Death by burning (also known as immolation) is an execution method involving combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, and many societies have employed it for criminal activities such as treason, heresy and witchcraft. The best-known execution of this type is burning at the stake, where the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake and a fire lit beneath them.
In the process of being burned to death, a body experiences burns to exposed tissue, changes in content and distribution of body fluid, fixation of tissue, and shrinkage (especially of the skin). Internal organs may be shrunken due to fluid loss. Shrinkage and contraction of the muscles may cause joints to flex and the body to adopt the "pugilistic stance" (boxer stance), with the elbows and knees flexed and the fists clenched. Shrinkage of the skin around the neck may be severe enough to strangle a victim. Fluid shifts, especially in the skull and in the hollow organs of the abdomen, can cause pseudo-hemorrhages in the form of heat hematomas. The organic matter of the body may be consumed as fuel by a fire. The cause of death is frequently determined by the respiratory tract, where edema or bleeding of mucous membranes and patchy or vesicular detachment of the mucosa may be indicative of inhalation of hot gases. Complete cremation is only achieved under extreme circumstances.
The amount of pain experienced is greatest at the beginning of the burning process before the flame burns the nerves, after which the skin does not hurt. Many victims die quickly from suffocation as hot gases damage the respiratory tract. Those who survive the burning frequently die within days as the lungs' alveoli fill with fluid and the victim dies of pulmonary edema.
Ancient Near East
The 18th-century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian King Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate. Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, and priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could also be punished by being burnt alive. Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered to be burned alive.
In Ancient Egypt, several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested to. Senusret I (r. 1971–1926 BC) is said to have rounded up the rebels in campaign, and burnt them as human torches. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years later, the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, and burned several rebels alive. On the statute books, at least, women committing adultery might be burned to death. Jon Manchip White, however, did not think capital judicial punishments were often carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to personally ratify each verdict. Professor Susan Redford speculates that after the harem conspiracy in which pharaoh Ramesses III was assassinated, the non-nobles who had participated in the plot were burned alive, because the Egyptians believed that without a physical body, one could not enter the afterlife. This would explain why Pentawere, the prince whose mother instigated the would-be coup, was most likely strangled or hanged himself; as a royal, he would have been spared this ultimate fate.
In the Middle Assyrian period, paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, and the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself (the way wives were to dress in public):
A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her ... and bring her to the palace entrance. ... they shall pour hot pitch over her head.
For the Neo-Assyrians, mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but also as proof of their might. Neo-Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) was evidently proud enough of his bloody work that he committed it to monument and eternal memory as follows:
I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving that Judah is himself the father of her child. In the Book of Jubilees, the same story is told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A. Reeder. In Genesis, Judah is exercising his patriarchal power at a distance, whereas he and the relatives seem more actively involved in Tamar's impending execution.
In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: The imputed crime of Tamar, namely that a married daughter of a priest commits adultery, and nine versions of relationships considered as incestuous, such as having sex with one's own daughter, or granddaughter, but also having sex with one's mother-in-law or with one's wife's daughter.
In the Mishnah, the following manner of burning the criminal is described:
The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck. One pulled it one way, one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the (lead) wick and throws it in his mouth, and it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels.
That is, the person dies from being fed molten lead. The Mishnah is, however, a fairly late collections of laws, from about the 3rd century AD, and scholars believe it replaced the actual punishment of burning in the old biblical texts.
According to ancient reports, Roman authorities executed many of the early Christian martyrs by burning. An example of this is the earliest chronicle of a martyrdom, that of Polycarp. Sometimes this was by means of the tunica molesta, a flammable tunic:
... the Christian, stripped naked, was forced to put on a garment called the tunica molesta, made of papyrus, smeared on both sides with wax, and was then fastened to a high pole, from the top of which they continued to pour down burning pitch and lard, a spike fastened under the chin preventing the excruciated victim from turning the head to either side, so as to escape the liquid fire, until the whole body, and every part of it, was literally clad and cased in flame.
In 326, Constantine the Great promulgated a law that increased the penalties for parentally non-sanctioned "abduction" of their girls, and concomitant sexual intercourse/rape. The man would be burnt alive without the possibility of appeal, and the girl would receive the same treatment if she had participated willingly. Nurses who had corrupted their female wards and led them to sexual encounters would have molten lead poured down their throats. In the same year, Constantine also passed a law that said if a woman had sexual relations with her own slave, both would be subjected to capital punishment, the slave by burning (if the slave himself reported the offense- presumably having been raped- he was to be set free.) In AD 390, Emperor Theodosius issued an edict against male prostitutes and brothels offering such services; those found guilty should be burned alive.
In the 6th-century collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest, a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning. The 3rd-century jurist Ulpian said that enemies of the state and deserters to the enemy were to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical writer Callistratus, mentions that arsonists are typically burnt, as well as slaves who have conspired against the well-being of their masters (this last also, on occasion, being meted out to free persons of "low rank"). The punishment of burning alive arsonists (and traitors) seems to have been particularly ancient; it was included in the Twelve Tables, a mid-5th-century BC law code, that is, about 700 years prior to the times of Ulpian and Callistratus.
Ritual child sacrifice in Carthage
Beginning in the early 3rd century BC, Greek and Roman writers commented on the purported institutionalized child sacrifice the North African Carthaginians are said to have performed in honour of the gods Baal Hammon and Tanit. The earliest writer, Cleitarchus is among the most explicit. He says live infants were placed in the arms of a bronze statue, the statue's hands over a brazier, so that the infant slowly rolled into the fire. As it did so, the limbs of the infant contracted and the face was distorted into a sort of laughing grimace, hence called "the act of laughing". Other, later authors such as Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch say the throats of the infants were generally cut, before they were placed in the statue's embrace In the vicinity of ancient Carthage, large scale grave yards containing the incinerated remains of infants, typically up to the age of 3, have been found; such graves are called "tophets". However, some scholars have argued that these findings are not evidence of systematic child sacrifice, and that estimated figures of ancient natural infant mortality (with cremation afterwards and reverent separate burial) might be the real historical basis behind the hostile reporting from non-Carthaginians. A late charge of the imputed sacrifice is found by the North African bishop Tertullian, who says that child sacrifices were still carried out, in secret, in the countryside at his time, 3rd century AD.
According to Julius Caesar, the ancient Celts practised the burning alive of humans in a number of settings. In Book 6, chapter 16, he writes of the Druidic sacrifice of criminals within huge wicker frames shaped as men:
Others have figures of vast size, the limbs of which formed of osiers they fill with living men, which being set on fire, the men perish enveloped in the flames. They consider that the oblation of such as have been taken in theft, or in robbery, or any other offence, is more acceptable to the immortal gods; but when a supply of that class is wanting, they have recourse to the oblation of even the innocent.
Slightly later, in Book 6, chapter 19, Caesar also says the Celts perform, on the occasion of death of great men, the funeral sacrifice on the pyre of living slaves and dependants ascertained to have been "beloved by them". Earlier on, in Book 1, chapter 4, he relates of the conspiracy of the nobleman Orgetorix, charged by the Celts for having planned a coup d'état, for which the customary penalty would be burning to death. It is said Orgetorix committed suicide to avoid that fate.
Human sacrifice around the Eastern Baltic
Throughout the 12th–14th centuries, a number of non-Christian peoples living around the Eastern Baltic Sea, such as Old Prussians and Lithuanians, were charged by Christian writers with performing human sacrifice. Pope Gregory IX issued a papal bull denouncing an alleged practice among the Prussians, that girls were dressed in fresh flowers and wreaths and were then burned alive as offerings to evil spirits.
Eastern Roman Empire
Under 6th-century emperor Justinian I, the death penalty had been decreed for impenitent Manicheans, but a specific punishment was not made explicit. By the 7th century, however, those found guilty of "dualist heresy" could risk being burned at the stake. Those found guilty of performing magical rites, and corrupting sacred objects in the process, might face death by burning, as evidenced in a 7th-century case. In the 10th century AD, the Byzantines instituted death by burning for parricides, i.e. those who had killed their own relatives, replacing the older punishment of poena cullei, the stuffing of the convict in a leather sack along with a rooster, a viper, a dog and a monkey, and then throwing the sack into the sea.
Medieval Inquisition and the burning of heretics
Civil authorities burned persons judged to be heretics under the medieval Inquisition. Burning heretics had become customary practice in the latter half of the twelfth century in continental Europe, and death by burning became statutory punishment from the early 13th century. Death by burning for heretics was made positive law by Pedro II of Aragon in 1197. In 1224, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, made burning a legal alternative, and in 1238, it became the principal punishment in the Empire. In Sicily, the punishment was made law in 1231, whereas in France, Louis IX made it binding law in 1270.
As some in England at the start of the 15th century grew weary of the teachings of John Wycliffe and the Lollards, kings, priests, and parliaments reacted with fire. In 1401, Parliament passed the De heretico comburendo act, which can be loosely translated as "Regarding the burning of heretics." Lollard persecution would continue for over a hundred years in England. The Fire and Faggot Parliament met in May 1414 at Grey Friars Priory in Leicester to lay out the notorious Suppression of Heresy Act 1414, enabling the burning of heretics by making the crime enforceable by the Justices of the peace. John Oldcastle, a prominent Lollard leader, was not saved from the gallows by his old friend King Henry V. Oldcastle was hanged and his gallows burned in 1417. Jan Hus was burned at the stake after being accused at the Roman Catholic Council of Constance (1414–18) of heresy. The ecumenical council also decreed that the remains of John Wycliffe, dead for 30 years, should be exhumed and burned. (This posthumous execution was carried out in 1428.)
Burnings of Jews
Several incidents are recorded of massacres on Jews from the 12th through 16th centuries in which they were burned alive, often on account of the blood libel. In 1171 in Blois 51 Jews were burned alive (the entire adult community). In 1191, King Philip Augustus ordered around 100 Jews burnt alive. That Jews purportedly performed host desecration also led to mass burnings; In 1243 in Beelitz, the entire Jewish community was burnt alive, and in 1510 in Berlin, some 26 Jews were burnt alive for the same crime. During the "Black Death" in the mid-14th century a spate of large-scale massacres occurred. One libel was that the Jews had poisoned the wells. In 1349, as panic grew along with the increasing death toll from the plague, general massacres, but also specifically mass burnings, began to occur. Six hundred (600) Jews were burnt alive in Basel alone. A large mass burning occurred in Strasbourg, where several hundred Jews were burnt alive in what became known as the Strasbourg massacre.
A Jewish man, Johannes Pfefferkorn, met a particularly gruesome death in 1514 in Halle. He had been charged with a number of crimes, such as having impersonated a priest for twenty years, performing host desecration, stealing Christian children to be tortured and killed by other Jews, poisoning 13 people and poisoning wells. He was lashed to a pillar in such a way that he could run about it. Then, a ring of glowing coal was made around him, a fiery ring that was gradually pushed ever closer to him, until he was roasted to death.
Lepers' Plot of 1321
Not only Jews could be victims of mass hysteria on charges like that of poisoning wells. This particular charge, well-poisoning, was the basis for a large scale hunt of lepers in 1321 France. In the spring of 1321, in Périgueux, people became convinced that the local lepers had poisoned the wells, causing ill-health among the normal populace. The lepers were rounded up and burned alive. The action against the lepers didn't stay local, though, but had repercussions throughout France, not least because King Philip V issued an order to arrest all lepers, those found guilty to be burnt alive. Jews became tangentially included as well; at Chinon alone, 160 Jews were burnt alive. All in all, around 5000 lepers and Jews are recorded in one tradition to have been killed during the Lepers' Plot hysteria.
