In number theory, Euler's theorem (also known as the Fermat–Euler theorem or Euler's totient theorem) states that if n and a are coprime positive integers, then
where is Euler's totient function. (The notation is explained in the article .) In 1736, Leonhard Euler published his proof of Fermat's little theorem,^{[1]} which Fermat had presented without proof. Subsequently, Euler presented other proofs of the theorem, culminating with "Euler's theorem" in his paper of 1763, in which he attempted to find the smallest exponent for which Fermat's little theorem was always true.^{[2]}
The converse of Euler's theorem is also true: if the above congruence is true, then and must be coprime.
The theorem is a generalization of Fermat's little theorem, and is further generalized by Carmichael's theorem.
The theorem may be used to easily reduce large powers modulo . For example, consider finding the ones place decimal digit of , i.e. . The integers 7 and 10 are coprime, and . So Euler's theorem yields , and we get .
In general, when reducing a power of modulo (where and are coprime), one needs to work modulo in the exponent of :
- if , then .
Euler's theorem is sometimes cited as forming the basis of the RSA encryption system, however it is insufficient (and unnecessary) to use Euler's theorem to certify the validity of RSA encryption. In RSA, the net result of first encrypting a plaintext message, then later decrypting it, amounts to exponentiating a large input number by , for some positive integer . In the case that the original number is relatively prime to , Euler's theorem then guarantees that the decrypted output number is equal to the original input number, giving back the plaintext. However, because is a product of two distinct primes, and , when the number encrypted is a multiple of or , Euler's theorem does not apply and it is necessary to use the uniqueness provision of the Chinese Remainder Theorem. The Chinese Remainder Theorem also suffices in the case where the number is relatively prime to , and so Euler's theorem is neither sufficient nor necessary.
Proofs
1. Euler's theorem can be proven using concepts from the theory of groups:^{[3]} The residue classes modulo n that are coprime to n form a group under multiplication (see the article Multiplicative group of integers modulo n for details). The order of that group is φ(n) where φ denotes Euler's totient function. Lagrange's theorem states that the order of any subgroup of a finite group divides the order of the entire group, in this case φ(n). If a is any number coprime to n then a is in one of these residue classes, and its powers a, a^{2}, ... , a^{k} are a subgroup modulo n, with a^{k} ≡ 1 (mod n). Lagrange's theorem says k must divide φ(n), i.e. there is an integer M such that kM = φ(n). This then implies,
2. There is also a direct proof:^{[4]}^{[5]} Let R = {x_{1}, x_{2}, ... , x_{φ(n)}} be a reduced residue system (mod n) and let a be any integer coprime to n. The proof hinges on the fundamental fact that multiplication by a permutes the x_{i}: in other words if ax_{j} ≡ ax_{k} (mod n) then j = k. (This law of cancellation is proved in the article multiplicative group of integers modulo n.^{[6]}) That is, the sets R and aR = {ax_{1}, ax_{2}, ... , ax_{φ(n)}}, considered as sets of congruence classes (mod n), are identical (as sets—they may be listed in different orders), so the product of all the numbers in R is congruent (mod n) to the product of all the numbers in aR:
- and using the cancellation law to cancel each x_{i} gives Euler's theorem:
Euler quotient
The Euler quotient of an integer a with respect to n is defined as:
The special case of an Euler quotient when n is prime is called a Fermat quotient.
Any odd number n that divides is called a Wieferich number. This is equivalent to saying that 2^{φ(n)} ≡ 1 (mod n^{2}). As a generalization, any number n that is coprime to a positive integer a, and such that n divides , is called a (generalized) Wieferich number to base a. This is equivalent to saying that a^{φ(n)} ≡ 1 (mod n^{2}).
