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The President of Mexico is elected for a six-year term by the people. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even if he or she does not have an absolute majority.
Since no President can serve more than a single term in office, every presidential election in Mexico is a non-incumbent election.
The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 members, elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies. The 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats (Parallel voting), but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats (a party must win 42% of the votes for the PR-seats to achieve an overall majority). There are two exceptions on this rule: first, a party can only lose PR-seats due to this rule (and no plurality-seats); second, a party can never get more than 300 seats overall (even if it has more than 52% of the votes for the PR-seats).
The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the nation's 31 states and one Federal District) and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up.
At the local level, each of Mexico's 31 constituent states elects a governor to serve a six-year term; they also elect legislative deputies who sit in state congresses, and municipal presidents (presidentes municipales, or mayors). The Federal District (Mexico City) elects a Head of Government in lieu of a mayor, district assemblymen in lieu of state congressional deputies, and borough heads in lieu of municipal presidents.
Mexico has a multi-party system, with three dominant political parties, prior to 2000 Mexico had a Dominant-party system dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party, and a number of smaller ones. Alliances and coalitions are common; normally, they are local (state) affairs and involve one of the big three and any number of minor parties; on extraordinary occasions, two of the big three will ally themselves against the third (see, for example, 2003 Colima state election or 2004 Chihuahua state election).
National Congress (June)
National Congress (July)
|President and vice president||None|
|National Congress||All seats||None||All seats||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||None||All positions||None|
National Congress (December)
National Congress (December)
|National Congress||1 December||None||1 December||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||None||1 December||None|
2012 General election
|Enrique Peña Nieto||Institutional Revolutionary Party||18,727,398||38.15|
|Andrés Manuel López Obrador||Party of the Democratic Revolution||15,535,117||31.64|
|Josefina Vázquez Mota||National Action Party||12,473,106||25.40|
|Gabriel Quadri de la Torre||New Alliance Party||1,129,108||2.36|
|Source: PREP (98.95% of polling stations reporting)|
Chamber of Deputies election
|Source: PREP (98.79% of polling stations reporting)|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||15,679,729||33.1||11||17,119,854||37.3||46||57||+19|
|National Action Party||13,245,088||27.9||9||12,783,068||27.8||29||38||–14|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||9,353,879||19.7||6||13,288,983||28.9||17||23||–13|
|Ecologist Green Party of Mexico||2,881,923||6.1||2||867,056||1.9||2||4||+4|
|New Alliance Party (Mexico)||1,855,403||3.9||1||1,796,816||3.9||0||1||0|
|Source: Adam Carr|
- 2009 Mexican local elections
- 2008 Mexican local elections
- 2007 Mexican local elections
- 2006 Mexican local elections
- 2005 Mexican local elections
- 2004 Mexican local elections
- 2003 Mexican local elections