|Long title||An Act for reform in emerging new democracies and support and help for improved partnership with Russia, Ukraine, and other new independent states of the former Soviet Union.|
|Enacted by||the 103rd United States Congress|
|Effective||December 17, 1993|
|Statutes at Large||107 Stat. 2317|
|U.S.C. sections amended|
The FRIENDSHIP Act of 1993 was enacted as a law of the United States enhancing prior statutory provisions which govern international relations between the former Republics of the Soviet Union and United States during the Cold War. The Act of Congress reformed United States statutes related to:
- Armament export controls as related to military technology transfer limitations
- Continental cultural and educational exchange
- Cooperative foreign trade relations
- Diplomatic relations with foreign allies
- Global environmental shifts
- Immigration and nationality requirements
- International products exports
- Societal propagandization as related to multicultural social ideology
Titles of the Act
The 1993 Act was penned as nine titles establishing purposeful foreign relations as related to the development of emerging democracies and improved multinational partnerships.
Title I: Policy of Friendship and Cooperation
- Statement of purpose
- Statutory provisions that have been applicable to the Soviet Union.
Title II: Trade and Business Relations
- Policy under Export Administration Act
- Representation of countries of Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the former Soviet Union in legal commercial transactions
- Procedures regarding transfers of certain Department of Defense-funded items
- Soviet slave labor
Title III: Cultural, Educational, and Other Exchange Programs
- Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961
- Soviet-Eastern European research and training
- Fascell Fellowship Act
- Board for International Broadcasting Act
- Scholarship programs for developing countries
- Report on Soviet participants in certain exchange programs
Title IV: Arms Control
- Arms Control and Disarmament Act
- Arms Export Control Act
- Annual reports on arms control matters
- United States/Soviet direct communication link
Title V: Diplomatic Relations
- Personnel levels and limitations
- Other provisions related to operation of consulates and embassies
- Foreign Service Buildings Act
Title VI: Oceans and the Environment
Title VII: Regional and General Diplomatic Issues
- United Nations assessments
- Soviet occupation of Afghanistan
- Self determination of the people from the Baltic States
- Obsolete references in Foreign Assistance Act
- Review of United States policy toward the Soviet Union
Title VIII: Internal Security; Worldwide Communist Conspiracy
- Civil defense
- Report on Soviet press manipulation in the United States
- Subversive Activities Control Act
- Report on Soviet and international communist behavior
Title IX: Miscellaneous
- Ballistic missile tests near Hawaii
- Nondelivery of international mail
- State-sponsored harassment of religious groups
- Murder of Major Arthur D. Nicholson
- Monument to honor victims of communism
- Arctic policy of the United States
- Communist Control Act of 1954
- Former Soviet Union Demilitarization Act of 1992
- Freedom Support Act
- Helsinki Accords
- Korean Air Lines Flight 007
- Mount Alto Embassy Site
- National Captive Nations Committee
- North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911
- Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act
- Partnership for Peace
- Samantha Smith
- Soviet anti-religious legislation
- Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991
- Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation
- World Trade Organization
- "Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983 ~ P.L. 98-164" (PDF). 97 Stat. 1047 ~ House Bill 2915. U.S. Government Publishing Office. November 22, 1983.
- "H.R.2915 - Soviet-Eastern European Research and Training Act of 1983". Congress.gov. May 5, 1983.
- "Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986 ~ P.L. 99-399" (PDF). 100 Stat. 853 ~ House Bill 4151. U.S. Government Publishing Office. August 27, 1986.
- "H.R.4151 - Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986". Congress.gov. February 6, 1986.
- "Board for International Broadcasting Act of 1973 ~ P.L. 93-129" (PDF). 87 Stat. 456 ~ Senate Bill 1914. U.S. Government Publishing Office. October 19, 1973.
- "S.1914 - Board for International Broadcasting Act". Congress.gov. May 31, 1973.
- "Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926 ~ P.L. 69-186" (PDF). 44 Stat. 403 ~ House Bill 10200. Legis★Works. May 7, 1926. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
- "Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 ~ P.L. 98-373" (PDF). 98 Stat. 1242 ~ Senate Bill 373. U.S. Government Publishing Office. July 31, 1984.
- "S.373 - Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984". Congress.gov. February 1, 1983.
- "Global Climate Protection Act of 1987 ~ P.L. 100-204" (PDF). 101 Stat. 1407 ~ House Bill 1777. U.S. Government Publishing Office. December 22, 1987.
- "H.R.1777 - Global Climate Protection Act of 1987". Congress.gov. March 25, 1987.
- "29 WCPD 545 - Vancouver Declaration: Joint Statement of the Presidents of the United States and the Russian Federation" (PDF). U.S. Government Publishing Office. April 4, 1993.
- Battista, Carolyn (June 24, 1990). "Dramatic Harmony in Student Exchange". The New York Times. Waterford, Connecticut.
- James, George (October 4, 1998). "GOVERNMENT; For Exchange Students and Sponsors, Lessons for Life". The New York Times.
- "Revelations from the Russian Archives". Exhibitions. United States Library of Congress.
- Clinton, William J. (September 6, 1996). "Statement on the 1997 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Summit - September 6, 1996". Internet Archive. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service. pp. 1501–1502.
- Clinton, William J. (December 10, 1996). "Statement Announcing the 1997 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Summit - December 10, 1996". Internet Archive. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service. p. 2184.