a | numbers n coprime to a that divide (searched up to 1048576) | OEIS sequence |
1 | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, ... (all natural numbers) | A000027 |
2 | 1, 1093, 3279, 3511, 7651, 10533, 14209, 17555, 22953, 31599, 42627, 45643, 52665, 68859, 94797, 99463, 127881, 136929, 157995, 228215, 298389, 410787, 473985, 684645, 895167, 1232361, 2053935, 2685501, 3697083, 3837523, 6161805, 11512569, ... | A077816 |
3 | 1, 11, 22, 44, 55, 110, 220, 440, 880, 1006003, 2012006, 4024012, 11066033, 22132066, 44264132, 55330165, 88528264, 110660330, 221320660, 442641320, 885282640, 1770565280, 56224501667, 112449003334, ... | A242958 |
4 | 1, 1093, 3279, 3511, 7651, 10533, 14209, 17555, 22953, 31599, 42627, 45643, 52665, 68859, 94797, 99463, 127881, 136929, 157995, 228215, 298389, 410787, 473985, 684645, 895167, ... | |
5 | 1, 2, 20771, 40487, 41542, 80974, 83084, 161948, 643901, 1255097, 1287802, 1391657, 1931703, 2510194, 2575604, 2783314, 3765291, 3863406, 4174971, 5020388, 5151208, 5566628, 7530582, 7726812, 8349942, 10040776, 11133256, 15061164, 15308227, 15453624, 16699884, ... | A242959 |
6 | 1, 66161, 330805, 534851, 2674255, 3152573, 10162169, 13371275, 50810845, 54715147, 129255493, 148170931, 254054225, 273575735, 301121113, 383006029, 646277465, ... | A241978 |
7 | 1, 4, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 491531, 983062, 1966124, 2457655, 3932248, 4915310, 6389903, 9339089, 9830620, 12288275, 12779806, 18678178, 19169709, 19661240, 24576550, 25559612, ... | A242960 |
8 | 1, 3, 1093, 3279, 3511, 7651, 9837, 10533, 14209, 17555, 22953, 31599, 42627, 45643, 52665, 68859, 94797, 99463, 127881, 136929, 157995, 206577, 228215, 284391, 298389, 383643, 410787, 473985, 684645, 895167, ... | |
9 | 1, 2, 4, 11, 22, 44, 55, 88, 110, 220, 440, 880, 1760, 1006003, ... | |
10 | 1, 3, 487, 1461, 4383, 13149, 39447, 118341, 355023, 56598313, 169794939, 509384817, ... | A241977 |
11 | 1, 71, 142, 284, 355, 497, 710, 994, 1420, 1491, 1988, 2485, 2840, 2982, 3976, 4970, 5680, 5964, 7455, 9940, 11928, 14910, 19880, 23856, 29820, 39760, 59640, 79520, 119280, 238560, 477120, ... | A253016 |
12 | 1, 2693, 123653, 1812389, 2349407, 12686723, 201183431, 332997529, ... | A245529 |
13 | 1, 2, 863, 1726, 3452, 371953, 743906, 1487812, 1747591, 1859765, 2975624, 3495182, 3719530, 5242773, 6990364, 7439060, 8737955, 10485546, 14878120, 15993979, 17475910, 20971092, 26213865, 29756240, 31987958, 34951820, 41942184, 47981937, 52427730, 59512480, ... | A257660 |
14 | 1, 29, 353, 3883, 10237, 19415, 112607, 563035, ... | |
15 | 1, 4, 8, 29131, 58262, 116524, 233048, 466096, ... | |
16 | 1, 1093, 3279, 3511, 7651, 10533, 14209, 17555, 22953, 31599, 42627, 45643, 52665, 68859, 94797, 99463, 127881, 136929, 157995, 228215, 298389, 410787, 473985, 684645, 895167, ... | |
17 | 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 46021, 48947, 92042, 97894, 138063, 146841, 184084, 195788, 230105, 276126, 293682, 368168, 391576, 414189, 460210, 552252, 587364, 598273, 690315, 736336, 783152, 828378, 920420, ... | |
18 | 1, 5, 7, 35, 37, 49, 185, 245, 259, 331, 1295, 1655, 1813, 2317, 3641, 8275, 9065, 11585, 12247, 16219, 18205, 25487, 33923, 57925, 61235, 81095, 85729, 91025, 127435, 134717, 169615, 178409, 237461, 306175, 405475, 428645, 455125, 600103, 637175, 673585, 892045, 943019, ... | |
