Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial and/or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.[page needed] The forces which may be applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as genocide and genocidal rape.
Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied by efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, as well as through the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship.
Although ethnic cleansing has occurred long through history, the term was initially used by the perpetrators during the Yugoslav Wars and cited in this context as a euphemism akin to that of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution", by the 1990s, and gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning.
An antecedent to the term is the Greek word andrapodismos (Greek: ἀνδραποδισμός; lit. "enslavement"), which was used in ancient texts to describe atrocities that accompanied Alexander the Great's conquest of Thebes in 335 BC. In the early 1900s, regional variants of the term could be found among the Czechs (očista), the Poles (czystki etniczne), the French (épuration) and the Germans (Säuberung).[page needed] A 1913 Carnegie Endowment report condemning the actions of all participants in the Balkan Wars contained various new terms to describe brutalities committed toward ethnic groups.
During World War II, the euphemism čišćenje terena ("cleansing the terrain") was used by the Croatian Ustaše to describe military actions in which non-Croats were purposely killed or otherwise uprooted from their homes. Viktor Gutić, a senior Ustaše leader, was one of the first Croatian nationalists on record to use the term as a euphemism for committing atrocities against Serbs. The term was later used in the internal memorandums of Serbian Chetniks in reference to a number of retaliatory massacres they committed against Bosniaks and Croats between 1941 and 1945. The Russian phrase очистка границ (ochistka granits; lit. "cleansing of borders") was used in Soviet documents of the early 1930s to refer to the forced resettlement of Polish people from the 22-kilometre (14 mi) border zone in the Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs. This process was repeated on an even larger scale in 1939–41, involving many other groups suspected of disloyalty towards the Soviet Union. During The Holocaust, Nazi Germany pursued a policy of ensuring that Europe was "cleansed of Jews" (Judenrein).
In its complete form, the term appeared for the first time in the Romanian language (purificare etnică) in an address by Vice Prime Minister Mihai Antonescu to cabinet members in July 1941. After the beginning of the invasion of the USSR,[clarification needed] he concluded: “I do not know when the Romanians will have such chance for ethnic cleansing." In the 1980s, the Soviets used the term "ethnic cleansing" to describe the inter-ethnic violence in Nagorno-Karabakh. At around the same time, the Yugoslav media used it to describe what they alleged was an Albanian nationalist plot to force all Serbs to leave Kosovo. It was widely popularized by the Western media during the Bosnian War (1992–95). The first recorded mention of its use in the Western media can be traced back to an article in The New York Times dated 15 April 1992, in a quote by an anonymous Western diplomat.
Synonyms include ethnic purification.
The Final Report of the Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 defined ethnic cleansing as "a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas". In its previous, first interim report it noted, "[b]ased on the many reports describing the policy and practices conducted in the former Yugoslavia, [that] 'ethnic cleansing' has been carried out by means of murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, confinement of civilian population in ghetto areas, forcible removal, displacement and deportation of civilian population, deliberate military attacks or threats of attacks on civilians and civilian areas, and wanton destruction of property. Those practices constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes. Furthermore, such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention."
The official United Nations definition of ethnic cleansing is "rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group".
As a category, ethnic cleansing encompasses a continuum or spectrum of policies. In the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff:
[E]thnic cleansing [...] defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory.
Terry Martin has defined ethnic cleansing as "the forcible removal of an ethnically defined population from a given territory" and as "occupying the central part of a continuum between genocide on one end and nonviolent pressured ethnic emigration on the other end".
