The H2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. H2 antagonists are used in the treatment of dyspepsia, although they have been surpassed in popularity by the more effective proton pump inhibitors.
H2 receptor antagonists are named using the suffix "-tidine".
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. They are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available. The group followed and has largely superseded another group of pharmaceuticals with similar effects, but a different mode of action, called H2-receptor antagonists. These drugs are among the most widely sold drugs in the world, and are generally considered effective. When these medications are used long term, the lowest effective dose should be taken. They may also be taken only when symptoms occur in those with frequent problems. H2 receptor blockers lead to roughly a 40% improvement.
Proton-pump inhibitors are named using the suffix "-prazole".
There is a correlation between the use of PPIs and the risk of dementia.
A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring.
They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects, such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue. There are many prostaglandins with many effects. Prostaglandin E2 has effects including reducing gastric acid and increasing gastric mucus, which among other effects treat acid-related disorders.
Prostaglandins are named using the root term "-prost-".
Other drugs which have been used to treat acid-related disorders are not part of the above categories and function through a variety of mechanisms.
Alternative methods for reducing acid production
Availability of drugs
|Availability of drugs for acid-related disorders|
|drug||class||Examples of countries where some dosages are available without prescription||Examples of countries where available in generic form|
|Omeprazole||PPI||United States||United States|
|Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate||PPI||United States|
|Ranitidine||H2 antagonist||United States|
(only 10 mg)
|H2 antagonist||Russian Federation|
(both 75 and 150 mg)
|H2 antagonist||Russian Federation||Russian Federation|
- Eriksson S, Långström G, Rikner L, Carlsson R, Naesdal J. Omeprazole and H2-receptor antagonists in the acute treatment of duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and reflux oesophagitis: a meta-analysis [published correction appears in Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;8:192]. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995;7:467-475
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- read, Rick Nauert PhD Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 ~ 1 min (2016-02-16). "Medications for GI Reflux and Ulcers Tied to Higher Risk for Dementia". psychcentral.com. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
- Nelson, Randy F. (2005). An introduction to behavioral endocrinology (3rd ed.). Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-87893-617-5.
- Consumer Reports; Drug Effectiveness Review Project (May 2010). "Drugs to Treat Heartburn and Stomach Acid Reflux: The Proton Pump Inhibitors - Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price" (PDF). Best Buy Drugs. Consumer Reports: 2. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "State Register of Medicinal Products. "Quamatel mini" (famotidine 10 mg tablets) Full Prescribing Information". Russian State Register of Medicinal Products (in Russian). p. 3. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "State Register of Medicinal Products. "Ranisan" (ranitidine 75 and 150 mg tablets) Full Prescribing Information". Russian State Register of Medicinal Products (in Russian). Retrieved 18 June 2015.