19 | 1, 3, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 21, 26, 28, 39, 42, 43, 49, 52, 63, 78, 84, 86, 91, 98, 104, 117, 126, 129, 137, 147, 156, 168, 172, 182, 196, 234, 252, 258, 273, 274, 294, 301, 312, 364, 387, 411, 441, 468, 504, 516, 546, 548, 559, 588, 602, 624, 637, 728, 774, 819, 822, 882, 903, 936, 959, 1032, 1092, 1096, 1118, 1176, 1204, 1274, 1456, 1548, 1638, 1644, 1677, 1764, 1781, 1806, 1872, 1911, 1918, 2107, 2184, 2192, 2236, 2329, 2408, 2457, 2548, 2709, 2877, 3096, 3276, 3288, 3354, 3528, 3562, 3612, 3822, 3836, 3913, 4214, 4368, 4472, 4658, 4914, 5031, 5096, 5343, 5418, 5733, 5754, 5891, 6321, 6552, 6576, 6708, 6713, 6987, 7124, 7224, 7644, 7672, 7826, 8127, 8428, 8631, 8736, 8944, 9316, 9828, 10062, 10192, 10686, 10836, 11466, 11508, 11739, 11782, 12467, 12642, 13104, 13152, 13416, 13426, 13974, 14248, 14448, 14749, 15093, 15288, 15344, 15652, 16029, 16254, 16303, 16856, 17199, 17262, 17673, 18632, 18963, 19656, 20124, 20139, 21372, 21672, 22932, 23016, 23478, 23564, 24934, 25284, 26208, 26832, 26852, 27391, 27948, 28496, 29498, 30186, 30277, 30576, 30688, 31304, 32058, 32508, 32606, 34398, 34524, 35217, 35346, 37264, 37401, 37926, 39312, 40248, 40278, 41237, 42744, 43344, 44247, 45864, 46032, 46956, 47128, 48909, 49868, 50568, 53019, 53664, 53704, 54782, 55896, 56889, 56992, 58996, 60372, 60417, 60554, 61152, 62608, 64116, 65016, 65212, 68796, 69048, 70434, 70692, 74528, 74802, 75852, 76583, 78624, 80496, 80556, 82173, 82474, 85488, 87269, 88494, 90831, 91728, 92064, 93912, 94256, 97818, 99736, 100147, 101136, 105651, 106038, 107408, 109564, 111792, 112203, 113778, 113984, 114121, 117992, 120744, 120834, 121108, 123711, 125216, 128232, 130032, 130424, 132741, 137592, 138096, 140868, 141384, 146727, 149056, 149604, 151704, 153166, 160992, 161112, 164346, 164948, 170976, 174538, 176988, 181662, 183456, 184128, 187824, 188512, 191737, 195636, 199472, 200294, 211302, 211939, 212076, 214816, 219128, 223584, 224406, 227556, 228242, 229749, 241488, 241668, 242216, 246519, 247422, 256464, 260848, 261807, 265482, 272493, 275184, 276192, 281736, 282768, 288659, 293454, 298112, 299208, 300441, 303408, 306332, 316953, 322224, 328692, 329896, 336609, 341952, 342363, 349076, 353976, 363324, 371133, 375648, 383474, 391272, 398223, 398944, 400588, 422604, 423878, 424152, 438256, 447168, 448812, 455112, 456484, 459498, 482976, 483336, 484432, 493038, 494844, 512928, 521696, 523614, 530964, 536081, 544986, 550368, 552384, 563472, 565536, 575211, 577318, 586908, 596224, 598416, 600882, 612664, 633906, 635817, 644448, 657384, 659792, 673218, 683904, 684726, 689247, 698152, 701029, 707952, 726648, 739557, 742266, 751296, 766948, 782544, 785421, 796446, 797888, 801176, 845208, 847756, 848304, 865977, 876512, 894336, 897624, 901323, 910224, 912968, 918996, 966672, 968864, 986076, 989688, 1025856, 1027089, 1043392, 1047228, ... | |
20 | 1, 281, 1967, 5901, 46457, ... | |
21 | 1, 2, ... | |
22 | 1, 13, 39, 673, 2019, 4711, 8749, 14133, 26247, 42399, 61243, 78741, 183729, 551187, ... | |
23 | 1, 4, 13, 26, 39, 52, 78, 104, 156, 208, 312, 624, 1248, ... | |
24 | 1, 5, 25633, 128165, ... | |
25 | 1, 2, 4, 20771, 40487, 41542, 80974, 83084, 161948, 166168, 323896, 643901, ... | |