In reviewing the International Court of Justice (ICJ) Bosnian Genocide Case in the judgement of Jorgic v. Germany on July 12, 2007 the European Court of Human Rights quoted from the ICJ ruling on the Bosnian Genocide Case to draw a distinction between ethnic cleansing and genocide:
The term 'ethnic cleansing' has frequently been employed to refer to the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina which are the subject of this case ... [UN] General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing", which is a form of genocide', as being carried on in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It [i.e., ethnic cleansing] can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the [Genocide] Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. Neither the intent, as a matter of policy, to render an area "ethnically homogeneous", nor the operations that may be carried out to implement such policy, can as such be designated as genocide: the intent that characterizes genocide is "to destroy, in whole or in part" a particular group, and deportation or displacement of the members of a group, even if effected by force, is not necessarily equivalent to destruction of that group, nor is such destruction an automatic consequence of the displacement. This is not to say that acts described as 'ethnic cleansing' may never constitute genocide, if they are such as to be characterized as, for example, 'deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part', contrary to Article II, paragraph (c), of the Convention, provided such action is carried out with the necessary specific intent (dolus specialis), that is to say with a view to the destruction of the group, as distinct from its removal from the region. As the ICTY has observed, while 'there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing' (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562), yet '[a] clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide.'— ECHR quoting the ICJ.
As a crime under international law
There is no international treaty that specifies a specific crime of ethnic cleansing. However, ethnic cleansing in the broad sense—the forcible deportation of a population—is defined as a crime against humanity under the statutes of both International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The gross human-rights violations integral to stricter definitions of ethnic cleansing are treated as separate crimes falling under public international law of crimes against humanity and in certain circumstances genocide.
There are however situations, such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II, where ethnic cleansing has taken place without legal redress (see Preussische Treuhand v. Poland). Timothy V. Waters argues therefore that similar ethnic cleansing could go unpunished in the future.
Some say that failed states see most mass killing, often in an anarchic manner. According to Michael Mann (sociologist), in The Dark Side of Democracy (2004), murderous ethnic cleansing is strongly related to the creation of democracies. He argues that murderous ethnic cleansing is due to the rise of nationalism, which associates citizenship with a specific ethnic group. Democracy, therefore, is tied to ethnic and national forms of exclusion. Nevertheless, it is not democratic states that are more prone to commit ethnic cleansing, because minorities tend to have constitutional guarantees. Neither are stable authoritarian regimes (except the nazi and communist regimes) which are likely perpetrators of muderous ethnic cleansing, but those regimes that are in process of democratization. Ethnic hostility appears where ethnicity overshadows social classes as the primordial system of social stratification. Usually, in deeply divided societies, categories such as class and ethnicity are deeply intertwined, and when an ethnic group is seen as oppressor or exploitative of the other, serious ethnic conflict can develop. Michael Mann holds that when two ethnic groups claim sovereignty over the same territory and can feel threatened, their differences can lead to severe grievances and danger of ethnic cleansing. The perpetration of murderous ethnic cleansing tends to occur in unstable geopolitical environments and in contexts of war. As ethnic cleansing requires high levels of organisation and is usually directed by states or other authoritative powers, perpetrators are usually state powers or institutions with some coherence and capacity, not failed states as it is generally perceived. The perpetrator powers tend to get support by core constituencies that favour combinations of nationalism, statism and violence.
Academic discourse considers both genocide and ethnic cleansing to exist in a spectrum of assaults on nations or religio-ethnic groups. Ethnic cleansing is similar to forced deportation or population transfer whereas genocide is the intentional murder of part or all of a particular ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. While ethnic cleansing and genocide may share the same goal and the acts which are used to perpetrate both crimes may often resemble each other, ethnic cleansing is intended to displace a persecuted population from a given territory, while genocide is intended to destroy a population.
Some academics consider genocide to be a subset of "murderous ethnic cleansing". Thus, these concepts are different, but related, as Norman Naimark writes: "literally and figuratively, ethnic cleansing bleeds into genocide, as mass murder is committed in order to rid the land of a people". William Schabas adds, "Ethnic cleansing is also a warning sign of genocide to come. Genocide is the last resort of the frustrated ethnic cleanser."
As a military, political and economic tactic
As a tactic, ethnic cleansing has a number of systemic impacts. It enables a force to eliminate civilian support for resistance by eliminating the civilians—recognizing Mao Zedong's dictum that guerrillas among a civilian population are fish in water, it removes the fish by draining the water. When enforced as part of a political settlement, as happened with the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans to Germany in its reduced borders after 1945, it can contribute to long-term stability.[page needed] Some individuals of the large German population in Czechoslovakia and prewar Poland had encouraged Nazi jingoism before the Second World War, but this was forcibly resolved.[page needed] It thus establishes "facts on the ground"—radical demographic changes which can be very hard to reverse.
Silent ethnic cleansing
This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The term silent ethnic cleansing was coined in the mid-1990s by some observers of the Yugoslav Wars. Apparently concerned with Western media representations of atrocities committed in the conflict—which generally focused on those perpetrated by the Serbs—atrocities committed against Serbs were dubbed "silent" on the grounds that they did not receive adequate coverage.
In many cases where accusations of ethnic cleansing have circulated, partisans have fiercely disputed such an interpretation and the details of the events which have been described as ethnic cleansing by academic or legal experts. This often leads to the promotion of vastly different versions of the event in question. 
During the beginning of World War I in 1914, following defeats by the Russian army due to a lack of proper leadership and preparation, the government of the Ottoman Empire banished all Armenian soldiers in desperation based on the belief that they were the ones to blame for the defeats. What began as a military tactic, eventually, lead to a brutal genocide of the ethnic Armenian population that was living in Anatolia (Turkey) beginning with the execution of male Armenians and eventually ending with the forced deportation of Armenian women and children. It is estimated that around 800,000 to 1 million ethnic Armenians living in Turkey were either executed or forcibly deported during World War I. The Armenian Genocide has been recognized as a genocide by most scholars and nations due to its deliberate targeting of ethnic Armenians and the brutal fashion in which it was implemented and it has also been viewed as an act of ethnic cleansing due to the Ottoman government's desire to remove a specific ethnicity from its territory.
The Greeks were also ethnically cleansed from Anatolia during the same period. At least 350,000 Greek civilians were executed and over 1 million Greeks deported to Greece, leaving only a few thousand Greeks in their historic homeland.
Recognized as one of the most extreme cases of ethnic cleansing in history, the Holocaust was the Nazi regime's mass murder of about 6 million Jews during World War II. Accomplished in stages, the Holocaust began with legislation to remove Jews from German society before World War II. Concentration and extermination camps were then created to incarcerate and execute the millions of Jews who were living in Germany and most of them were either shot, killed in gas chambers, or worked to death. Killing approximately 90 percent of the Jews who were living in Poland and 87 percent of the Jews who were living in Germany and Austria, the Nazi regime's motives, the horrific ways in which its victims were executed, and the number of ethnic Jews who were murdered make the Holocaust one of the clearest and least disputed cases of ethnic cleansing in history.
Expulsion of German-speakers from Eastern Europe, 1944–1949
Following World War II, from 1944 to 1949, approximately 14 million Germans were forcibly removed from Central and Eastern Europe, from areas where Germans had been a minority since the Middle Ages, as well as from specific regions, particularly, from present-day Czechia, present-day western and north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast where Germans constituted the vast majority of the population. Although the removal primarily consisted of a forced migration, approximately 2 million Germans were killed during the migration either by starvation, poor weather conditions, or beatings and murder at the hands of troops and mobs that consisted of Russians, Poles, Czechs or other locals. The ethnic cleansing of Germans in Eastern and Central Europe was an outpouring of the hatred and negative sentiment towards Germans that was a result of the inhumane acts which the Nazi regime committed during the course of World War II and it was also motivated by the desire of European governments to turn their countries into more ethnically homogenous nation-states,  and to this end, the post-war borders of Poland comprised close to a quarter of Germany's pre-war territory. Many Germans, prior to their expulsion, were interned in labor camps. While ethnic cleansing gained virulence due to Nazi Germany's policies, the expulsion of ethnic Germans from all over Eastern Europe is described as the largest scale of ethnic cleansing in history.