The charge of the lepers' plot was not wholly confined to France; extant records from England show that on Jersey the same year, at least one family of lepers was burnt alive for having poisoned others.
Spanish Inquisition against Moriscos and Marranos
The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478, with the aim of preserving Catholic orthodoxy; some of its principal targets were "Marranos", formally converted Jews thought to have relapsed into Judaism, or the Moriscos, formally converted Muslims thought to have relapsed into Islam. The public executions of the Spanish Inquisition were called autos-da-fé; convicts were "released" (handed over) to secular authorities in order to be burnt.
Estimates of how many were executed on behest of the Spanish Inquisition have been offered from early on; historian Hernando del Pulgar (1436–c. 1492) estimated that 2000 people were burned at the stake between 1478 and 1490. Estimates ranging from 30,000 to 50,000 burnt at the stake (alive or not) at the behest of the Spanish Inquisition during its 300 years of activity have previously been given and are still to be found in popular books.
In February 1481, in what is said to be the first auto-da-fé, six Marranos were burnt alive in Seville. In November 1481, 298 Marranos were burnt publicly at the same place, their property confiscated by the Church. Not all Maranos executed by being burnt at the stake seem to have been burnt alive. If the Jew "confessed his heresy", the Church would show mercy, and he would be strangled prior to the burning. Autos-da-fé against Maranos extended beyond the Spanish heartland. In Sicily, in 1511–15, 79 were burnt at the stake, while from 1511 to 1560, 441 Maranos were condemned to be burned alive. In Spanish American colonies, autos-da-fé were held as well. In 1664, a man and his wife were burned alive in Río de la Plata, and in 1699, a Jew was burnt alive in Mexico City.
In 1535, five Moriscos were burned at the stake on Majorca, the images of a further four were also burnt in effigy, since the actual individuals had managed to flee. During the 1540s, some 232 Moriscos were paraded in autos-da-fé in Zaragoza; five of those were burnt at the stake. The claim that out of 917 Moriscos appearing in autos of the Inquisition in Granada between 1550 and 1595, just 20 were executed seems at odds with the English government's state papers which claim that, while at war with Spain, they received a report from Seville of 17 June 1593 that over 70 of the richest men of Granada were burnt. As late as 1728 as many as 45 Moriscos were recorded burned for heresy. In the May 1691 "bonfire of the Jews", Rafael Valls, Rafael Benito Terongi and Catalina Terongi were burned alive.
Portuguese Inquisition at Goa
In 1560, the Portuguese Inquisition opened offices in the Indian colony Goa, known as Goa Inquisition. Its aim was to protect Catholic orthodoxy among new converts to Christianity, and retain hold on the old, particularly against "Judaizing" deviancy. From the 17th century, Europeans were shocked at the tales of how brutal and extensive the activities of the Inquisition were. Modern scholars have established that some 4046 individuals in the time 1560–1773 received some sort of punishment from the Portuguese Inquisition, whereof 121 persons were condemned to be burned alive; of those 57 actually suffered that fate, while the rest escaped it, and were burnt in effigy instead. For the Portuguese Inquisition in total, not just at Goa, modern estimates of persons actually executed on its behest is about 1200, whether burnt alive or not.
Legislation concerning "crimes against nature"
From the 12th to the 18th centuries, various European authorities legislated (and held judicial proceedings) against sexual crimes such as sodomy or bestiality; often, the prescribed punishment was that of death by burning. Many scholars think that the first time death by burning appeared within explicit codes of law for the crime of sodomy was at the ecclesiastical 1120 Council of Nablus in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Here, if public repentance were done, the death penalty might be avoided. In Spain, the earliest records for executions for the crime of sodomy are from the 13th–14th centuries, and it is noted there that the preferred mode of execution was death by burning. The Partidas of King Alfonso "El Sabio" condemned sodomites to be castrated and hung upside down to die from the bleeding, following the old testament phrase "their blood shall be upon them". At Geneva, the first recorded burning of sodomites occurred in 1555, and up to 1678, some two dozen met the same fate. In Venice, the first burning took place in 1492, and a monk was burnt as late as 1771. The last case in France where two men were condemned by court to be burned alive for engaging in consensual homosexual sex was in 1750 (although, it seems, they were actually strangled prior to being burned). The last case in France where a man was condemned to be burned for a murderous rape of a boy occurred in 1784.
Crackdowns and the public burning of a couple of homosexuals might lead to local panic, and persons thus inclined fleeing from the place. The traveller William Lithgow witnessed such a dynamic when he visited Malta in 1616 :
The fifth day of my staying here, I saw a Spanish soldier and a Maltezen boy burnt in ashes, for the public profession of sodomy; and long before night, there were above an hundred bardassoes, whorish boys, that fled away to Sicily in a galliot, for fear of fire; but never one bugeron stirred, being few or none there free of it.
Penal code of Charles V
In 1532, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V promulgated his penal code Constitutio Criminalis Carolina. A number of crimes were punishable with death by burning, such as coin forgery, arson, and sexual acts "contrary to nature". Also, those guilty of aggravated theft of sacred objects from a church could be condemned to be burnt alive. Only those found guilty of malevolent witchcraft could be punished by death by fire.
Last burnings from 1804 and 1813
According to the jurist Eduard Osenbrüggen, the last case he knew of where a person had been judicially burned alive on account of arson in Germany happened in 1804, in Hötzelsroda, close by Eisenach. The manner in which Johannes Thomas was executed on 13 July that year is described as follows: Some feet above the actual pyre, attached to a stake, a wooden chamber had been constructed, into which the delinquent was placed. Pipes or chimneys filled with sulphuric material led up to the chamber, and that was first lit, so that Thomas died from inhaling the sulphuric smoke, rather than being strictly burnt alive, before his body was consumed by the general fire. Some 20,000 people had gathered to watch Thomas' execution.
Although Thomas is regarded as the last to have been actually executed by means of fire (in this case, through suffocation), the couple Johann Christoph Peter Horst and his lover Friederike Louise Christiane Delitz, who had made a career of robberies in the confusion made by their acts of arson, were condemned to be burnt alive in Berlin 28 May 1813. They were, however, according to Gustav Radbruch, secretly strangled just prior to being burnt, namely when their arms and legs were tied fast to the stake.
Although these two cases are the last where execution by burning might be said to have been carried out in some degree, Eduard Osenbrüggen mentions that verdicts to be burned alive were given in several cases in different German states afterwards, such as in cases from 1814, 1821, 1823, 1829 and finally in a case from 1835.
Burning was used during the witch-hunts of Europe, although hanging was the preferred style of execution in England and Wales. The penal code known as the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina (1532) decreed that sorcery throughout the Holy Roman Empire should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it purported to inflict injury upon any person the witch was to be burnt at the stake. In 1572, Augustus, Elector of Saxony imposed the penalty of burning for witchcraft of every kind, including simple fortunetelling. From the latter half of the 18th century, the number of "nine million witches burned in Europe" has been bandied about in popular accounts and media, but has never had a following among specialist researchers. Today, based on meticulous study of trial records, ecclesiastical and inquisitorial registers and so on, as well as on the utilization of modern statistical methods, the specialist research community on witchcraft has reached an agreement for roughly 40,000–50,000 people executed for witchcraft in Europe in total, and by no means all of them executed by being burned alive. Furthermore, it is solidly established that the peak period of witch-hunts was the century 1550–1650, with a slow increase preceding it, from the 15th century onward, as well as a sharp drop following it, with "witch-hunts" having basically fizzled out by the first half of the 18th century.
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682). Anglican martyrs John Rogers, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake in 1555. Thomas Cranmer followed the next year (1556).
In Denmark, after the 1536 reformation, Christian IV of Denmark (r. 1588–1648) encouraged the practice of burning witches, in particular by the law against witchcraft in 1617. In Jutland, the mainland part of Denmark, more than half the recorded cases of witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries occurred after 1617. Rough estimates says about a thousand persons were executed due to convictions for witchcraft in the 1500–1600s, but it is not wholly clear if all of the transgressors were burned to death.
Mary I ordered hundreds of Protestants burnt at the stake during her reign (1553–58) in what would be known as the "Marian Persecutions" earning her the epithet of "Bloody" Mary. Many of those executed by Mary and the Roman Catholic Church are listed in Actes and Monuments, written by Foxe in 1563 and 1570.
Edward Wightman, a Baptist from Burton on Trent, was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April 1612. Although cases can be found of burning heretics in the 16th and 17th centuries in England, that penalty for heretics was historically relatively new. It did not exist in 14th-century England, and when the bishops in England petitioned King Richard II to institute death by burning for heretics in 1397, he flatly refused, and no one was burnt for heresy during his reign. Just one year after his death, however, in 1401, William Sawtrey was burnt alive for heresy. Death by burning for heresy was formally abolished by King Charles II in 1676.
The traditional punishment for women found guilty of treason was to be burned at the stake, where they did not need to be publicly displayed naked, whereas men were hanged, drawn and quartered. The jurist William Blackstone argued as follows for the differential punishment of females vs. males:
For as the decency due to sex forbids the exposing and public mangling of their bodies, their sentence (which is to the full as terrible to sensation as the other) is to be drawn to the gallows and there be burned alive
However, as described in Camille Naish's "Death Comes to the Maiden", in practice, the woman's clothing would burn away at the beginning, and she would be left naked anyway. There were two types of treason: high treason, for crimes against the sovereign; and petty treason, for the murder of one's lawful superior, including that of a husband by his wife. Commenting on the 18th-century execution practice, Frank McLynn says that most convicts condemned to burning were not burnt alive, and that the executioners made sure the women were dead before consigning them to the flames.
The last person to have been condemned to death for "petty treason" was Mary Bailey, whose body was burned in 1784. The last woman to be convicted for "high treason", and have her body burnt, in this case for the crime of coin forgery, was Catherine Murphy in 1789. The last case where a woman was actually burnt alive in England is that of Catherine Hayes in 1726, for the murder of her husband. In this case, one account says this happened because the executioner accidentally set fire to the pyre before he had hanged Hayes properly. The historian Rictor Norton has assembled a number of contemporary newspaper reports on the actual death of Mrs. Hayes, internally somewhat divergent. The following excerpt is one example:
The fuel being placed round her, and lighted with a torch, she begg’d for the sake of Jesus, to be strangled first: whereupon the Executioner drew tight the halter, but the flame coming to his hand in the space of a second, he let it go, when she gave three dreadful shrieks; but the flames taking her on all sides, she was heard no more; and the Executioner throwing a piece of timber into the Fire, it broke her skull, when her brains came plentifully out; and in about an hour more she was entirely reduced to ashes.
James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) shared the Danish king's interest in witch trials. This special interest of the king resulted in the North Berwick witch trials, which led more than seventy people to be accused of witchcraft. James sailed in 1590 to Denmark to meet his betrothed, Anne of Denmark, who, ironically, is believed by some to have secretly converted to Roman Catholicism herself from Lutheranism around 1598, although historians are divided on whether she ever was received into the Roman Catholic faith.
The last to be executed as a witch in Scotland was Janet Horne in 1727, condemned to death for using her own daughter as a flying horse in order to travel. Janet Horne was burnt alive in a tar barrel.