26 | 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45, 71, 213, 355, 497, 639, 1065, 1491, 1775, 2485, 3195, 4473, 5325, 7455, 12425, 13419, 15975, 22365, 37275, 67095, 111825, 335475, ... | |
27 | 1, 11, 22, 44, 55, 110, 220, 440, 880, 1006003, ... | |
28 | 1, 3, 9, 19, 23, 57, 69, 171, 207, 253, 437, 513, 759, 1265, 1311, 1539, 2277, 3795, 3933, 4807, 11385, 11799, 14421, 24035, 35397, 43263, 72105, 129789, 216315, 389367, 648945, ... | |
29 | 1, 2, ... | |
30 | 1, 7, 160541, ... |
The least base b > 1 which n is a Wieferich number are
- 2, 5, 8, 7, 7, 17, 18, 15, 26, 7, 3, 17, 19, 19, 26, 31, 38, 53, 28, 7, 19, 3, 28, 17, 57, 19, 80, 19, 14, 107, 115, 63, 118, 65, 18, 53, 18, 69, 19, 7, 51, 19, 19, 3, 26, 63, 53, 17, 18, 57, ... (sequence A250206 in the OEIS)
See also
Notes
- ^ See:
- Leonhard Euler (presented: August 2, 1736; published: 1741) "Theorematum quorundam ad numeros primos spectantium demonstratio" (A proof of certain theorems regarding prime numbers), Commentarii academiae scientiarum Petropolitanae, 8 : 141–146.
- For further details on this paper, including an English translation, see: The Euler Archive.
- ^ See:
- L. Euler (published: 1763) "Theoremata arithmetica nova methodo demonstrata" (Proof of a new method in the theory of arithmetic), Novi Commentarii academiae scientiarum Petropolitanae, 8 : 74–104. Euler's theorem appears as "Theorema 11" on page 102. This paper was first presented to the Berlin Academy on June 8, 1758 and to the St. Petersburg Academy on October 15, 1759. In this paper, Euler's totient function, , is not named but referred to as "numerus partium ad N primarum" (the number of parts prime to N; that is, the number of natural numbers that are smaller than N and relatively prime to N).
- For further details on this paper, see: The Euler Archive.
- For a review of Euler's work over the years leading to Euler's theorem, see: Ed Sandifer (2005) "Euler's proof of Fermat's little theorem"
- ^ Ireland & Rosen, corr. 1 to prop 3.3.2
- ^ Hardy & Wright, thm. 72
- ^ Landau, thm. 75
- ^ See Bézout's lemma
References
The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae has been translated from Gauss's Ciceronian Latin into English and German. The German edition includes all of his papers on number theory: all the proofs of quadratic reciprocity, the determination of the sign of the Gauss sum, the investigations into biquadratic reciprocity, and unpublished notes.
- Gauss, Carl Friedrich; Clarke, Arthur A. (translated into English) (1986), Disquisitiones Arithemeticae (Second, corrected edition), New York: Springer, ISBN 0-387-96254-9
- Gauss, Carl Friedrich; Maser, H. (translated into German) (1965), Untersuchungen uber hohere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithemeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second edition), New York: Chelsea, ISBN 0-8284-0191-8
- Hardy, G. H.; Wright, E. M. (1980), An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers (Fifth edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-853171-5
- Ireland, Kenneth; Rosen, Michael (1990), A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory (Second edition), New York: Springer, ISBN 0-387-97329-X
- Landau, Edmund (1966), Elementary Number Theory, New York: Chelsea