Bosnia & Herzegovina, 1990–1993
Widespread ethnic cleansing and genocide accompanied the Bosnian War (1992–95), with estimated 2,700,000 people displaced within and out of the country. Large numbers of Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) and Bosnian Croats were forced to flee their homes and were expelled by Bosnian Serbs and Serb paramilitary. Some Bosnian Croats also carried out a similar campaign against Bosniaks and Serbs. While it was recorded that Bosniaks also engaged in grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law, they did not engage in systematic ethnic cleansing.
The methods which were used during the Bosnian ethnic cleansing campaigns included "murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, the confinement of civilian populations in ghetto areas, the forcible removal, displacement and deportation of civilian populations, deliberate military attacks or threats of attacks on civilians and civilian areas, and the wanton destruction of property". Creating the largest flow of internally displaced citizens since World War II, the ethnic cleansing that occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the 1990s is still apparent in the ethnically homogeneous regions of Bosnian Serbs, Croats, and Muslims that exist in modern-day Bosnia with politicians attempting to obstruct the undoing of the ethnic cleansing that took place during the war.
From 1992 through 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, the armed Abkhaz separatist insurgency implemented a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the large population of ethnic Georgians. This was actually a case in which a minority was trying to drive out a majority, rather than a case in which a majority was trying to drive out a minority, because Georgians were the single largest ethnic group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989. As a result of this deliberate campaign of ethnic cleansing by the Abkhaz separatists, more than 250,000 ethnic Georgians were forced to flee, and approximately 30,000 people were killed in incidents that involved massacres and expulsions.[page needed][page needed] This was recognized as ethnic cleansing by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe conventions, and was also mentioned in UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708.
The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley as a result of being targeted by JKLF and Islamist insurgents during late 1989 and early 1990. Of the approximately 300,000 to 600,000 Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley in 1990 only 2,000–3,000 remain there in 2016.
Since 2016, Myanmar's military-dominated government has forced over 620,000 ethnic Rohingya who live in Rakhine State, northwest Myanmar to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. The Rohingya are a group of about 1 million people (mostly Muslims and some Hindus) who live in Rakhine state but they are denied citizenship and considered illegal immigrants and as a result, they have been subjected to persecution and discrimination by the government of Myanmar and Buddhist nationalists. Myanmar's government has cracked down on the Rohingya people and forced them to migrate to Bangladesh through violent actions, with rape, arson, and murder being reported. UN human rights chief Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein has stated that “The situation seems to be a textbook example of ethnic cleansing” while governments across the world have called on Myanmar's government to take control of the situation and stop the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya people.
Criticism of the term
Gregory Stanton, the founder of Genocide Watch, has criticised the rise of the term and its use for events that he feels should be called "genocide": because "ethnic cleansing" has no legal definition, its media use can detract attention from events that should be prosecuted as genocide. Because of widespread acceptance after media influence, it has become a word used legally, but carries no legal repercussions. 
In 1992, the German equivalent of "ethnic cleansing" (German: Ethnische Säuberung) was named German Un-Word of the Year by the Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache due to its euphemistic, inappropriate nature.
- Communal violence
- Crimes against humanity
- Ethnic Cleansing, a computer game
- Forced displacement
- Genocidal massacre
- Identity cleansing
- Indian Removal Act
- Missouri Executive Order 44
- Population transfer
- Religious cleansing
- Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC)
- Social cleansing
- State collapse
- Transmigration program
- Rubenstein, James M. (2008). The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Pearson. ISBN 9780131346819.
- Thum, Gregor (2006–2007). "Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Europe after 1945". Contemporary European History. 19 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1017/S0960777309990257.
- Booth, Ken (2012). The Kosovo Tragedy: The Human Rights Dimensions. London: Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-13633-476-4.