Petronilla de Meath (c. 1300–1324) was the maidservant of Dame Alice Kyteler, a 14th-century Hiberno-Norman noblewoman. After the death of Kyteler's fourth husband, the widow was accused of practicing witchcraft and Petronilla of being her accomplice. Petronilla was tortured and forced to proclaim that she and Kyteler were guilty of witchcraft. Petronilla was then flogged and eventually burnt at the stake on 3 November 1324, in Kilkenny, Ireland. Hers was the first known case in the history of the British Isles of death by fire for the crime of heresy. Kyteler was charged by the Bishop of Ossory, Richard de Ledrede, with a wide slate of crimes, from sorcery and demonism to the murders of several husbands. She was accused of having illegally acquired her wealth through witchcraft, which accusations came principally from her stepchildren, the children of her late husbands by their previous marriages. The trial predated any formal witchcraft statute in Ireland, thus relying on ecclesiastical law (which treated witchcraft as heresy) rather than English common law (which treated it as a felony). Under torture, Petronilla claimed she and her mistress applied a magical ointment to a wooden beam, which enabled both women to fly. She was then forced to proclaim publicly that Lady Alice and her followers were guilty of witchcraft. Some were convicted and whipped, but others, Petronilla included, were burnt at the stake. With the help of relatives, Alice Kyteler fled, taking with her Petronilla's daughter, Basilia.
The brothel madam Darkey Kelly was convicted of murdering shoemaker John Dowling in 1760 and burned at the stake in Dublin on 7 January 1761. Later legends claimed that she was a serial killer and/or witch.
In 1895, Bridget Cleary (née Boland), a County Tipperary woman, was burnt by her husband and others, the stated motive for the crime being the belief that the real Bridget had been abducted by fairies with a changeling left in her place. Her husband claimed to have slain only the changeling. The gruesome nature of the case prompted extensive press coverage. The trial was closely followed by newspapers in both Ireland and Britain. As one reviewer commented, nobody, with the possible exception of the presiding judge, thought it was an ordinary murder case.
Slavery and colonialism in the Americas
Indigenous North Americans often used burning as a form of execution, against members of other tribes or white settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Roasting over a slow fire was a customary method. (See Captives in American Indian Wars)
In Massachusetts, there are two known cases of burning at the stake. First, in 1681, a slave named Maria tried to kill her owner by setting his house on fire. She was convicted of arson and burned at the stake in Roxbury. Concurrently, a slave named Jack, convicted in a separate arson case, was hanged at a nearby gallows, and after death his body was thrown into the fire with that of Maria. Second, in 1755, a group of slaves had conspired and killed their owner, with servants Mark and Phillis executed for his murder. Mark was hanged and his body gibbeted, and Phillis burned at the stake, at Cambridge.
In Montreal, then part of New France, Marie-Joseph Angélique, a black slave, was sentenced to being burned alive for an arson which destroyed 45 homes and a hospital in 1734. The sentence was commuted on appeal to burning after death by strangulation.[circular reference]
In New York, several burnings at the stake are recorded, particularly following suspected slave revolt plots. In 1708, one woman was burnt and one man hanged. In the aftermath of the New York Slave Revolt of 1712, 20 people were burnt (one of the leaders slowly roasted, before he died after 10 hours of torture) and during the alleged slave conspiracy of 1741, at least 13 slaves were burnt at the stake.
Bartolomé de las Casas, a 16th-century eyewitness to the brutal subjugation of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores, has left a particularly harrowing description of how roasting alive was a favoured technique of repression:
They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: they made a grid of rods which they placed on forked sticks, then lashed the victims to the grid and lighted a smoldering fire underneath, so that little by little, as those captives screamed in despair and torment, their souls would leave them. I once saw this, when there were four or five nobles lashed on grids and burning; I seem even to recall that there were two or three pairs where others were burning, and because they uttered such loud screams that they disturbed the captain's sleep, he ordered them to be strangled. And the constable, who was worse than an executioner, did not want to obey that order (and I know the name of that constable and know his relatives in Seville), but instead put a stick over the victims' tongues, so they could not make a sound, and he stirred up the fire, but not too much, so that they roasted slowly, as he liked.
The last known burning by the Spanish Colonial government in Latin America was of Mariana de Castro, during the Peruvian Inquisition in Lima on 22 December 1736 after she had been convicted on 4 February 1732 of being a judaizante (a person who was privately practicing the Jewish faith after having publicly converted to Roman Catholicism).
British West Indies
In 1760, the slave rebellion known as Tacky's War broke out in Jamaica. Apparently, some of the defeated rebels were burned alive, while others were gibbeted alive, left to die of thirst and starvation.
In 1774, nine African slaves at Tobago were found complicit of murdering a white man. Eight of them had first their right arms chopped off, and were then burned alive bound to stakes, according to the report of an eyewitness.
In 1855 the Dutch abolitionist and historian Julien Wolbers spoke to the Anti Slavery Society in Amsterdam. Painting a dark picture of the condition of slaves in Suriname, he mentions in particular that as late as in 1853, just two years previously, "three Negroes were burnt alive".
Greek War of Independence
The Greek War of Independence in the 1820s contained several instances of death by burning. When the Greeks in April 1821 captured a corvette near Hydra, the Greeks chose to roast to death the 57 Ottoman crew members. After the fall of Tripolitsa in September 1821, European officers were horrified to note that not only were Muslims suspected of hiding money being slowly roasted after having had their arms and legs cut off but, in one instance, three Muslim children were roasted over a fire while their parents were forced to watch. On their part, the Ottomans committed many similar acts. In retaliation they gathered up Greeks in Constantinople, throwing several of them into huge ovens, baking them to death.
Followers of a false claimant of prophethood
The Arab chieftain Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid ibn Nawfal al-Asad set himself up as a prophet in AD 630. Tulayha had a strong following which was, however, soon quashed in the so-called Ridda Wars. He himself escaped, though, and later was reconverted to Islam, but many of his rebel followers were burnt to death; his mother chose to embrace the same fate.
Catholic monks in 13th-century Tunis and Morocco
A number of monks are said to have been burnt alive in Tunis and Morocco in the 13th century. In 1243, two English monks, Brothers Rodulph and Berengarius, after having secured the release of some 60 captives, were charged with being English spies, and were burnt alive on 9 September. In 1262, Brothers Patrick and William, again having freed captives, but also sought to proselytize among Muslims, were burnt alive in Morocco. In 1271, 11 Catholic monks were burnt alive in Tunis. Several other cases are reported.
Converts to Christianity
Apostasy, i.e. the act of converting to another religion, was (and remains so in a few countries) punishable with death.
The French traveller Jean de Thevenot, traveling the East in the 1650s, says: "Those that turn Christians, they burn alive, hanging a bag of Powder about their neck, and putting a pitched Cap upon their Head." Travelling the same regions some 60 years earlier, Fynes Moryson writes:
(NOTE: De Thevenot says Christians committing blasphemy against Islam were impaled, rather than burnt, if they do not convert to Islam.)
Certain accursed ones of no significance is the term used by Taş Köprü Zade in the Şakaiki Numaniye to describe some members of the Hurufiyya who became intimate with the Sultan Mehmed II to the extent of initiating him as a follower. This alarmed members of the Ulema, particularly Mahmut Paşa, who then consulted Mevlana Fahreddin. Fahreddin hid in the Sultan's palace and heard the Hurufis propound their doctrines. Considering these heretical, he reviled them with curses. The Hurufis fled to the Sultan, but Fahreddin's denunciation of them was so virulent that Mehmed II was unable to defend them. Farhreddin then took them in front of the Üç Şerefeli Mosque, Edirne, where he publicly condemned them to death. While preparing the fire for their execution, Fahreddin accidentally set fire to his beard. However the Hurufis were burnt to death.
Barbary States, 18th century
THOSE that can be proved after Circumcision to have revolted, are stripped quite naked, then anointed with Tallow, and with a Chain about the Body, brought to the Place of Execution, where they are burnt.
Similarly, he notes that non-Muslims entering mosques or being blasphemous against Islam will be burnt, unless they convert to Islam. The chaplain for the English in Algiers at the same time, Thomas Shaw, wrote that whenever capital crimes were committed either by Christian slaves or Jews, the Christian or Jew was to be burnt alive. Several generations later, in Morocco in 1772, a Jewish interpreter to the British, and a merchant in his own right, sought from the Emperor of Morocco restitution for some goods confiscated, and was burnt alive for his impertinence. His widow made her woes clear in a letter to the British.
In 1792 in Ifrane, Morocco, 50 Jews preferred to be burned alive, rather than convert to Islam. In 1794 in Algiers, the Jewish Rabbi Mordecai Narboni was accused of having maligned Islam in a quarrel with his neighbour. He was ordered to be burnt alive unless he converted to Islam, but he refused and was therefore executed on 14 July 1794.
In 1793, Ali Benghul made a short-lived coup d'état in Tripoli, deposing the ruling Karamanli dynasty. During his short, violent reign he seized the two interpreters for the Dutch and English consuls, both of them Jews, and roasted them over a slow fire, on charges of conspiracy and espionage.
During a famine in Persia in 1668, the government took severe measures against those trying to profiteer from the misfortune of the populace. Restaurant owners found guilty of profiteering were slowly roasted on spits, and greedy bakers were baked in their own ovens.
Just prior to my first arrival in Persia, the "Hissam-u-Sultaneh", another uncle of the king, had burned a priest to death for a horrible crime and murder; the priest was chained to a stake, and the matting from the mosques piled on him to a great height, the pile of mats was lighted and burnt freely, but when the mats were consumed the priest was found groaning, but still alive. The executioner went to Hissam-u-Sultaneh who ordered him to obtain more mats, pour naphtha on them, and apply a light, which 'after some hours' he did.
Roasting by means of heated metal
The previous cases concern primarily death by burning through contact with open fire or burning material; a slightly different principle is to enclose an individual within, or attach him to, a metal contraption which is subsequently heated. In the following, some reports of such incidents, or anecdotes about such are included.
The brazen bull
Perhaps the most infamous example of a brazen bull, which is a hollow metal structure shaped like a bull within which the condemned is put, and then roasted alive as the metal bull is gradually heated up, is the one allegedly constructed by Perillos of Athens for the 6th-century BC tyrant Phalaris at Agrigentum, Sicily. As the story goes, the first victim of the bull was its constructor Perillos himself. The historian George Grote was among those regarding this story as having sufficient evidence behind it to be true, and points particularly to that the Greek poet Pindar, working just one or two generations after the times of Phalaris, refers to the brazen bull. A bronze bull was, in fact, one of the spoils of victory when the Carthaginians conquered Agrigentum. The story of a brazen bull as an execution device is not wholly unique. About 1000 years later in AD 497, it can be read in an old chronicle about the Visigoths on the Iberian Peninsula and the south of France:
Fate of a Scottish regicide
Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl was a Scottish nobleman complicit in the murder of King James I of Scotland. On 26 March 1437 Stewart had a red hot iron crown placed upon his head, was cut in pieces alive, his heart was taken out, and then thrown in a fire. A papal nuncio, the later Pope Pius II witnessed the execution of Stewart and his associate Sir Robert Graham, and, reportedly, said he was at a loss to determine whether the crime committed by the regicides, or the punishment of them was the greater.
György Dózsa on the iron throne
The tale of the murderous midwife
In a few English 18th- and 19th-century newspapers and magazines, a tale was circulated about the particularly brutal manner in which a French midwife was put to death on 28 May 1673 in Paris. No fewer than 62 infant skeletons were found buried on her premises, and she was condemned on multiple accounts of abortion/infanticide. One detailed account of her supposed execution runs as follows:
A gibbet was erected, under which a fire was made, and the prisoner being brought to the place of execution, was hung up in a large iron cage, in which were also placed sixteen wild cats, which had been catched in the woods for the purpose.—When the heat of the fire became too great to be endured with patience, the cats flew upon the woman, as the cause of the intense pain they felt.—In about fifteen minutes they had pulled out her entrails, though she continued yet alive, and sensible, imploring, as the greatest favour, an immediate death from the hands of some charitable spectator. No one however dared to afford her the least assistance; and she continued in this wretched situation for the space of thirty-five minutes, and then expired in unspeakable torture. At the time of her death, twelve of the cats were expired, and the other four were all dead in less than two minutes afterwards.
