|, HOMG4, URG, epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor|
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. Human EGF is 6-kDa and has 53 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bonds.
EGF was originally described as a secreted peptide found in the submaxillary glands of mice and in human urine. EGF has since been found in many human tissues including submandibular gland (submaxillary gland) and parotid gland. Initially, human EGF was known as urogastrone.
Salivary EGF, which seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, also plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents.
Selected Polypeptide Growth Factors
|Sr.No||Growth factor||Source||Major function|
|1||Epidermal growth factor||Salivary gland||Stimulate growth of epidermal and epithelial cell|
|2||Platelet derived growth factor||Platelets||Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing|
|3||Transforming growth factor (Alpha)||Epithelial cell||Similar to Epidermal growth factor|
|4||Transforming growth factor (Beta)||Platelets, Kidney, Placenta||Inhibitory effect on cultures tumor cell|
|5||Erythropoietin||Kidney||Stimulate development of erythropoietic cells|
|6||Nerve growth factor (NGF)||Salivary gland||Stimulate the growth of sensory nerve|
|7||Insulin like growth factor||Serum||Stimulate incorporation of sulfates into cartilage, exerts insulin like action on certain cell|
|8||Tumor necrosis factor||Monocytes||Necrosis of tumor cells|
|9||Interleukin-1||Monocytes, Leukocytes||Stimulate synthesis of IL-2|
|10||Interleukin-2||Lymphocytes||Stimulate growth and maturation of T-cells|
EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. This stimulates ligand-induced dimerization, activating the intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor (see the second diagram). The tyrosine kinase activity, in turn, initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell – a rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis, and increases in the expression of certain genes including the gene for EGFR – that ultimately lead to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.
EGF-family / EGF-like domain
EGF is the founding member of the EGF-family of proteins. Members of this protein family have highly similar structural and functional characteristics. Besides EGF itself other family members include:
- Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF)
- transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)
- Amphiregulin (AR)
- Epiregulin (EPR)
- Betacellulin (BTC)
- neuregulin-1 (NRG1)
- neuregulin-2 (NRG2)
- neuregulin-3 (NRG3)
- neuregulin-4 (NRG4).
All family members contain one or more repeats of the conserved amino acid sequence:
This sequence contains six cysteine residues that form three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Disulfide bond formation generates three structural loops that are essential for high-affinity binding between members of the EGF-family and their cell-surface receptors.
Recombinant human epidermal growth factor, sold under the brand name Heberprot-P, is used to treat diabetic foot ulcers. It can be given by injection into the wound site, or may be used topically. Tentative evidence shows improved wound healing. Safety has been poorly studied.
EGF plays an enhancer role on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) because it is capable of increasing extracellular matrix mineralization. A low concentration of EGF (10 ng/ml) is sufficient to induce morphological and phenotypic changes. These data suggests that DPSCs in combination with EGF could be an effective stem cell-based therapy to bone tissue engineering applications in periodontics and oral implantology.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epidermal growth factor, EGF.|
- Shaanxi Zhongbang Pharma-Tech Co., Ltd.-Supply of Epidermal Growth Factor
- EGF at the Human Protein Reference Database.
- Epidermal+growth+factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- EGF model in BioModels database