- Ther, Philip (2004). "The Spell of the Homogeneous Nation State: Structural Factors and Agents of Ethnic Cleansing". In Rainer Munz; Rainer Ohliger (eds.). Diasporas and Ethnic Migrants: Germany, Israel and Russia in Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-13575-938-4. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved August 31, 2017.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Akhund, Nadine (December 31, 2012). "The Two Carnegie Reports: From the Balkan Expedition of 1913 to the Albanian Trip of 1921". Balkanologie. Revue d'études pluridisciplinaires (Vol. XIV, n° 1–2). Archived from the original on April 4, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2017 – via balkanologie.revues.org.
- Toal, Gerard; Dahlman, Carl T. (2011). Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and Its Reversal. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-973036-0. Archived from the original on July 6, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- West, Richard (1994). Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll & Graf. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7867-0332-6.
- Becirevic, Edina (2014). Genocide on the River Drina. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-3001-9258-2. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing" Archived July 24, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. The Journal of Modern History 70 (4), 813–861. pg. 822
- Fulbrooke, Mary (2004). A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-52154-071-1. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Petrovic, Vladimir (2017). Ethnopolitical Temptations Reach Southeastern Europe: Wartime Policy Papers of Vasa Čubrilović and Sabin Manuilă. CEU Press.
- Petrovic, Drazen (1994). "Ethnic Cleansing – An Attempt at Methodology" (PDF). European Journal of International Law. 5 (3): 343. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a035875. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
In English, reference is also made to 'ethnic purification'.
- "Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. May 27, 1994. p. 33. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
Upon examination of reported information, specific studies and investigations, the Commission confirms its earlier view that 'ethnic cleansing' is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas. To a large extent, it is carried out in the name of misguided nationalism, historic grievances and a powerful driving sense of revenge. This purpose appears to be the occupation of territory to the exclusion of the purged group or groups. This policy and the practices of warring factions are described separately in the following paragraphs.Paragraph 130.
- "Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. May 27, 1994. p. 33. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2020. Paragraph 129
- Hayden, Robert M. (1996) "Schindler's Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers" Archived April 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Slavic Review 55 (4), 727–48.
- Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing" Archived February 3, 2004, at the Wayback Machine, Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110, Summer 1993. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- ECHR Jorgic v. Germany Archived September 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine §45 citing Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro ("Case concerning application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide"), the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found under the heading of “intent and ‘ethnic cleansing���” (at § 190)
- Ferdinandusse, Ward (2004). "The Interaction of National and International Approaches in the Repression of International Crimes" (PDF). The European Journal of International Law. 15 (5): 1042, note 7. doi:10.1093/ejil/15.5.1041. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 5, 2008.
- "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court" Archived January 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Article 7; Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Archived August 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Article 5.
- Shraga, Daphna; Zacklin, Ralph (2004). "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia". The European Journal of International Law. 15 (3). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- Timothy V. Waters, "On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing" Archived November 6, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law. Retrieved on 2006, 12–13
-  Archived May 3, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Mann, Michael (2005), The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch. 1 “The Argument,” pp. 1-33.
- Schabas, William (2000). Genocide in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–201. ISBN 9780521787901. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Mann, Michael (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780521538541. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Naimark, Norman (November 4, 2007). "Theoretical Paper: Ethnic Cleansing". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
- Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005
- Tony Judt Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005.
- Krauthammer, Charles: "When Serbs Are 'Cleansed,' Moralists Stay Silent", International Herald Tribune, August 12, 1995.
