Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine, New Hampshire, and the eastern half of Massachusetts. Features of this variety once spanned an even larger dialect area of New England, for example, including the eastern half of Vermont as recently as the mid-twentieth century. Studies vary as to whether the unique dialect of Rhode Island falls within the Eastern New England dialect region.
Eastern New England English (here, including Rhode Island English) is classically associated with sound patterns such as non-rhoticity (or dropping r when not before a vowel); both variants of Canadian raising, including a fairly back starting position of the /aʊ/ vowel (as in MOUTH); and some variation of the PALM–LOT–THOUGHT vowel distinctions, the marry–merry distinction, or both. Certain Eastern New England English characteristics are retreating as some younger Eastern New Englanders avoid them, particularly non-rhoticity and the aforementioned distinctions, which they tend to perceive as old-fashioned, rural-sounding, or negatively associated with working-class Boston. New Hampshire speakers on the whole are particularly well-documented as retreating from those features since the mid-twentieth century onwards.
Overview of phonology
The sound system of traditional Eastern New England English includes:
- Non-rhoticity: The r sound may be "dropped" or "silent" if it is not before a vowel; therefore, in words like car, letter, horse, poor, etc. The feature is retreating and is not found in many younger speakers, for example, in virtually no speakers born since the mid-1900s in southeastern New Hampshire.
- Linking and intrusive r: The non-rhotic r may be pronounced after all if it is followed by a vowel, even a vowel that begins the next word in the sentence. Also, any word that ends in /ə/ (as in Cuba), /ɑ/ (as in spa), or /ɔ/ (as in law) can be followed by an unwritten r sound when followed by a vowel sound in the next word: thus, law and public safety sounds like Lauren public safety.
- Backing of /u/: The vowel of goose, rude, coup, etc. remains pronounced relatively far back in the mouth.
- Horse–hoarse merger in transition: The vowel of words like war versus wore, or morning versus mourning, are mostly produced either very close or the same in Eastern New England; however, as of the early 2000s, such vowels may still be pronounced differently by some Eastern New England speakers, especially in Maine. Conversely, the merger of the vowels is largely complete elsewhere in the United States.
- Full Canadian raising: The tongue is raised in the first element of the gliding vowel /aɪ/ (help·info) as well as /aʊ/ (help·info) whenever either appears before a voiceless consonant. Therefore, a word like house /haʊs/ is often [hɜʊs~hɐʊs].
- Backing of /aʊ/: The vowel of gouge, loud, town, power, etc. has a relatively back-of-mouth starting position: thus, something like [ɑ̈ʊ].
- Lack of mary–marry–merry merger: Before intervocalic /r/, the vowels /ɛə/ (/eɪ/ in rhotic varieties), /æ/ and /ɛ/ (as in Mary, marry, and merry) are distinguished from one another. However, recent studies have shown that there is an emerging tendency in Northeastern New England to merge them to some extent. In contrast, Southeastern New England (namely, Rhode Island) continues to keep them all separate, as in the New York City area and Britain.
- "Short a" nasal system: The "short a" sound /æ/ may be tensed in various environments, though most severely before a nasal consonant; therefore, in words like man, clam, Annie, etc.
- Fronting of /ɑr/: The vowel of words like car, park, heart, stark, etc. is pronounced farther to the front of the vocal tract than in most other dialects, so that car, for example, is something like [kʰaː]. This, plus non-rhoticity, is often associated with the shibboleth "Park the car in Harvard yard." This fronting is seldom reported in Rhode Island, in which car is more often backed [kʰɑː].
Overview of vocabulary
The terms "frappe" to mean "thick milkshake"; "bubbler" (also found in Wisconsin) to mean "water fountain"; and "tonic" to mean "sweet carbonated soft drink" (called "soda" elsewhere in New England), are largely unique to northeastern (and, to a lesser extent, southeastern) New England English vocabulary. Using "jimmies" to mean "(chocolate) sprinkles" is primarily a phenomenon of the Boston area, though also stably reported in Maine, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. In addition to the widespread term "wicked," the word "pisser," often phonetically spelled "pissa(h)," is another Northeastern New England intensifier (plus sometimes an uncountable noun) for something that is very highly regarded by the speaker.
Northeastern New England English
Northeastern New England English, popularly recognized as a Boston or Maine accent, in addition to all the above phonological features, further includes the merger of the vowel in cot and caught to [ɒ~ɑ], often with a slightly rounded quality, but a resistance to the merger of the vowels in father versus bother, a merger that is otherwise common throughout North America. Also, for speakers born before 1950, the words half and pass (and, before World War II, also ask and can't) are pronounced with a "broad a," like in spa: [haf] and [pas].
