Usage by language
Dz generally represents /d͡z/ in Latin alphabets, including Hungarian, Kashubian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Slovak. However, in Dene Suline (Chipewyan) and Cantonese Pinyin it represents /t͡s/, and in Vietnamese it is a pronunciation respelling of the letter D to represent /z/.
Some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto, consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate [d͡z], as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak". Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists (Janton, Wells), reject it.
In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g.
- boǳa, maǳag, eǳ, peǳ
In some other ones, short, e.g.
- brinǳa, ǳaǳíki, ǳéta, Dzerzsinszkij
In several verbs ending in -ǳik (approximately fifty), it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g.
- csókolóǳik, lopóǳik, takaróǳik
In some verbs ⟨dz⟩ can be replaced by ⟨z⟩: csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik, in free variation. In other verbs, there is no variation: birkózik, mérkőzik (only with ⟨z⟩) but leledzik, nyáladzik (only with ⟨dz⟩, pronounced long). In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez(ik) "to correspond", but leveledzik "to produce leaves".
Examples of ǳ
- meǳi = between, among
- hráǳa = dam, dike
The digraph may never be divided by hyphenation:
- medzi → me-dzi
- hrádza → hrá-dza
However, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, and must be divided by hyphenation:
- odzemok = type of folk dance → od-ze-mok
- nadzvukový = supersonic → nad-zvu-ko-vý
In both cases od- (from) and nad- (above) are a prefix to the stems zem (earth) and zvuk (sound).
ǲ is sometimes used in Vietnamese names as a pronunciation respelling of the letter D. Several common Vietnamese given names start with the letter D, including Dũng, Dụng, and Dương. Whereas D is pronounced as some sort of dental or alveolar stop in most Latin alphabets, an unadorned D in the Vietnamese alphabet represents either /z/ (Hanoian) or /j/ (Saigonese), while the letter Đ represents a voiced alveolar implosive (/ɗ/) or, according to Thompson (1959), a preglottalized voiced alveolar stop (/ʔd/). Z is not included in the Vietnamese alphabet as a letter in its own right.
Many Vietnamese cultural figures spell their family names, pen names, or stage names with ǲ instead of D, emphasizing the Hanoian pronunciation. Examples include the songwriter Dzoãn Mẫn, the poet Hồ Dzếnh, and the television chef Nguyễn Dzoãn Cẩm Vân. Other examples include Bùi Dzinh and Trương Đình Dzu.
Some Overseas Vietnamese residing in English-speaking countries also replace D with ǲ in their names. A male named Dũng may spell his name ǲung to avoid being called "dung" in social contexts. Examples of this usage include Vietnamese-Americans Việt Dzũng and Dzung Tran. (Occasionally, D is instead replaced by Y to emphasize the Saigonese pronunciation, as with Yung Krall.)
Ǳ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block. It is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, and lowercase forms.
|U+01F1||Ǳ||Latin Capital Letter DZ|
|U+01F2||ǲ||Latin Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z|
|U+01F3||ǳ||Latin Small Letter DZ|
Additional variants of the ǲ digraph are also encoded in Unicode.
- Ǆ, ǅ and ǆ (ǲ with a caron over z), a digraph used in the Croatian, Bosnian, and Slovak alphabets as a letter in its own right, are encoded at U+01C4, U+01C5 and U+01C6 respectively.
- ʣ, a ligature of lowercase ǳ, historically used to represent the Voiced alveolar affricate in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is encoded at U+02A3.
- ʥ, a ligature of lowercase ǳ with a curl on the z, historically used to represent the Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate in the IPA, is encoded at U+02A5.
- ꭦ, a ligature of lowercase ǳ with retroflex hook, used in Sinological and Tibetanist transcription for a voiced retroflex affricate, is encoded at U+AB66.
- ʤ (dezh), a ligature of lowercase d and ezh (a z with a tail), is encoded at U+02A4.
- Nguyên Nguyên (May 2004). "Từ chữ Nôm đến quốc ngữ: Dzương Quí Phi và Cơm Gà Hải Nam" [From chữ Nôm to the Vietnamese alphabet: Dzương Quí Phi and Hainanese chicken rice] (in Vietnamese). Ái Hữu Công Chánh. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, §17, 22
- van Oostendorp, Marc (1999). Syllable structure in Esperanto as an instantiation of universal phonology. Esperantologio / Esperanto Studies 1, 52 80. p. 68
- Pierre Janton, Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Translated by Humphrey Tonkin et al. State University of New York Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1254-7.
- J. C. Wells, Lingvistikaj Aspektoj de Esperanto, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1978. ISBN 92 9017 021 2.
- Thompson, Laurence (1959). "Saigon phonemics". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 35 (3): 458–461. doi:10.2307/411232. JSTOR 411232.
- "Thói quen đặt tên có chữ "Dz" của người xưa là do đâu?" [Where did the old practice of putting "Dz" in names come from?]. Trí Thức Trẻ (in Vietnamese). December 2, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2015 – via Kenh14.vn.
- Minh Anh (February 20, 2011). "Câu chuyện về gia đình nữ cựu điệp viên CIA gốc Việt" [The story of the family of a Vietnamese former CIA spy]. Voice of America (in Vietnamese). Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Everson, Michael (2017-08-17). "L2/17-299: Proposal to add two Sinological Latin letters" (PDF).