The English commentator adds his own view on the matter:
However cruel this execution may appear with regard to the poor animals, it certainly cannot be thought too severe a punishment for such a monster of iniquity, as could calmly proceed in acquiring a fortune by the deliberate murder of such numbers of unoffending, harmless innocents. And if a method of executing murderers, in a manner somewhat similar to this was adapted in England, perhaps the horrid crime of murder might not so frequently disgrace the annals of the present times.
The English story is derived from a pamphlet published in 1673.
Pouring molten metal down the throat or ears
Molten gold poured down the throat
A number of stories concern individuals who are said to have been executed by having molten gold (melting point 1064 °C/1947 °F) poured down their throats. For example, in 88 BC, Mithridates VI of Pontus captured the Roman general Manius Aquillius, and executed him by pouring molten gold down his throat. A popular but unsubstantiated rumor also had the Parthians executing the famously greedy Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus in this manner in 53 BC.
Genghis Khan is said to have ordered the execution of Inalchuq, the perfidious Khwarazmian governor of Otrar, by pouring molten gold or silver down his throat in c. 1220, and an early 14th-century chronicle mentions that his grandson Hulagu Khan did likewise to the sultan Al-Musta'sim after the fall of Baghdad in 1258 to the Mongol army. (Marco Polo's version is that Al-Musta'sim was locked without food or water to starve in his treasure room)
The Spanish in 16th-century Americas gave horrified reports that the Spanish who had been captured by the natives (who had learnt of the Spanish thirst for gold) had their feet and hands bound, and then molten gold poured down their throats as the victims were mocked: "Eat, eat gold, Christians".
From the 19th-century reports from the Kingdom of Siam (present day Thailand) stated that those who have defrauded the public treasury could have either molten gold or silver poured down their throat.
As punishment for inebriation and tobacco smoking
The 16th-/early 17th-century prime minister Malik Ambar in the Deccan Ahmadnagar Sultanate would not tolerate inebriation among his subjects, and would pour molten lead (melting point 327 °C/621.43 °F) down the mouths of those caught in that condition. Similarly, in the 17th-century Sultanate of Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda (r. 1607–36) is said to have poured molten lead into the mouths of at least two drunken subjects. Military discipline in 19th-century Burma was reportedly harsh, with strict prohibition of smoking opium or drinking arrack. Some monarchs had ordained pouring molten lead down the throats of those who drank, "but it has been found necessary to relax this severity, in order to conciliate the army"
Mongol punishment for horse thieves
According to historian Pushpa Sharma, stealing a horse was considered the most heinous offence within the Mongol army, and the culprit would either have molten lead poured into his ears, or alternatively, his punishment would be the breaking of the spinal cord or beheading.
Chinese tradition of Buddhist self-immolation
Apparently, for many centuries, a tradition of devotional self-immolation existed among Buddhist monks in China. One monk who immolated himself in AD 527, explained his intent a year before, in the following manner:
The body is like a poisonous plant; it would really be right to burn it and extinguish its life. I have been weary of this physical frame for many a long day. I vow to worship the buddhas, just like Xijian.
A severe critic in the 16th century wrote the following comment on this practice:
There are demonic people ... who pour on oil, stack up firewood, and burn their bodies while still alive. Those who look on are overawed and consider it the attainment of enlightenment. This is erroneous.
Japanese persecution of Christians
In the first half of the 17th century, Japanese authorities sporadically persecuted Christians, with some executions seeing persons being burnt alive. At Nagasaki in 1622 some 25 monks were burnt alive, and in Edo in 1624, 50 Christians were burnt alive.
Stories of cannibalism
Even fateful encounters with cannibals are recorded: in 1514, in the Americas, Francis of Córdoba and five companions were, reportedly, caught, impaled on spits, roasted and eaten by the natives. In 1543, such was also the end of a previous bishop, Vincent de Valle Viridi.
In 1844, the missionary John Watsford wrote a letter about the internecine wars on Fiji, and how captives could be eaten, after being roasted alive:
At Mbau, perhaps, more human beings are eaten than anywhere else. A few weeks ago they ate twenty-eight in one day. They had seized their wretched victims while fishing, and brought them alive to Mbau, and there half-killed them, and then put them into their ovens. Some of them made several vain attempts to escape from the scorching flame.
The actual manner of the roasting process was described by the missionary pioneer David Cargill, in 1838:
When about to be immolated, he is made to sit on the ground with his feet under his thighs and his hands placed before him. He is then bound so that he cannot move a limb or a joint. In this posture he is placed on stones heated for the occasion (and some of them are red-hot), and then covered with leaves and earth, to be roasted alive. When cooked, he is taken out of the oven and, his face and other parts being painted black, that he may resemble a living man ornamented for a feast or for war, he is carried to the temple of the gods and, being still retained in a sitting posture, is offered as a propitiatory sacrifice.
Immolation of widows
Sati refers to a funeral practice among some communities of Indian subcontinent in which a recently widowed woman immolates herself on her husband's funeral pyre. The first reliable evidence for the practice of sati appears from the time of the Gupta Empire (AD 400), when instances of sati began to be marked by inscribed memorial stones.
According to one model of history thinking, the practice of sati only became really widespread with the Muslim invasions of India, and the practice of sati now acquired a new meaning as a means to preserve the honour of women whose men had been slain. As S.S. Sashi lays out the argument, "The argument is that the practice came into effect during the Islamic invasion of India, to protect their honor from Muslims who were known to commit mass rape on the women of cities that they could capture successfully." It is also said that according to the memorial stone evidence, the practice was carried out in appreciable numbers in western and southern parts of India, and even in some areas, before pre-Islamic times. Some of the rulers and activist of the time sought actively to suppress the practice of sati.
The British began to compile statistics of the incidences of sati for all their domains from 1815 and onwards. The official statistics for Bengal represents that the practice was much more common here than elsewhere, recorded numbers typically in the range 500–600 per year, up to the year 1829, when the British authorities banned the practice. Since 19th – 20th Century, the practice remains outlawed in Indian subcontinent.
Jauhar was a practice among royal Hindu women to prevent capture by Muslim conquerors.
Bali and Nepal
The practice of burning widows has not been restricted to the Indian subcontinent; at Bali, the practice was called masatia and, apparently, restricted to the burning of royal widows. Although the Dutch colonial authorities had banned the practice, one such occasion is attested as late as in 1903, probably for the last time. In Nepal, the practice was not banned until 1920.
Traditions in sub-Saharan African cultures
C.H.L. Hahn wrote that within the O-ndnonga tribe among the Ovambo people in modern-day Namibia, abortion was not used at all (in contrast to among the other tribes), and that furthermore, if two young unwed individuals had sex resulting in pregnancy, then both the girl and the boy were "taken out to the bush, bound up in bundles of grass and ... burnt alive."
Legislation against the practice
In 1790, Sir Benjamin Hammett introduced a bill into Parliament to end the practice of judicial burning. He explained that the year before, as Sheriff of London, he had been responsible for the burning of Catherine Murphy, found guilty of counterfeiting, but that he had allowed her to be hanged first. He pointed out that as the law stood, he himself could have been found guilty of a crime in not carrying out the lawful punishment and, as no woman had been burnt alive in the kingdom for more than half a century, so could all those still alive who had held an official position at all of the previous burnings. The Treason Act 1790 was duly passed by Parliament and given royal assent by King George III (30 George III. C. 48). The Parliament of Ireland subsequently passed the similar Treason by Women Act (Ireland) 1796.
In the modern era, deaths by burning are largely extrajudicial in nature. These killings may be committed by mobs, small numbers of criminals, or paramilitary groups; but there have been many instances of state-sanctioned mass murder that involved burning people alive, including with the use of modern incendiary weapons such as nuclear bombs.
Firebombing of Dresden, Germany by US and Great Britain, February, 1945
In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city of Dresden, Germany. The bombing and resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre; an estimated 22,700 to 25,000 people were killed, with many thousands burned alive in the fires.
Firebombing of Tokyo by USA, 1945
On the night of 9/10 March 1945, the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city. This attack was code-named Operation Meetinghouse by the USAAF and is known as the Great Tokyo Air Raid in Japan. Bombs dropped from 279 Boeing B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers burned out much of eastern Tokyo. More than 90,000 and possibly over 100,000 Japanese people were burned alive, mostly civilians, and one million were left homeless, making it the most destructive single air attack in human history.
Nuclear Bomb Attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan by USA, August, 1945
The United States Army Air Forces detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, mostly civilians, many of whom were vaporized instantly by the intense heat of the nuclear fireball; thousands of others were burned alive, either dying immediately or in the days and weeks following the attack from the massive burns they suffered.
Execution of a Communist Spy by Nazis
Revenge against Nazis
Benjamin B. Ferencz, one of the prosecutors in the Nuremberg trials who, in May 1945, investigated occurrences at the Ebensee concentration camp, narrated them to Tom Hofmann, a family member and biographer. Ferencz was outraged at what the Nazis had done there. When people discovered an SS guard who attempted to flee, they tied him to one of the metal trays used to transport bodies into the crematorium. They then proceeded to light the oven and slowly roast the SS guard to death, taking him in and out of the oven several times. Ferencz said to Hofmann that at the time, he was in no position to stop the proceedings of the mob, and frankly admitted that he had not been inclined to try. Hofmann adds, "There seemed to be no limit to human brutality in wartime."
Lynching of Germans in Czechoslovakia
During the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the end of World War II, a number of massacres against the German minority occurred. In one case in Prague in May 1945, a Czech mob hanged several Germans upside down on lampposts, doused them in fuel and set them on fire, burning them alive. The future literature scholar Peter Demetz, who grew up in Prague, later reported about this.
Necklacing is the practice of summary execution and torture carried out by forcing a rubber tire, filled with petrol (gasoline), around a victim's chest and arms, and setting it on fire. The victim may take up to 20 minutes to die, suffering severe burns in the process. The method was widely used in Brazil, Haiti and South Africa.
Extrajudicial burnings in Latin America
In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, burning people standing inside a pile of tires is a common form of murder used by drug dealers to punish those who have supposedly collaborated with the police. This form of burning is called micro-ondas (microwave oven). The film Tropa de Elite (Elite Squad) and the video game Max Payne 3 contain scenes depicting this practice.
During the Guatemalan Civil War the Guatemalan Army and security forces carried out an unknown number of extrajudicial killings by burning. In one instance in March 1967, Guatemalan guerrilla and poet Otto René Castillo was captured by Guatemalan government forces and taken to Zacapa army barracks alongside one of his comrades, Nora Paíz Cárcamo. The two were interrogated, tortured for four days, and burned alive. Other reported instances of immolation by Guatemalan government forces occurred in the Guatemalan government's rural counterinsurgency operations in the Guatemalan Altiplano in the 1980s. In April 1982, 13 members of a Quanjobal Pentecostal congregation in Xalbal, Ixcan, were burnt alive in their church by the Guatemalan Army.
