and Dawaro. It was a large province and one of Ifat's strongest allies; the latter used it as leverage against the rest of Ethiopia, since in order to get to Ifat, the Abyssinian Empire had to go through several other kingdoms, including Fetegar. Ifat sent governors and advisors to the sultanate to lead their Muslim allies.
Jarecho (Zway era)
One ruler of Fetegar, Ras Azmach Islamo, earned his name by fighting fellow Muslims, among other notable deeds. Another noted ruler was Garad, or Ras Amdu; according to one chronicle, his reputation was enough to dissuade the Abyssinians from invading Fetegar. The chronicle records this statement: "Let us also have the protection of the Muslims in order to achieve our aims, and bring them in so that our religion may not be changed. But there is a Garad (Ras) Amdu, and as long as he lives the Muslims are weak and scared. This would lead to them plotting against him they planned to spread a rumour, the rumour spread that the King slept with Queen Eleni of Abyssinia. With this the king was furious and led a Army from Wej to Fetegar, and also campaigned against Maya. With this Amdu invaded Fetegar and several other kingdoms. and decisively defeated the Moslims; however in his campiagn the Abyssinian king Eskender came to the support of the Muslims. Eskender captured Amdu and killed him. Amdu’s nephew Welde Sulis succeeded Amdu; when he met Eskender he swore a oath not to spare him.
The Muslims of Fetegar became powerful after the end of the Zway Dynasty. The Oromos (Fetegar) then invaded Zway and most of the Sultanate of Ifat. Fetegar would rule till the establishment of the Emirate of Harar.
After the death of Amdu Fetegar served a important role for the Ethiopian Empire. Dawit I and his successors stayed in Fetegar for a long time in Tobya (Yifat, Fetegar). The kingdom served as the birth place of the future emperors Zara Yaqoub,Eskender,Ba’eda Maryam. The great Harari Imam Ahmed Gragn even spent some time there. Zara yaqoub would than make Tobya his Capital.
Conquest of Abyssinia
Nur’s Campiagn against Gelawdewos
After the death of Garad Abbas, Gelawdewos invaded all of the Muslim provinces and kingdoms except for Harar. Among the kingdoms he conquered were Dawaro, Fetegar, Bali, and Hadiya. The Ethiopian king then focused on the southwestern side of Ethiopia, and there Nur bin Mujahid found an opportunity for jihad. Nur then invaded Bale and Dawaro. He planned to invade Fetegar next, but the Ethiopian Govorner Fanu’el decisively defeated Nur in the year 1550. But the war didn’t ended there. Ras Fanu’el campaigned further into Muslim territory and pushed the Harari Army back to Adal, which was far beyond Nur’s kingdom. The Ethiopian Govorner raided Muslim territories and took many goods. Nur took a lot of damage in his first campaign; it took him nine years to recover, but he then got together an army of 1800 horsemen and 500 riflemen and numerous sword and bow men, and invaded Fetegar. Gelawdewos saw Nur as a threat so he sent Hamalmal Governor of Kambata and Ras Fasil to destroy Harar. What he did not know was that Nur was campaigning in Kaffa. The two Governors took Harar. after finding out that Nur had marched to Fetegar. Gelawdewos had had enough so he led his Army to Nech ser in Fetegar. The two armied met on March 23, 1559, and it is said that a Harari rifleman shot the Abyssinian monarch, buy he kept on fighting. Then a group of Harari cavalry again attacked him and the monarch was struck and killed. Nur then sent the Abyssinian monarch's head to Adal where the Somalis ruled.
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