Boston, Massachusetts is the birthplace and most famous site of Eastern New England English. Historically, a Northeastern type of New England English spread from metropolitan Boston into metropolitan Worcester, the bulk of New Hampshire, and central and coastal Maine. Boston speech also originated many slang and uniquely local terms that have since spread throughout Massachusetts and Eastern New England. Although mostly non-rhotic, the modern Boston accent typically pronounces the r sound in the NURSE vowel, /ɜr/, as in bird, learn, turkey, world, etc.
The old Maine accent, the closest remnant today to an old Yankee regional accent, includes the phonology mentioned above, plus the breaking of /ɛə/ (as in there), /ɪə/ (as in here), and /oə/ (as in more) each into two syllables: they-uh, hee-yuh, and moh-uh; some distinct vocabulary is also used in this accent. Maine is one of the last American regions to resist the horse–hoarse merger. This continued resistance was verified by some speakers in a 2006 study of Bangor and Portland, Maine, yet contradicted by a 2013 study that reported the merger as embraced by Portland speakers "of all ages". The traditional horse–hoarse separation means that words like war and wore may sound different: war rhyming with law, and wore rhyming with boa. Unlike the Boston accent, this traditional Maine accent may be non-rhotic entirely: even in the pronunciation of /ɜr/.
Notable lifelong native speakers
- Ken Beatrice — "... the New England native with the pronounced Boston accent"
- Calvin Coolidge — "r-less New Englander"
- Lenny Clarke — "a Cambridge-raised verbal machine gun with a raspy Boston accent"
- Nick DiPaolo — "thick Boston accent"
- Edward "Ted" Kennedy — "No one else from Boston, or anywhere in New England, has imprinted the regional accent on the national consciousness as Senator Kennedy did."
- Mel King — "he has the soft R's of a deep Boston accent"
- Lyndon LaRouche — "a cultivated New England accent"
- Christy Mihos — "speaks unpretentiously in a variation of a Boston accent, and drops the 'g' in words like talking or running."
- Brian and Jim Moran— "The Moran brothers share[...] an unmistakable Massachusetts accent"
- Tom Silva — "New England accent"
- Jermaine Wiggins — "skin as thick as his East Boston accent"
Rhode Island English
The traditional Southeastern New England English accent, popularly known as a Rhode Island accent, is spoken in Rhode Island and the western half of Bristol County, Massachusetts. In addition to all the features mentioned under the phonology section above, the Rhode Island accent also includes a sharp distinction in the vowels of Mary, marry, and merry and in the vowels in cot [ɑ] versus caught [oə], plus the pronunciation of /ɑr/, as in car, far back in the mouth as [ɑ~ɑə]—these three features making this New England accent noticeably similar to a New York accent. These features are often unlike the modern Northeastern New England (NENE) dialect of Boston, as is Rhode Island's feature of a completed father–bother merger, shared with the rest of the country outside of NENE. A few terms are unique only to this area, such as the word cabinet to mean "milkshake" (particularly, coffee cabinets), pizza strips (Italian tomato pie strips served cold without cheese), and coffee milk.
Notable lifelong native speakers
- John Chafee — a non-rhotic, "New England accent"
- "Pauly D" DelVecchio — "the thickest Rhode Island accent"
- Henry Giroux
- Spalding Gray — "his demeanor is as flat as his Rhode Island accent"
- Chris Herren — "with a Fall River accent he bellows"
An ethnic local accent has been documented among self-identifying French Americans in Manchester, New Hampshire. The accent's most prominent pronunciation features are th-stopping (pronouncing thin like tin and there like dare) and, variably, word-initial h-dropping (so that hair may sound like air).
- Robert Hendrickson (2000). The Facts on File Dictionary of American Regionalisms. Infobase. p. 326.
- Sletcher, Michael (2004). New England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 264
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:137)
- Stanford et al. (2012: 130)
- Stanford et al. (2012: 161)
- See, for example, that Labov's 2006 Atlas of North American English frequently includes Providence/Rhode Island under this general dialect, yet his 1997 Regional Telsur Map does not.