On 31 August 1996, a Mexican man, Rodolfo Soler Hernandez, was burned to death in Playa Vicente, Mexico, after he was accused of raping and strangling a local woman to death. Local residents tied Hernandez to a tree, doused him in a flammable liquid and then set him ablaze. His death was also filmed by residents of the village. Shots taken before the killing showed that he had been badly beaten. On 5 September 1996, Mexican television stations broadcast footage of the murder. Locals carried out the killing because they were fed up with crime and believed that the police and courts were both incompetent. Footage was also shown in the 1998 shockumentary film, Banned from Television.
A young Guatemalan woman, Alejandra María Torres, was attacked by a mob in Guatemala City on 15 December 2009. The mob alleged that Torres had attempted to rob passengers on a bus. Torres was beaten, doused with gasoline, and set on fire, but was able to put the fire out before sustaining life-threatening burns. Police intervened and arrested Torres. Torres was forced to go topless throughout the ordeal and subsequent arrest, and many photographs were taken and published. Approximately 219 people were lynched in Guatemala in 2009, of whom 45 died.
In May 2015, a sixteen-year-old girl was allegedly burned to death in Rio Bravo by a vigilante mob after being accused by some of involvement in the killing of a taxi driver earlier in the month.
In Chile during public mass protests held against the military regime of General Augusto Pinochet on 2 July 1986, engineering student Carmen Gloria Quintana, 18, and Chilean-American photographer Rodrigo Rojas DeNegri, 19, were arrested by a Chilean Army patrol in the Los Nogales neighborhood of Santiago. The two were searched and beaten before being doused in gasoline and burned alive by Chilean troops. Rojas was killed, while Quintana survived but with severe burns.
Lynchings and killings by burning in the United States
During the 1980 New Mexico State Penitentiary riot, a number of inmates were burnt to death by fellow inmates, who used blow torches. Modern burnings continued as a method of lynching in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the South. One of the most notorious extrajudicial burnings in modern history occurred in Waco, Texas on 15 May 1916. Jesse Washington, an African-American farmhand, after having been convicted of the rape and subsequent murder of a white woman, was taken by a mob to a bonfire, castrated, doused in coal oil, and hanged by the neck from a chain over the bonfire, slowly burning to death. A postcard from the event still exists, showing a crowd standing next to Washington's charred corpse with the words on the back "This is the barbecue we had last night. My picture is to the left with a cross over it. Your son, Joe". This attracted international condemnation and is remembered as the "Waco Horror".
1985 Police Massacre of MOVE Commune
In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on May 13, 1985, nearly five hundred police officers, along with city manager Leo Brooks, descended on an African-American commune established by the MOVE organization, ostensibly to evict them from their home for multiple sanitation code violations. An armed siege ensued, with the police firing "more than ten thousand rounds of ammunition" into the building, pinning the occupants inside. After a long standoff, a Pennsylvania State Police helicopter with Philadelphia Police Department Lt. Frank Powell in it flew over the home and proceeded to drop two one-pound bombs (which the police referred to as "entry devices" made of FBI-supplied Tovex, a dynamite substitute) on the roof; the bomb exploded and set the building - and eventually the entire neighborhood - on fire. The ensuing inferno killed eleven of the thirteen people in the house: John Africa, five other adults, and five children aged 7 to 13.
1993 FBI Massacre of Branch Davidians
In Waco, Texas, on 19 April 1993, after a siege lasting 51 days was initiated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the FBI, using military tanks and armored personnel carriers launched an assault and tear gas attack against a religious commune of Branch Davidians, ostensibly to rescue children living with their families inside the religious compound from abuse. Shortly thereafter, the Mount Carmel Center quickly became engulfed in flames. The fire resulted in the deaths of 76 Branch Davidians, including 25 children, two pregnant women, and their spiritual leader David Koresh himself.
In South Africa, extrajudicial executions by burning were carried out via "necklacing", wherein rubber tires filled with kerosene (or gasoline) are placed around the neck of a live individual. The fuel is then ignited, the rubber melts, and the victim is burnt to death.
Cases from the Middle East and Indian subcontinent
Dr Graham Stuart Staines, an Australian Christian missionary, and his two sons Philip (aged ten) and Timothy (aged six), were burnt to death by a gang while the three slept in the family car (a station wagon), at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar District, Odisha, India on 22 January 1999. Four years later, in 2003, a Bajrang Dal activist, Dara Singh, was convicted of leading the gang that murdered Staines and his sons, and was sentenced to life in prison. Staines had worked in Odisha with the tribal poor and lepers since 1965. Some Hindu groups made allegations that Staines had forcibly converted or lured many Hindus into Christianity.
On 19 June 2008, the Taliban, at Sadda, Lower Kurram, Pakistan, burned three truck drivers of the Turi tribe alive after attacking a convoy of trucks en route from Kohat to Parachinar, possibly for supplying the Pakistan Armed Forces.
In January 2015, Jordanian pilot Moaz al-Kasasbeh was burned in a cage by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS). The pilot was captured when his plane crashed near Raqqa, Syria, during a mission against IS in December 2014.
In August 2015, ISIS burned to death four Iraqi Shia prisoners.
On 20 January 2011, a 28-year-old woman, Ranjeeta Sharma, was found burning to death on a road in rural New Zealand. The police confirmed the woman was alive before being covered in an accelerant and set on fire. Sharma's husband, Davesh Sharma, was charged with her murder.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Execution by burning.|
- Jungle justice
- Muath Al-Kasasbeh
- List of people burned as heretics
- Relaxado en persona
- Spontaneous human combustion
- Witchcraft Acts
- Yaoya Oshichi
- Bohnert, Michael (2004). "Morphological Findings in Burned Bodies". Forensic Pathology Reviews. 1. Humana Press. pp. 3–27. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-786-4_1. ISBN 978-1-61737-550-7.
- "What happens to human bodies when they are burned". FutureLearn.
- "Pugilistic attitude (posture)". interfire.org.
- Maxeiner, H. (1988). "[Hemorrhage of the head and neck in death by burning]". Zeitschrift für Rechtsmedizin. Journal of Legal Medicine. 101 (2): 61–80. doi:10.1007/BF00200288. PMID 3055743. S2CID 42121516.
- Staff, Guardian (26 April 2003). "What does death by burning mean?". The Guardian.
- Roth (2010), p. 5
- Wilkinson (2011): Senusret I incident, p. 169 Osorkon incident, p. 412
- White (2011), p. 167
- Redford, Susan (2002). The Harem Conspiracy. Northern Illinois Press.
- Schneider (2008), p. 154
- Olmstead (1918) p. 66
- Reeder (2012), p. 82
- Full list in Quint (2005), p. 257
- Quotation from Ben-Menahem, Edrei, Hecht (2012), p. 111
- On this view, see Zvi Gilat, Lifshitz (2013), p. 62, footnote 73
- "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus – Christian Classics Ethereal Library". ccel.org.
- Juvenal has an extended description of the tunica molesta, the punishment as meted out by Emperor Nero as contained in Tacitus matches the concept. See Pagán (2012), p. 53
- Miley (1843), pp. 223–224
- Codex Theodosianus 9,24. Law text found in Pharr (2001), pp. 244–245 The full law was changed in context to the penalties just 20 years later by Constantine's son, Constantius II, for free citizens aiding and abetting in the abduction, to an unspecified "capital punishment". The full severity of the law was to be kept, however, for slaves. p. 245, ibidem
- Law text in Codex Justinianus 9.11.1, as referred to in Winroth, Müller, Sommar (2006), p. 107
- Pickett (2009), p. xxi
- See Watson (1998) Ulpian, section 126.96.36.199, p. 361. Callistratus, sections 188.8.131.52–12, p. 366
- Kyle (2002), p. 53
- On ritual description, Plutarch, and in general, see Markoe (2000), pp. 132–136 On Diodorus, see Schwartz, Houghton, Macchiarelli, Bondioli (2010), Skeletal remains..do not support on phrase "the act of laughing", see Decker (2001), p. 3
- Generally accepting the tradition of child sacrifice, see Markoe (2000), pp. 132–136 Generally skeptical, see Schwartz, Houghton, Macchiarelli, Bondioli (2010), Skeletal remains..do not support
- Julius Caesar, McDevitt, Bohn (1851) On penalty for conspiracy, p. 4 On criminals in large wicker frames, p. 149 On funeral human sacrifice, pp. 150–151
- This case, and a number of others in Pluskowski (2013), pp.77–78
- Hamilton, Hamilton, Stoyanov (1998), p. 13, footnote 42
- Haldon (1997), p. 333, footnote 22
- Trenchard-Smith, Turner (2010), p. 48, footnote 58
- Sumner, William Graham (26 November 1979). "Folkways". New York : Arno Press – via Internet Archive.
- Both incidents in Weiss (2004), p. 104
- Prager, Telushkin (2007), p. 87
- Kantor (2005) p. 203
- Bülau (1860), pp. 423–424
- Richards (2013), pp. 161–163
- John, Pope (2003), p. 177
- Smirke (1865), pp. 326–331
- Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision., p. 62, (Yale University Press, 1997).
- On mercy, and 50,000 estimate, for Marranos Telchin (2004), p. 41 On 30,000 estimate of Marranos killed, see Pasachoff, Littman (2005), p. 151
- Cipolla (2005), p. 91
- Stillman, Zucker (1993) On the Río de la Plata incident, see Matilde Gini de Barnatan, p. 144, on Mexico City incident, see Eva Alexandra Uchmany, p. 128
- Carr (2009), p. 101
- Henry Kamen. "The Spanish Inquisition A Historical Revision FOURTH EDITION By Henry Kamen" – via Internet Archive.
- List And Analysis of State Papers Foreign, Jul 1593 – Dec 1594. v.5; p.444 (595): by Public Record Office (ISBN 9780114402181)
- Matar (2013), p. xxi
- Carvajal, Doreen. "In Majorca, Atoning for the Sins of 1691". Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Nachman Seltzer,Incredible, Shaar Press, 2016
- Already noted originally by Hunter (1886), pp. 253–254, see also Salomon, Sassoon, Saraiva (2001), pp. 345–347
- See extensive table at Portuguese Inquisition, de Almeida (1923), in particular p. 442
- See for first time Heng (2013), p. 56 on option of public repentance Puff, Bennett, Karras (2013), p. 387
- Pickett (2009), p. 178
- On Geneva and Venice, see Coward, Dynes, Donaldson (1992), p. 36
- Crompton (2006), p. 450
- Lithgow (1814), p. 305
- Osenbrüggen (1860), p. 290
- specified as men or women found guilty of same-sex sexual behaviour or guilty of having had sex with animals.
