|Empress consort of Qing|
|Tenure||August 1636 – 21 September 1643|
|Empress dowager of Qing|
|Tenure||21 September 1643 – 28 May 1649|
31 May 1599
(萬曆二十七年 閏四月 八日)
|Died||28 May 1649 (aged 49)|
(順治六年 四月 十八日)
(m. 1614; died 1643)
|Issue||Princess Wenzhuang of the First Rank|
Princess Jingduan of the First Rank
Princess Yong'an of the First Rank
|House||Borjigit (博爾濟吉特; by birth)|
Aisin Gioro (by marriage)
|Romanization||hiyoošungga doronggo genggiyen šu hūwangheo|
- Father: Manggusi (莽古思), held the title of a first rank prince (親王)
- One elder brother and one younger brother
- Two younger sisters
The future Empress Xiaoduanwen was born on the eighth day of the intercalary fourth lunar month in the 27th year of the reign of the Wanli Emperor, which translates to 31 May 1599 in the Gregorian calendar.
On 28 May 1614, Lady Borjigit married Hong Taiji and became one of his multiple wives.
In 1623, Hong Taiji divorced his second primary consort, and elevated Lady Borjigit to the position.
Lady Borjigit's niece, Bumbutai, the future Empress Xiaozhuangwen, would marry Hong Taiji in March or April 1625.
Lady Borjigit gave birth in 1625 to Hong Taiji's second daughter, Princess Wenzhuang of the First Rank, on 2 August 1628 to his third daughter, Princess Jingduan of the First Rank, and on 7 October 1634 to his eighth daughter, Princess Yong'an of the First Rank.
Another niece, Harjol, the future primary consort Minhui, would marry Hong Taiji on 6 December 1634.
When Hong Taiji conferred titles on his five primary spouses in August 1636, he instated Lady Borjigit as his empress.
Following Hong Taiji's death on 21 September 1643, Lady Borjigit was honoured as "Mother Empress, Empress Dowager" by the Shunzhi Emperor, Hong Taiji's ninth son and successor. The emperor's birth mother, Bumbutai, was similarly honoured as "Holy Mother, Empress Dowager".
Lady Borjigit died on 28 May 1649 and was interred in the Zhao Mausoleum. She was posthumously honoured with the title "Empress Xiaoduanwen".
- During the reign of the Wanli Emperor (r. 1572–1620):
- Lady Borjigit (from 31 May 1599)
- Secondary consort (側福晉; from 28 May 1614)
- During the reign of Nurhaci (r. 1616–1626):
- Primary consort (大福晉; from 1623)
- During the reign of Hong Taiji (r. 1626–1643):
- Empress (皇后; from August 1636)
- During the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor (r. 1643–1661):
- Empress Dowager (皇太后; from 21 September 1643)
- Empress Xiaoduanwen (孝端文皇后; from 1649)
- As primary consort:
- Princess Wenzhuang of the First Rank (固倫溫莊公主; 1625–1663), personal name Makata (馬喀塔), Hong Taiji's second daughter
- Princess Jingduan of the First Rank (固倫靖端公主; 2 August 1628 – June/July 1686), Hong Taiji's third daughter
- Married Kitad (奇塔特; d. 1653) of the Khorchin Borjigit clan in 1639
- Princess Yong'an of the First Rank (固倫永安公主; 7 October 1634 – February/March 1692), Hong Taiji's eighth daughter
- Married Bayasihulang (巴雅斯護朗) of the Khorchin Borjigit clan in 1645
In fiction and popular culture
- Portrayed by Mang Lai-ping in The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty (1987)
- Portrayed by Wu Qianqian in Xiaozhuang Mishi (2003)
- Portrayed by Wang Yanhui in Rule the World (2017)
- 萬曆四十二年 四月 二十日
- 崇德元年 七月
- 崇德八年 八月 九日
- Hummel, Arthur W. (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). United States Government Printing Office.
- Wan, Yi; Shuqing, Wang; Yanzhen, Lu; Scott, Rosemary E. (1988). Daily Life in the Forbidden City: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912 (Illustrated ed.). Viking. ISBN 0670811645.
- Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese). Volume 214.
House of Borjigin (Боржигин) (1206–1649)
| Empress of the Qing dynasty
(Empress of the Qing dynasty but never Empress of China)
1636 – 21 September 1643
(As Empress of both China and the Qing dynasty)
Empress Dowager Xiaochun
| Empress Dowager of China
21 September 1643 – 1649
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang