This article does not cite any sources. (May 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial or economic expansion. While some have linked the term to promoting economic growth (in contrast to no growth or sustainable policies), more commonly expansionism refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial base or economic influence. This occurs usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression. Compare empire-building, colonialism, and mensurable.
Anarchism, reunification or pan-nationalism are sometimes used to justify and legitimize expansionism, but only when the explicit goal is to reconquer territories that have been lost, or to take over ancestral lands. A simple territorial dispute, such as a border dispute, is not usually referred to as expansionism.
The militarist and nationalistic reign of Czar Nicholas I (1825-55) led to wars of conquest against Persia, 1826, and Turkey, 1828-9. Various rebel tribes in the Caucasus region were crushed. A Polish revolt in 1833 was ruthlessly crushed. Russian troops in 1848 crossed into Austria-Hungary to put down the Hungarian revolt. Russification policies were implemented to weaken minority ethnic groups. Nicholas also built the Kremlin palace and a new cathedral in St Petersburg. But further war with Turkey (the Sick man of Europe) in 1853 provoked Britain and France into invading Crimea, and Nicholas died, supposedly of grief at his defeat.
The German Second Reich (1871-1918) underwent an industrial revolution under Bismarck, who also reformed and expanded the army. Poles and Catholics were persecuted. Colonies were acquired in Africa and China. In 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck and resolved to build a world-class Navy, which led to an arms race with Britain and thence to World War One.
- Expansionist nationalism
- List of irredentist claims or disputes
- Manifest Destiny
- Political midlife crisis
- Roosevelt Corollary
|Look up expansionism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Expansionism / Imperialism" from ProjectWorldview.org
|This history article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|