- As late as in 1730 Posen, a church robber had his right hand cut off, and the stump covered in pitch. Then, the pitch was ignited, and the person was burnt alive on a pyre as well. Oehlschlaeger (1866), p. 55
- No fixed penalty was placed on performing acts of witchcraft that had caused no harm
- All in Koch (1824) Coin forgers: Article 111, p. 52, Malevolent witchcraft: Article 109, p. 55 Sexual acts contrary to nature:Article 116, p. 58, Arson:Article 125, p. 61, Theft of sacred objects: Article 172, p. 84
- Osenbrüggen (1854), p. 21 For a similar, more modern assessment, as well as locating the incident to Hötzelsroda, see Dietze (1995)
- Last name "Mothas" used in extended account in Bischoff, Hitzig (1832), real name "Thomas" given in Herden (2005), p. 89
- On the manner of execution according to the original account, see Bischoff, Hitzig (1832), p. 178 Contemporary newspaper notice, Hübner (1804), p. 760, column 2
- Original account by investigating police officer Heinrich L. Hermann, Hermann (1818) Gustav Rudbrach's mention Rudbrach (1992), p. 247 Precise moment of strangulation Gräff (1834), p. 56 Modern newspaper article Springer (2008), Das Letzte Feuer
- Osenbrüggen (1854), pp. 21–22, footnote 83
- Thurston (1912) Witchcraft, 2010 web resource.[dead link]
- Professional researchers in the 19th, and early 20th century tended to refuse giving any quantification at all but, when pushed, typically landed on about 100,000 to 1 million victims
- See Wolfgang Behringer (1998) on the history of witch-counting, and on specialist academic consensus, Neun Millionen Hexen Originally published in GWU 49 (1998) pp. 664–685, web publication 2006
- Contemporary description of the burning at Ile-des-Javiaux in Barber (1993), p. 241
- Extracts of eyewitness report at website of Columbia University, Peter from Mladonovic (2003), How was executed Jan Hus
- Reconstruction of Joan of Arc's death scene in Mooney, Patterson (2002), pp. 1–2 excerpt from Mooney (1919)
- Eyewitness account provided in Landucci, Jarvis (1927), pp. 142–143
- According to eyewitness Alexander Ales, Hamilton entered the pyre at noon, and died after six hours burning, see Tjernagel (1974, web reprint), p. 6 Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Description of John Frith's death in Foxe, Townsend, Cattley (1838), p. 15
- Detailed description of Servetus' death at Kurth (2002) Out of the Flames
- A perfunctory official notice of the manner of his death 17 February 1600, is contained in Rowland (2009), p. 10
- Apparently, Grenadier had been promised to be strangled prior to his burning, but his executioners reneged on that promise as he was fastened to the stake. See modern monograph Rapley (2001), in particular pp. 195–198, for a classic description, see Alexandre Dumas on the execution details in Dumas (1843), pp. 424–426
- Alan Wood describes Avvakum's execution as follows: Avvakum and three fellow prisoners were led from their icy cells to an elaborate pyre of pinewood billets and there burned alive. The tsar had finally rid himself of "this turbulent priest", Wood (2011), p. 44
- Foxe, Milner, Cobbin (1856), pp. 608–609
- Foxe, Milner, Cobbin (1856), pp. 864–865
- Foxe, Milner, Cobbin (1856), pp. 925–926
- For Denmark, see Burns (2003), pp. 64–65
- John Foxe is particularly mentioned in being assiduous at documenting such cases of persecutions. See, Miller (1972), p. 72
- For a claim of the last heretic burned at the stake, see Durso (2007), p. 29
- Sayles (1971) p. 31
- Richards (1812), p. 1190
- Willis-Bund (1982), p. 95
- Direct citation in McLynn (2013), p. 122
- McLynn (2013), p. 122
- Comprehensive list at capitalpunishmentuk.org, Burning at the stake.
- O'Shea (1999), p. 3
- See website article, The Case of Catherine Hayes at rictornorton.co.uk See also the detailed synthesis at capitalpunishmentuk.org, Catherine Hayes burnt for Petty Treason
- "Some time in the 1590s, Anne became a Roman Catholic." Wilson (1963), p. 95 "Some time after 1600, but well before March 1603, Queen Anne was received into the Catholic Church in a secret chamber in the royal palace" Fraser (1997), p. 15 "The Queen ... [converted] from her native Lutheranism to a discreet, but still politically embarrassing Catholicism which alienated many ministers of the Kirk" Croft (2003), pp. 24–25 "Catholic foreign ambassadors—who would surely have welcomed such a situation—were certain that the Queen was beyond their reach. 'She is a Lutheran', concluded the Venetian envoy Nicolo Molin in 1606." Stewart (2003), p. 182 "In 1602 a report appeared, claiming that Anne ... had converted to the Catholic faith some years before. The author of this report, the Scottish Jesuit Robert Abercromby, testified that James had received his wife's desertion with equanimity, commenting, 'Well, wife, if you cannot live without this sort of thing, do your best to keep things as quiet as possible.' Anne would, indeed, keep her religious beliefs as quiet as possible: for the remainder of her life—even after her death—they remained obfuscated." Hogge (2005), pp. 303–304
- Pavlac (2009), p. 145
- de Ledrede, Wright (1843)
- de Ledrede, Davidson, Ward (2004)
- Story of flight in contemporary chronicle Gilbert (2012), p. cxxxiv
- "Burned at the stake was the original punishment for blasphemy in Ireland". IrishCentral.com. 11 May 2017.
- "Heretic was burned at the stake". The Irish Independent.
- "Blasphemy: From being burned at the stake in 1328 to a €25,000 fine in 2017". Irish Examiner. 9 May 2017.
- Murden, Sarah (15 February 2018). "'Darkey Kelly', Brothel Keeper of Dublin".
- Cathy Hayes (12 January 2011). "Was Irish witch Darkey Kelly really Ireland's first serial killer?". IrishCentral.com. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "PodOmatic | Podcast – No Smoke Without Hellfire". Nosmokewithouthellfire1.podomatic.com. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- McCullough (2000), The Fairy Defense
- Scott (1940) p. 41
- CelebrateBoston.com (2014), "Maria, Burned at the Stake"
- Mark and Phillis Executions (2014)
- Marie-Joseph Angélique
- McManus (1973), p. 86
- Hoey (1974),Terror in New York–1741[permanent dead link]
- De las Casas (1974), pp. 34–35
- René Millar Carvacho, La Inquisición de Lima: Signos de su Decadencia, 1726-1750 (DIBAM, 2004)
- Waddell (1863), p. 19
- Blake (1857), pp. 154–155
- Woblers (1855), p. 205
- William St Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free (2008) Hydra incident, p. xxiv, those suspected of hiding money, p. 45, the three Turkish children, p. 77, baked in ovens, p. 81
- Zurkhana, Houtsma (1987), p. 830
- Digby (1853), pp. 342–345
- De Thevenot, Lovell (1687), p. 69
- Moryson, Hadfield (2001), p. 171
- Braithwaite(1729)On apostates citation, see p. 366, on the conditional fate of non-Muslims, see p. 355
- Shaw (1757), p. 253
- Stillman (1979), pp. 310–311
- Kantor (1993), p. 230
- JOS Calendar Conversion Results, Hirschberg (1981), p. 20
- Tully (1817), p. 365
- Ferrier (1996), p. 94
- Wills (1891), p. 204
- Grote (2013), p. 305, footnote 1
- Quote and extrapolation to be found in Collins (2004), p. 35
- Encycl. Perth. (1816), p. 131, column 1
- Klein (1833), p. 351
- Stevens (1764), pp. 522–523
- For full title and provenance, see item 357 in Nassau (1824), p. 17
- Steel (2013), p. 98
- Marcus Licinius Crassus
- Saunders (2001), p. 57 According to the 13th-century historian al-Nasawi, the governor Inal Khan (who had assassinated the Mongol ambassadors and thus given Genghis Khan cause to invade), had the molten gold poured into his eyes and ears, rather than down his throat. Cameron, Sela (2010), p. 128
- Crawford regards the Hulagu story as a legend Crawford (2003), p. 149
- Cummins, Cole, Zorach (2009), p. 99
- Begbie (1834), p. 447
- Eaton (2005), p. 121
- Peletz (2002), p. 28
- Buckingham (1835), p. 250
- Berger, Sicker (2009), p. 6
- Sharma, Srivastava (1981), p. 361
- Benn (2007), p. 3
- Benn (2007), pp. 198–199
- Lee (2010),pp. 121–122
- Matsumoto (2009), p. 73
- Perckmayr (1738), p. 628
- Calvert, Rowe (1858), p. 258
- See Hogg (1980)
- Shakuntala Rao Shastri, Women in the Sacred Laws—the later law books (1960), also reproduced online at  Archived 8 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Sashi (1996), p.115
- For Yang's full discussion back and forth, see Yang, Sarkar, Sarkar (2008), pp.21–23
- S.M. Ikram, Embree (1964) XVII. "Economic and Social Developments under the Mughals" This page maintained by Prof. Frances Pritchett, Columbia University
- These statistics are further researched and discussed by other scholars, for their reliability (in particular, objections to that) and representation, see For detailed official statistical information 1815–1829,Yang, Sarkar, Sarkar (2008), pp.23–25 see pages 24 and 25 in particular, history behind them, p.23
- For notice of estimate of last time, see Schulte Nordholt (2010), pp. 211–212, footnote 56 For estimate of restriction to royal widows, see Wiener (1995), p. 267
- Mittra, Kumar (2004), p. 200
- Biographical entry of C.H.L. Hahn at BIOGRAPHIES OF NAMIBIAN PERSONALITIES
- Hahn (1966), p. 33
- Wilson (1853), p. 4
- "Bombing of Dresden in World War II". Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- "Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945)". Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- "Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- Hofmann (2013), p. 86
- Wilfried F. Schoeller: Rückkehr in die verschollene Geschichte Deutschlandfunk.de, 16 December 2007.
- Gernot Facius: Kleines Wunder an der Moldau Die Welt, 10 November 2008.
- Volker Ullrich: Acht Tage im Mai. Die letzte Woche des Dritten Reiches, Munich 2020, p. 159.
- Grellet (2010) Autorizado a visitar família..
- "Polícia encontra 4 corpos que seriam de traficantes queimados com pneus". O Globo (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Federação Nacional dos Policiais Federais. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "micro-ondas". WordReference. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- França (2002), Como na Chicago de Capone
- Paige (1983), pp. 699–737
- Garrard-Burnett (2010), p. 141
- "Uproar in Mexico over footage of accused killer being burned alive". Associated Press. 5 September 1996. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Alejandra María Torres".
- Annie Rose Ramos; Catherine E. Shoichet; Richard Beltran. "Video of mob burning teen in Guatemala spurs outrage". CNN. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- ANNUAL REPORT OF THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 1987–1988. Case # 01a/88; Case 9755. Chile, 12 September 1988.
- DuBois (1916), pp. 1–8 (Archive)
- Goodwyn, Wade. "Waco Recalls a 90-Year-Old 'Horror'." National Public Radio. 13 May 2006. (Transcript of radio story)
- "MOVE". Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- Dick J. Reavis, The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), p. 13 Archived March 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-684-81132-4
- Gennaro Vito, Jeffrey Maahs,Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy, Edition 3, revised, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011, ISBN 0763766658, 978-0763766658, p. 340 Archived March 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- "Waco Siege". Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- U.S. Sanctions against South Africa, 1986 Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
- Hilton, Ronald. worksmerica_latinamerica03102004.htm "Latin America[permanent dead link]", World Association of International Studies, Stanford University. Retrieved 14 October 2007.[dead link]
- Kanina (2008) "Mob burns to death 11 Kenyan 'witches'"
- BBC News (1999) Missionary widow continues leprosy work
- Sangvi (1999) A Kill Before Dying
-  Archived 4 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Jordanian pilot 'burned alive' by IS". BBC. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- "Isis releases graphic video showing four men burning alive in 'act of vengeance'". The Independent. 31 August 2015.
- "ISIL video shows 'Turkish soldiers burned alive'". Al Jazeera. 23 December 2016.
- S. J. Prince (22 December 2016). "WATCH: New ISIS Video Burns 2 Caged Turkish Soldiers to Death in Aleppo". Heavy. The victims are shown burning to death in the last three minutes of the film.
- Feek (2011), Burnt body victim named
- "Husband of burnt woman charged with murder". The New Zealand Herald. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- de Almeida, Fortunato (1923). "Appendix IX". História da Igreja em Portugal. 4, 3. Oporto: Imprensa académica.
- Anderson, James M. (2002). Daily Life During the Spanish Inquisition. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313316678.