- Nagy & Roberts (2004:276)
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:154, 227)
- Stanford et al. (2012: 154)
- Stanford et al. (2014: 120)
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:226)
- Stanford et al. (2012: 160-1)
- Platt, Melanie, "Do you "park your car" or "pahk your cah?: The Changing Dialect of Southern New Hampshire" (2015). Inquiry Journal 2015. 5. http://scholars.unh.edu/inquiry_2015/5
- Nagy, Naomi (2001). " 'Live Free or Die' as a Linguistic Principle". American Speech, Volume 76, Number 1, Spring 2001, pp. 30-41.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:154)
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:227)
- Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 156.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:111)
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder. 2003. "What do you call the drink made with milk and ice cream?." The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder. 2003. "What do you call the thing from which you might drink water in a school?." The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder. 2003. "What is your generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage?." The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Jan Freeman (March 13, 2011). "The Jimmies Story: Can an ice cream topping be racist?". boston.com. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Kim, Chaeyoon (2016). "A large-scale online study of dialect variation in the US Northeast: Crowdsourcing with Amazon Mechanical Turk". Dartmouth Senior Theses Presentations.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg2006:225)
- Fowles, Debby (2015). "Speak Like a Mainer". About Travel. About.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Ryland, Alison (2013). "A Phonetic Exploration of the English of Portland, Maine". Swarthmore College.
- Shapiro, Leonard (June 2, 2010). "Top 10: Dialing up the best in Washington sports radio". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Metcalf, A. (2004). Presidential Voices. Speaking Styles from George Washington to George W. Bush. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 150.
- Sullivan, Jim (2001-04-18). "Lenny Clarke Deftly Handles Nightschtick". The Boston Globe.
- Calhoun, Ada (2004-03-29). "Did You Hear The One About The @&%#! Comic?". New York. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- Healy, Patrick (2009-09-02). "A Mannah of Speaking". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Concannon, Jim (May 12, 2009). "Mel's Vision". The Boston Globe.
- King, Dennis (1989). Lyndon LaRouche and the New American Fascism. New York: Doubleday. p. 306.
- Mooney, Brian C. (2006-02-19). "The nonpolitician who would be governor". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
- Gardner, Amy (2009-02-11). "A Time to Reevaluate Family Ties". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Bizjak, Marybeth (February 2007). "Mr. Fix-It". Sacramento Magazine. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- Jensen, Sean (2004-12-03). "Despite his unlikely build, Vikings' Wiggins gets it done at tight end". Saint Paul Pioneer Press. Archived from the original on 2014-06-11. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
- Johnson, Daniel Ezra (2010). "[danielezrajohnson.com/johnson_2010.pdf Stability and Change Along a Dialect Boundary: The Low Vowels of Southeastern New England]". American Dialect Society 95. p. 100.
- "Guide to Rhode Island Language Stuff". Quahog.org. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- "This phonemic and phonetic arrangement of the low back vowels makes Rhode Island more similar to New York City than to the rest of New England".Labov, Ash & Ash (2006:226)
- Boberg, Charles (2001). "The Phonological Status of Western New England". American Speech. 76 (1): 28, 3–29. doi:10.1215/00031283-76-1-3.
- Musto, Marisa (2018). "Famed Rhode Island Foods". AAA Northeast.
- Brady, James (1997). "Don't Spend Any Time Trying to Detonate John Chafee". Advertising Age.
- "Raffert Meets the Press". John Carroll University. 2011.
'Pauly D has the thickest Rhode Island accent I've ever heard,' [Brian] Williams told us.
- De Vries, Hilary (1990). "Spalding Gray : His New Favorite Subject--Him". Los Angeles Times.
- Barboza, Scott (2011). [www.espn.com/boston/columns/story?columnist=barboza_scott&id=6584856 The rise, fall and recovery of a phenom]". ESPN. ESPN.
- Nagy & Roberts (2004:278)
- Nagy & Roberts (2004:296)
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
- Nagy, Naomi; Roberts, Juli (2004), "New England phonology" (PDF), in Schneider, E., K., B. Kortmann, R., and C.; Burridge, K.; Mesthrie, R.; Upton, C. (eds.), Handbook of Varieties of English, 1, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 270–281
- Stanford, James N.; Leddy-Cecere, Thomas A.; Baclawski Jr., Kenneth P. "Farewell To The Founders: Major Dialect Changes Along The East-West New England Border." American Speech 87.2 (2012): pp. 126–169. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 2 Nov. 2015.
- Stanford, James N.; Severance, Nathan A.; Baclawski Jr., Kenneth P. "Multiple vectors of unidirectional dialect change in eastern New England." Language Variation and Change (2014) Vol.26(1), pp. 103–140.