An enemy of the state is a person accused of certain crimes against the state, such as treason. Describing individuals in this way is sometimes a manifestation of political repression. For example, an authoritarian regime may purport to maintain national security by describing social or political dissidents as "enemies of the state." In other cases, the individual in question may have in fact endangered the country and its population.
- In Ancient Rome some parties could be named an enemy of the state through specific public actions resulting in a formally recognized state of war. The Latin term Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is a term for official condemnation of enemies of the state.
- The term "enemy of the people" in the Soviet Union during the period of Stalinism.
- Jews in Nazi Germany, introduced by Adolf Hitler.
- Carlos Lamarca, a Brazilian Army Captain who deserted to become the leader of a left-wing guerrilla against the military dictatorship; Lamarca was the only man in the history of Brazil to receive the status of traitor, being considered an "enemy of the state."
- Leaker of classified U.S. military documents and diplomatic cables Chelsea Manning was charged with "aiding the enemy" (identified as al-Qaeda),.
- Edward Snowden, the American computer specialist who leaked details of top-secret United States and British government mass surveillance programs to the press, has been discussed by opinion writers as being persecuted as an enemy of the state.
- Human rights defenders working on behalf of communities affected by large-scale development projects are increasingly branded as enemies of the state.
- Clive Palmer, an Australian mining magnate, was labelled as such by Mark McGowan, the Premier of Western Australia, when Palmer sued the Western Australian government for not allowing him free entry into the state during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns.
- Justin Raimondo's biography of Murray Rothbard An Enemy of the State: The Life of Murray N. Rothbard.
- Bill Lueders's biography of Erwin Knoll, An Enemy of the State: The Life of Erwin Knoll.
- The fictional character Peter LaNague in the novel An Enemy of the State (The LaNague Federation, Book 1) by F. Paul Wilson.
- The fictional character Emmanuel Goldstein in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell.
- In Resident Evil: Damnation, special agent Leon Kennedy is accused of being an enemy of the State by Svetlana Belikova (first female President of the Eastern Slav Republic) and orders her guards to attack him right after she briefly spars in one on one combat with him.
- The six main characters in Final Fantasy XIII are branded as enemies of the State following the destruction of Cocoon; the main events of the game revolve around them trying to survive and hopefully clear their names.
- Tali'Zorah is accused of treason during her personal quest in Mass Effect 2.
- In the TV series NCIS: New Orleans, the team hunt down a suspect known as "Matt S. O'Feeney," which was an anagram for eneMy OF State. The suspect was a dangerous man wanted by NCIS and Interpol for illegal arms dealing and other criminal activities.
- Constantin Fasolt (2004). The Limits of History. University of Chicago Press. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-0-226-23910-1. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Frank N. Magill (15 April 2013). The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography. Routledge. pp. 1209–. ISBN 978-1-135-45740-2. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Dorling, Philip. "US calls Assange 'enemy of state'", The Sydney Morning Herald. September 27, 2012.
- Tate, Julie & Londoño, Ernesto (July 30, 2013). "Bradley Manning found not guilty of aiding the enemy, convicted on other charges". The Washington Post.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Gellman, Barton; Markon, Jerry (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden says motive behind leaks was to expose 'surveillance state'". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- *Bea Edwards, American Whistleblowers in Prison and in Exile, Huffington Post, August 1, 2013.
- "Rights defenders increasingly branded "enemies of the state" over development projects, UN expert warns". UN Human Rights. October 29, 2013. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "'I think he's the enemy of Australia': McGowan ramps up war of words with Palmer on WA border battle". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 31, 2020. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
- Justin Raimondo, An Enemy of the State:The Life of Murray N. Rothbard, Prometheus Books, 2000, ISBN 1615922393
- Bill Lueders, An Enemy of the State: The Life of Erwin Knoll, Common Courage Press, 1996, ISBN 1567510981
- F. Paul Wilson, An Enemy of the State (The LaNague Federation, Book 1), Infrapress, 2005, ISBN 0976654423
- Clip from Resident Evil 6, on YouTube.