- Barber, Malcolm (1993). The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521457279.
- "Missionary widow continues leprosy work". BBC News. 27 January 1999.
- Begbie, Peter J. (1834). The Malayan Peninsula: Embracing Its History, Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants, Politics, Natural History, Etc. from Its Earliest Records. Madras: Author.
- Behringer, Wolfgang (2006). "Neun Millionen Hexen. Entstehung, Tradition und Kritik eines populären Mythos". historicum.net.
- Ben-Menahem, Hanina (author, ed.); Edrei, Arye (ed.); Hecht, Neil S. (ed.) (2012). "3, Exigency Authority". Windows Onto Jewish Legal Culture: Fourteen Exploratory Essays. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415500494.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Benn, James A. (2007). Burning for the Buddha: Self-Immolation in Chinese Buddhism. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824829926.
- Berger, Stefan (ed.); Sicker, Dieter (2009). Classics in Spectroscopy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9783527325160.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Bischoff; Hitzig, Julius (ed.) (1832). Julius Hitzig (ed.). "Wer ist im Sinne der Carolina als ein "boshafter überwundener Brenner" zu bestrafen?". Annalen der Deutschen und Ausländischen Criminal-Rechtspflege. Berlin: Ferdinand Dümmler. 2 (Neue Folge), 14 (In total) (27): 109–178.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Blake, William O. (1857). The History of Slavery and the Slave Trade, Ancient and Modern. Columnus, Ohio: J. and H. Miller. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780312272883.
- Buckingham, J.S. (28 March 1835). James S. Buckingham (ed.). "The Athenæum". 387. London: J. Francis. Cite journal requires
- Bülau, Friedrich (1860). Geheime Geschichten und räthselhafte Menschen, Sammlung verborgener oder vergessener Merkwürdigkeiten. 12. Leipzig: Brockhaus.
- Burns, William E. (2003). Witch Hunts in Europe and America: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313321429.
- Calvert, James; Rowe, George S. (ed.) (1858). Fiji and the Fijians: Mission history. 2. London: A. Heylin.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Cameron, Scott (ed.); Sela, Ron (ed.) (2010). Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253353856.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Carey, William (April 1814). J. Hooper (ed.). "Burning a leper to death". Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle. London: Williams&Son. 22.
- Carr, Matthew (2009). Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain. New York: The New Press. ISBN 9781595583611.
- Carvacho, René M. (2004). La Inquisición de Lima: signos de su decadencia, 1726–1750. LOM Ediciones. ISBN 9789562827089.
- De las Casas, Bartolomé (1974). The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801844300.
- Braithwaite, John (1729). The history of the revolutions in the empire of Morocco. London, UK: Knapton and Betterworth.
- Cipolla, Gaetano (2005). Siciliana: Studies on the Sicilian Ethos. Mineola, New York: Legas. ISBN 9781881901457.
- Collins, Roger (2004). Visigothic Spain 409-711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631181857.
- Coward, D.A; Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.); Donaldson, Stephen (ed.) (1992). "Attitudes to Homosexuality in Eighteenth Century France". History of Homosexuality in Europe and America. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815305507.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Croft, J.Pauline (2003). King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-61395-3.
- Crawford, Paul (ed.) (2003). The 'Templar of Tyre': Part III of the 'Deeds of the Cypriots'. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 149. ISBN 9781840146189.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Crompton, Louis (2006). Homosexuality and Civilization. Boston: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674030060.
- Cummins, Thomas; Cole, Martin W. (ed.); Zorach (ed.), Rebecca (2009). "The Golden Calf in America". The Idol in the Age of Art: Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 99. ISBN 9780754652908.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Das, Sukla (1977). Crime and Punishment in Ancient India: (C. A.D. 300 to A.D. 1100). Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-054-9.
- Decker, Roy (2001). "Religion of Carthage". About.com.
- Dietze, Karl H. (July 1995). "1804, der letzte Scheiterhaufen lohte im Kreis Eisenach". StadtZeit.Stadtjournal mit Informationen aus dem Wartburgkreis. Eisenach: MFB-Verlagsgesellschaft, Frisch: 24.
- Digby, Kenelm H. (1853). Compitum, Or The Meeting of the Ways at the Catholic Church. 3. London: C. Dolman. ISBN 9780837085012.
- DuBois, W.E.B. (July 1916). "The Waco Horror" (PDF). The Crisis. Archived by the Modernist Journals Project. 12 (Supplement to no. 3): 1–8.
- Dumas, Alexandre (1843). Celebrated crimes. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Durso, Keith E. (2007). No Armor for the Back: Baptist Prison Writings, 1600s–1700s. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780881460919.
- Perthensis, Encyclopaedia (1816). Encyclopaedia Perthensis; or, Universal dictionary of Knowledge. 20. Edinburgh.
- Eaton, Richard M. (2005). A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521254847.
- Eraly, Abraham (2011). The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. New Delhi: Penguin Books India. ISBN 9780670084784.
- Feek, Belinda (24 January 2011). "Burnt body victim named as search goes offshore". Waikato Times. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Ferrier, Ronald W. (1996). A Journey To Persia. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781850435648.
- Foxe, John; Townsend, George (commentary); Cattley, Stephen R. (ed.) (1838). The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe: A New and Complete Edition. 5. London: R. B. Seeley and W. Burnside.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Foxe, John; Milner, John; Cobbin, Ingram (1856). Foxe's book of martyrs: a complete and authentic account of the lives, sufferings, and triumphant deaths of the primitive and Protestant martyrs in all parts of the world, with notes, comments and illustrations. London: Knight and Son. pp. 608–09.
- França, Ronaldo. "Como na Chicago de Capone". Veja on-line (30 January 2002). Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- Fraser, Antonia (1997). Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot. Anchor Books. ISBN 9780385471909.
- Garrard-Burnett, Virginia (2010). Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit: Guatemala Under General Efrain Rios Montt 1982-1983. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195379648.
- Gilbert, John T. (ed.) (2012). Chartularies of St Mary's Abbey, Dublin: With the Register of Its House at Dunbrody, and Annals of Ireland. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108052245.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Gräff, Heinrich (1834). Sammlung sämmtlicher Verordnungen, welche bis Ende 1833 in den von Kamptz'schen Jahrbüchern für Preußische Gesetzgebung enthalten sind. 7. Breslau: Georg Philipp Aderholz.
- Grellet, Fábio (24 May 2010). "Autorizado a visitar família, condenado por morte de Tim Lopes foge da prisão". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Grote, George (2013). History of Greece. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781134593781.
- Haldon, John (1997). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521319171.
- Hamilton, Janet; Hamilton, Bernard; Stoyanov, Yuri (1998). Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World, C. 650-c. 1450: Selected Sources. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719047657.
- Hahn, C-G.L. (1966). "The Ovambo". The Native Tribes of South West Africa. Abingdon: Frank Cass and Company Limited. pp. 1–37. ISBN 0-7146-1670-2.
- Heng, Geraldine (2013). Empire of Magic: Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231500678.
- Herden, Ralph B. (2005). Roter Hahn und Rotes Kreuz: Chronik der Geschichte des Feuerlösch- und Rettungswesens; von den syphonari der römischen Kaiser über die dienenden Brüder der Hospitaliter-Ritterorden bis zu Feuerwehren und Katastrophenschutz, Sanitäts- und Samariterdiensten in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Norderstedt: BoD Books on Demand. ISBN 9783833426209.
- Hermann, Heinrich L. (1818). Kurze Geschichte des Criminal-Prozesses wider den Brandstifter Johann Christoph Peter Horst, und dessen Geliebte, die unverehelichte Friederike Louise Christiane Delitz. Berlin.
- Hirschberg, H.Z. (1981). A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time. 2. Leyden: BRILL. ISBN 9789004062955.
- Hoey, Edwin (June 1974). "Terror in New York-1741". American Heritage. 25 (4). ISSN 0002-8738.
- Hofmann, Tom (2013). Benjamin Ferencz, Nuremberg Prosecutor and Peace Advocate. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 9780786474936.
- Hogg, Gary (1980). Cannibalism & Human Sacrifice. Coles. ISBN 9780774029254.
- Hogge, Alice (2005). God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-715637-5.
- Hübner, Lorenz (7 August 1804). "Eisenach, den 15ten July". Kurpfalzbaierische Gnädigst Priviligierte Münchner Staats-Zeitung. Munich: Kurpfb. Münchner Zeitungs-Comptoir. 5 (185): 760.
- Hunter, W.W (2013). The Indian Empire: Its People, History and Products. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136383014.
- Ikram, S.M.; Embree, Ainslie T. (1964). "Economic and Social Developments under the Mughals". Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231025805.
- John, Barbara; Pope, Robert (ed.) (2003). "An Examination of the Origins and Development of the Legend of the Jewish Mass Poisoner". Honouring the Past and Shaping the Future: Religious and Biblical Studies in Wales : Essays in Honour of Gareth Lloyd Jones. Leominster: Gracewing Publishing. ISBN 9780852444016.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Julius Caesar, Gaius; McDevitt (tr.); Bohn (tr.) (1851). Cæsar's commentaries on the Gallic and civil wars. London: Henry G. Bohn.
- Kamen, Henry (1999). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Boston: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300078800.
- Kanina, Wangui (21 May 2008). "Mob burns to death 11 Kenyan 'witches'". Reuters.
- Kantor, Mattis (1993). The Jewish Time Line Encyclopedia: A Year-by-Year History From Creation to the Present. Lanham, Maryland: Jason Aronson, Incorporated. ISBN 9781461631491.
- Kantor, Máttis (2005). Codex Judaica: Chronological Index of Jewish History, Covering 5,764 Years of Biblical, Talmudic & Post-Talmudic History. Zichron Press. ISBN 9780967037837.
- Klein, Samuel (1833). Handbuch der Geschichte von Ungarn und seiner Verfaßung. Leipzig: Wigand.
- Koch, Johann C. (1824). Hals-oder peinliche Gerichtsordnung Kaiser Carls V. Marburg: Krieger.
- Kurth, Peter (12 November 2002). ""Out of the Flames" by Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone". Salon. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Kyle, Donald G. (2002). Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780203006351.
- Landucci, Luca; Jarvis, Alice de Rosen (tr.) (1927). A Florentine diary from 1450 to 1516. London: J.M. Dent&Sons, Ltd.
- Lattimer, Mark (13 December 2007). "Freedom Lost". The Guardian.
- de La Vega, Garcilaso; Rycaut, Paul (tr.) (1688). The Royal Commentaries of Peru. London: Christopher Wilkinson. pp. 216–217.
- de Ledrede, Richard; Wright, Thomas (ed.) (1843). A Contemporary Narrative of the Proceedings Against Dame Alice Kyteler, Prosecuted for Sorcery in 1324, by Richard de Ledrede, Bishop of Ossory. London: The Camden Society.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- de Ledrede, Richard; Davidson, Sharon (ed.); Ward, John (2004). The Sorcery Trial of Alice Kyteler: A Contemporary Account (1324). Asheville, North Carolina: Pegasus Press. ISBN 978-1889818429.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Lee, Samuel (2010). Rediscovering Japan, Reintroducing Christendom: Two Thousand Years of Christian History in Japan. Lanham, Maryland: Hamilton Books. ISBN 9780761849506.
- Lithgow, William (1814). Travels & Voyages Through Europe, Asia, and Africa, for Nineteen Years. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme&Brown.
- McCullough, David W. (8 October 2000). "The Fairy Defense". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
- McLynn, Frank (2013). Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth Century England. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136093081.
- McManus, Edgar J. (1973). Black Bondage in the North. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815628934.