- "Governments are using Trump's fake news claim to hide 'ethnic cleansing'". Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Suny, R. (2005). Ethnic cleansing: Armenia. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_armenia/0
- Jones, A. (2010). The Armenian genocide. Genocide: A comprehensive introduction (). London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/routgenocide/the_armenian_genocide/0
- Frey, R. J. (2009). Genocide and international justice. New York: Facts On File. Retrieved from http://bvbr.bib-bvb.de:8991/F?func=service&doc_library=BVB01&local_base=BVB01&doc_number=022300460&sequence=000001&line_number=0001&func_code=DB_RECORDS&service_type=MEDIA
- News, Hellenic (May 17, 2016). "The Genocide of Ottoman Greeks, 1914-1923". Hellenic News of America. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- Berenbaum, M. (2006). The world must know (second edition ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Dawidowicz, L. S. (1986). The war against the jews (10. anniversary ed. ed.). Toronto u.a: Bantam Books. Retrieved from http://bvbr.bib-bvb.de:8991/F?func=service&doc_library=BVB01&local_base=BVB01&doc_number=000321857&sequence=000002&line_number=0001&func_code=DB_RECORDS&service_type=MEDIA
- Hansen, R., & Ohliger, R. (2005). Ethnic cleansing: Germans from central and eastern Europe. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_germans_from_central_and_eastern_europe/0
- Prauser, S. (2004). The expulsion of the "German" communities from eastern Europe at the end of the second world war. Badia Fiesolana, San Domenico (FI): European University Institute, Florence, Department of History and Civilization.
- Thum, Gregor (2011). Uprooted: How Breslau Became Wroclaw during the Century of Expulsions. Princeton University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-40083-996-4.
- Judge Rodrigues confirms Indictment charging Slobodan Milosevic with Crimes committed in Croatia Archived 31 May 2012 at WebCite. International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- ICTY evidence; Babic pleads guilty to crimes Archived 9 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Marlise Simons (10 October 2001). "Milosevic, Indicted Again, Is Charged With Crimes in Croatia". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Milosevic: Important New Charges on Croatia". Human Rights Watch. 21 October 2001. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Karoly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsis-Hodosi: Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin Archived May 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Simon Publications LLC, 2001, p. 171
- Stanovništvo po narodnosti po popisu od 15. marta 1948. godine, Beograd 1954. Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p. 3 (in Serbian)
- Popis stanovništva 1953. godine Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p. 35 (in Serbian)
- Population, households and dwellings census in 1961, National structure of population in FNR Yugoslavia, data on localities and ocmmunes, Vol. III Archived December 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, p. 12 (in Serbian)
- Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, The Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnia-Hercegovina, (US Government Printing Office, 1992)
- "A/RES/47/147 Situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia". United Nations. December 18, 1992. Archived from the original on January 24, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
3. Condemns in the strongest possible terms the abhorrent practice of "ethnic cleansing" and recognises that the Serbian leadership in territories under their control in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Yugoslav Army and the political leadership of the Republic of Serbia bear primary responsibility for this reprehensible practice
- "War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina: U.N. Cease-Fire Won't Help Banja Luka". Human Rights Watch. June 1994. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- "War and humanitarian action: Iraq and the Balkans" (PDF). UNHCR. 2000. p. 218. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- UN Security Council: Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992) (May 27, 1994). "ANNEX IV: Policy of Ethnic Cleansing - Part Two: Ethnic Cleansing in BiH - I: Introduction". p. 21 para. 111. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
(PDF) UN doc. (1994) (S/1994/674) (pg.36 para.148.) Bosnian Muslim forces have also engaged in practices which constitute grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law. However, abuses by Bosnian Muslims have not been part of an «ethnic cleansing» campaign, and the number of reported violations is substantially lower than for those of the other warring factions. (pg.37 para.149.) The Commission is unable to determine the amount of harm and the exact number of violations committed by each of the warring factions. Nevertheless, it is clear that there is no factual basis for arguing that there is a "moral equivalence" between the warring factions.
- Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), 27 May 1994 (S/1994/674), English page=33, Paragraph 129
- Nielsen, C. (2005a). Ethnic cleansing: Bosnia-herzegovina. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_bosnia_herzegovina/0
- US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case.
- Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna (1994). Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications. ASIN B0029XE6WO.
- US State Department,Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17.
- ""General Assembly Adopts Resolution Recognizing Right Of Return By Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons To Abkhazia, Georgia"". Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Rohingya ethnic cleansing. (2018). In Helicon (Ed.), The hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide (). Abington, UK: Helicon. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/rohingya_ethnic_cleansing/0
- "Myanmar seeking ethnic cleansing, says UN official as Rohingya flee persecution". The Guardian. 24 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Broomfield, Matt (10 December 2016). "UN calls on Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi to halt 'ethnic cleansing' of Rohingya Muslims". The Independent. Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Stephanie Nebehay and Simon Lewis. "U.N. brands Myanmar violence a 'textbook' example of ethnic cleansing". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- Blum, Rony; Stanton, Gregory H.; Sagi, Shira; Richter, Elihu D. (2007). "'Ethnic cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide". European Journal of Public Health. 18 (2): 204–209. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckm011. PMID 17513346.
- See also "Ethnic Cleansing and Genocidal Intent: A Failure of Judicial Interpretation?", Genocide Studies and Prevention 5, 1 (April 2010), Douglas Singleterry
- "Ethnic Cleansing Law and Legal Definition | USLegal, Inc". definitions.uslegal.com. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Gunkel, Christoph (October 31, 2010). "Ein Jahr, ein (Un-)Wort!" [One year, one (un)word!]. Spiegel Online (in German). Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew (1993). "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing". Foreign Affairs. 72 (3): 110–121. doi:10.2307/20045626. JSTOR 20045626. Archived from the original on February 3, 2004.
- Petrovic, Drazen (1998). "Ethnic Cleansing – An Attempt at Methodology" (PDF). European Journal of International Law. 5 (4): 817.
- Vladimir Petrović (2007), Etnicizacija čišćenja u reči i nedelu (Ethnicisation of Cleansing), Hereticus 1/2007, 11–36
- Anderson, Gary Clayton. Ethnic Cleansing and the Indians: The Crime that Should Haunt America. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014.
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: Nemesis at Potsdam, Routledge, London 1977.
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: A Terrible Revenge. Palgrave/Macmillan, New York, 1994. ISBN 1-4039-7308-3.
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: Die deutschen Vertriebenen. Leopold Stocker, Graz, 2006. ISBN 3-902475-15-3.
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: Heimatrecht ist Menschenrecht. Universitas, München 2001. ISBN 3-8004-1416-3.
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: "The Right to One's Homeland, Ethnic Cleansing and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", Criminal Law Forum (2005)
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: "Forced Population Transfer" in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford online 2010.
- Carmichael, Cathie (2002). Ethnic cleansing in the Balkans: nationalism and the destruction of tradition (Illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27416-8.
- Douglas, R. M.: Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. Yale University Press, 2012 ISBN 978-0300166606.
- Kamusella, Tomasz. 2018. Ethnic Cleansing During the Cold War: The Forgotten 1989 Expulsion of Turks from Communist Bulgaria (Ser: Routledge Studies in Modern European History). London: Routledge, 328pp. ISBN 9781138480520.
- Prauser, Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German" Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second Century. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004.
- Sundhaussen, Holm (2010). "Forced Ethnic Migration". European History Online.
- Štrbac, Savo (2015). Gone with the Storm: A Chronicle of Ethnic Cleansing of Serbs from Croatia. Knin-Banja Luka-Beograd: Grafid, DIC Veritas. ISBN 9789995589806.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ethnic cleansing.|
|Look up ethnic cleansing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Genocide of The Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944–1948
- Photojournalist's Account – Images of ethnic cleansing in Sudan
- Timothy V. Waters, On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law (PDF)
- Dump the "ethnic cleansing" jargon, group implores May 31, 2007, World Science
- Repa, Jan (March 29, 1999). "Ethnic cleansing: Revival of an old tradition". BBC News.