- Manu; Haughton, Graves C., editor and translator (1825). The Institutes of Menu. 2. London: Cox and Baylis.
- Markoe, Glenn (2000). Phoenicians. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520226142.
- Matar, Nabil I. (2013). Europe Through Arab Eyes, 1578-1727. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231512084.
- Matsumoto, Dianna (2009). The Soul of a Nation: Japan's Destiny. Garden City, New York: Morgan James Publishing. ISBN 9781600375538.
- Miley, John (1843). Rome, as it was Under Paganism, and as it Became Under the Popes, Volume 1. London: J. Madden. pp. 223–224.
- Miller, John (1972). Popery and Politics in England 1660–1688. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521202367.
- Mittra, Sangh; Kumar, Bachchan (2004). Encyclopaedia of Women in South Asia: Nepal. 6. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 9788178351933.
- Mooney, John A. (1919). Joan of Arc. New York: Encyclopedia Press, Incorporated.
- Mooney, John A.; Patterson, Gail (ed.) (2002). "From Domremy to Chinon". Joan of Arc: Historical Overview and Bibliography. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Publishers. ISBN 9781590335031.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Moryson, Fynes; Hadfield, Andrew (2001). "Fynes Moryson, An Itinerary (1617)". Amazons, Savages, and Machiavels. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 166–179. ISBN 9780198711865.
- Murphy, Cullen (2012). God's Jury: The Inquisition and the making of the Modern World. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-09156-0.
- Nassau, George R. S. (1824). Catalogue of the ... library of ... George Nassau, which will be sold by auction, by mr. Evans, Feb. 16. p. 17.
- Oehlschlaeger, Emil (1866). Posen. Kurz gefasste Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Posen. Posen: Louis Merzbach.
- Olmstead, Albert Ten Eyck (February 1918). "Assyrian Government of Dependencies". The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 12, 1 (1): 63–77. doi:10.2307/1946342. hdl:2027/njp.32101058862515. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1946342.
- Osenbrüggen, Eduard (1854). Die brandstiftung in den strafgesetzbüchern Deutschlands und der deutschen Schweiz. Leipzig: J.G. Hinrich.
- Osenbrüggen, Eduard (1860). Das alamannische Strafrecht im deutschen Mittelalter. Schaffhausen: Hurter.
- O'Shea, Kathleen A. (1999). Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900–1998. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275959524.
- Pagán, Victoria (2012). Conspiracy Theory in Latin Literature. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292749795.
- Paige, Jeffery M (November 1983). "Social Theory and Peasant Revolution in Vietnam and Guatemala" (PDF). Theory and Society. 12 (6): 699–737. doi:10.1007/bf00912078. hdl:2027.42/43640. ISSN 0304-2421. S2CID 141234746.
- Pasachoff, Naomi E.; Littman, Robert J. (2005). A Concise History of the Jewish People. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742543669.
- Pavlac, Brian A. (2009). Witch Hunts in the Western World: Persecution and Punishment from the Inquisition Through the Salem Trials. Westport, Connecticut: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313348730.
- Peletz, Michael G. (2002). Islamic Modern: Religious Courts and Cultural Politics in Malaysia. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691095080.
- Perckmayr, Reginbald (1738). Geschichte und Predig-Buch. 2. Augsburg: Martin Veith.
- Peter from Mladanovic (2003). "How was executed Jan Hus". Newyorske listy. ISSN 1093-2887. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Pharr, Clyde (tr.) (2001). The Theodosian Code. Union, New Jersey: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-58477-146-3.
- Pickett, Brent L. (2009). The A to Z of Homosexuality. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810870727.
- Pluskowski, Aleksander (2013). The Archaeology of the Prussian Crusade: Holy War and Colonisation. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136162817.
- Prager, Dennis; Telushkin, Joseph (2007). Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York: Touchstone. ISBN 9781416591238.
- Puff, Helmut; Bennett, Judith M.(ed.); Karras, Ruth M. (ed.) (2013). "Same Sex Possibilities". The Oxford Handbook of Women and Gender in Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199582174.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Quint, Emmanuel B. (2005). A Restatement of Rabbinic Civil Law. 10. Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House Ltd. ISBN 9789652293237.
- Radbruch, Gustav (1992). "Abbau des Strafrechts. Bemerkungen über den Entwurf 1925 mit Anmerkungen über den Entwurf 1927 (published 1927)". Gesamtausgabe, Band 9: Strafrechtsreform. Heidelberg: C.F. Müller. pp. 246–252. ISBN 9783811450912.
- Rapley, Robert (2001). A Case of Witchcraft: The Trial of Urbain Grandier. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. ISBN 9780773523128.
- Reeder, Caryn A. (2012). The Enemy in the Household: Family Violence in Deuteronomy and Beyond. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN 9781441236197.
- Richards, Jeffrey (2013). Sex, Dissidence and Damnation: Minority Groups in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136127007.
- Richards, William (1812). The History of Lynn: Civil, Ecclesiastical, Political, Commercial, Biographical, Municipal, and Military, from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time. 2. Lynn: W. G. Whittingham.
- Roth, Mitchel (2010). Crime and Punishment: A History of the Criminal Justice System. Belmont, California: Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495809883.
- Rowland, Ingrid D. (2009). Giordano Bruno: Philosopher/Heretic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780226730240.
- Salomon, H.P.; Sassoon, I. S.D.; Saraiva, Antonio Jose (2001). "Appendix Four: The Portuguese Inquisition in Goa (India), 1561–1812". The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536–1765. Leyden: Brill. ISBN 9789004120808.
- Sangvi, Vir (8 February 1999). "A Kill Before Dying". Rediff on the Net. Rediff.com.
- Sashi, S.S. (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. 100. Anmol Publications. ISBN 9788170418597.
- Saunders, John J. (2001). The History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812217667.
- Sayles, George O. (17 February 1971). "King Richard II of England, A Fresh Look". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. 115, 1: 28–32. ISBN 9781422371275. ISSN 0003-049X.
- Schneider, Tammi J. (2008). Mothers of Promise: Women in the Book of Genesis. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. ISBN 9781441206015.
- Schulte Nordholt, H.G.C. (2010). The Spell of Power: A History of Balinese Politics, 1650-1940. Leyden: BRILL. ISBN 9789004253759.
- Schwartz, Jeffrey; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca (17 February 2010). "Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants". PLOS ONE. 5 (2): e9177. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...5.9177S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009177. PMC 2822869. PMID 20174667.
- Scott, George R. (2003) . History of Torture throughout the Ages. Kila, Montana/US: Kessinger Publishing Co. ISBN 9780766140639.
- Sharma, Pushpa; Srivastava, Vijay Shankar (1981). "The Military System of the Mongols". Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash Felicitation Volume. Abhinav Publications. p. 361. ISBN 9780391023581.
- Shaw, Thomas (1757). Travels, or Observations relating to several parts of Barbary and the Levant. London, UK: Millar and Sandby. p. 253.
- Smirke, Edward (1865). "Extracts from original Records relating to the Burning of Lepers in the reign of Edward II". The Archaeological Journal. London: Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute. 22: 326–331. doi:10.1080/00665983.1865.10851326.
- Soukhorukov, Sergey (13 June 2004). "Train blast was 'a plot to kill North Korea's leader". The Daily Telegraph.
- Springer, Alex (24 September 2008). "Der Letzte Feuer". Die Welt.
- St. Clair, William (2008) . That Greece Might Still Be Free (revised ed.). Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-906924-00-3.
- Steel, Catherine (2013). The End of the Roman Republic 146 to 44 BC: Conquest and Crisis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 98. ISBN 9780748619443.
- Stevens, George A. (1764). The Beauties of All Magazines Selected for the Year 1764 (including several Comic Pieces). 3. London: T. Waller.
- Stewart, Alan (2003). The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & 1. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6984-2.
- Stillman, Norman A. (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 9780827611559.
- Stillman, Yedida K. (ed.); Zucker, George K.(ed.) (1993). New Horizons in Sephardic Studies. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 9780791414026.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Sumner, William G. (2007). Folkways: A Study of Mores, Manners, Customs and Morals. New York: Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 9781602067585.
- Suwurow, Victor (1995). GRU – Die Speerspitze: Was der KGB für die Polit-Führung, ist die GRU für die Rote Armee (3rd ed.). Solingen: Barett. ISBN 3-924753-18-0.
- Telchin, Stan (2004). Messianic Judaism is Not Christianity: A Loving Call to Unity. Chosen Books. ISBN 9780800793722.
- De Thévenot, Jean; Lovell, Archibald (1687). The Travels of Monsieur De Thevenot into The Levant. 1. London: Faithorne.
- Thurston, H. (1912). "Witchcraft". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Tjernagel, N.S. (1974). "Patrick Hamilton: Precursor of the Reformation in Scotland". Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly. 74. ISSN 0362-5648. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010.
- Trenchard-Smith, Margaret; Turner, Wendy (ed.) (2010). "Insanity, Exculpation and Disempowerment in Byzantine Law". Madness in Medieval Law and Custom. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18749-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Tully, Miss (1817). Narrative of a ten years' residence at Tripoli in Africa. London: Henry Colburn.
- Waddell, Hope M. (1863). Twenty-nine years in the West Indies and Central Africa: a review of missionary work and adventure. 1829–1858. London: T. Nelson and sons. p. 19.
- Watson, Alan (ed.) (1998). The Digest of Justinian. 4. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812220360.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine (1999). Ashes of Immortality: Widow-Burning in India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226885681.
- Weiss, Moshe (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742544024.
- White, Jon M. (2011). Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. Minneola, New York: Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486425108.
- Wiener, Margaret J. (1995). Visible and Invisible Realms: Power, Magic, and Colonial Conquest in Bali. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226885827.
- Wilkinson, Toby (2011). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781408810026.
- Willis-Bund, J.W. (1982). A Selection of Cases from the State Trials. Vol. II Part I. Trials for Treason (1660–1678). Cambridge: CUP Archive. ASIN B0029U3KWY.
- Wills, C.J. (1891). In the land of the lion and sun. p. 204. OL 7180554M.
- Wilson, David H. (1963) [original edition 1956]. King James VI & 1. London, UK: Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0-224-60572-0.
- Wilson, James Holbert. (1853). Temple bar, the city Golgotha, by a member of the Inner Temple. London: David Bogue. p. 4.
- Winroth, Anders; Müller, Wolfgang P. (ed.); Sommar, Mary E.(ed.) (2006). "Neither Slave Nor Free:Theology and Law in Gratian's Thoughts on the Definition of Marriage and Unfree Persons". Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington. CUA Press. ISBN 9780813214627.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Woblers, Julien (1 September 1855). "Speech for the Amsterdam Anti Slavery Society, 19th July 1855". The Anti Slavery Reporter. London: Peter Jones Bolton. 3.
- Wood, Alan (2011). Russia's Frozen Frontier: A History of Siberia and the Russian Far East 1581 – 1991. London: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 44. ISBN 9780340971246.
- Zurkhana, Taif (ed.); Houtsma, M. (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. 8. Leyden: BRILL. ISBN 9789004082656.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Yang, Anand A.; Sarkar, Sumit (ed.); Sarkar, Tanika (ed.) (2008). "Whose Sati?Widow-Burning in early Nineteenth Century India". Women and Social Reform in Modern India: A Reader. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253352699.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Zvi Gilat, Israel; Lifshitz, Berachyahu (ed.) (2013). "Exegetical creativity in Interpreting Biblical Laws". Jewish Law Annual. 20. London: Routledge. p. 62, footnote 73. ISBN 9781136013768.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Burning to Death.|