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|Earl of Clancarty|
|Predecessor||Charles, 1st Viscount Muskerry|
|Successor||Charles, 2nd Earl of Clancarty|
|Died||5 August 1665|
|Father||Charles, 1st Viscount Muskerry|
Sir Donough MacCarthy (Irish: Donnchadh Mac Cárthaigh), 1st Earl of Clancarty, 2nd Viscount Muskerry (1594–1665), was a leader of the Irish Confederation. He led the Confederates' Munster army during most of the Irish Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. He belonged to the moderate faction, which wanted to collaborate with the royalists against the Commonwealth and the Covenanters. Still resisting in 1652, he was one of the last to surrender. In 1658, in exile, Charles II created him Earl of Clancarty. He recovered his lands at the Restoration.
Birth and origins
Donough was born in 1594, probably at Blarney Castle, the seat of his parents. He was the second but first surviving son of Charles MacCarty and his first wife Margaret O'Brien. His father was the 1st Viscount of Muskerry. His father's family was the MacCarthy of Muskerry dynasty, a Gaelic Irish family that descended from the kings of Desmond. Donough's mother was the eldest daughter of Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond, another important Gaelic Irish dynasty. His parents married about 1590.
|Donough listed among his brothers|
|He was the younger of two brothers:|
Early life, marriage, and children
Little is known about MacCarty's youth, perhaps because he lived in the shadow of his older brother Cormac. MacCarty was knighted before 1634. Having become Sir Donough MacCarty, he married Eleanor Butler (1612–1682), eldest daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles some time before 1633 as his eldest son was born in 1633 or 1634.[a] This marriage made him a brother-in-law of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond.
Donough and Eleanor had five children, three sons:
- Cormac, later known as Charles (1633 or 1634 – 1665), slain in the Battle of Lowestoft predeceased his father
- Callaghan (c. 1638 – 1676), succeeded his brother's son as the 3rd Earl of Clancarty
- Justin (c. 1643 – 1694), fought for the Jacobites and became Viscount Mountcashel
—and two daughters:
- Helen (died 1722), married 1st John FitzGerald of Dromana and 2ndly the 7th Earl of Clanricarde
- Margaret (died 1703), married Luke Plunket, 3rd Earl of Fingal
Already in his forties, Sir Donough MacCarty sat in the Irish House of Commons in the Irish parliament of 1634 as member for County Cork and again for the same constituency in the parliament of 1640 where he served as a member of the committee that presented grieveances to King Charles.
About 1638 King Charles I created Sir Donough MacCarty a baronet in the peerage of Nova Scotia.
His elder brother having predeceased his father, he succeeded in 1640 at the age of forty-six as the 2nd Viscount Muskerry. As he would be promoted Earl of Clancarty only in 1657, he was known as Lord Muskerry during the events of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Confederate Wars and the Cromwellian conquest.
Ireland suffered 11 years of war from 1641 to 1652, which are usually decomposed into the Rebellion of 1641, the Confederate Wars, and the Cromwellian Conquest. Muskerry was not involved in the Rebellion but fought in the other two.
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 was launched by Phelim O'Neill from the northern province of Ulster in October 1641. Initially, Muskerry raised an armed force of his tenants and dependants to try to maintain law and order. However, he was soon prompted to join the rebellion by the atrocities committed by the English President of Munster, William St Leger, against the Irish Catholic population in general.
In March 1642 Muskerry joined the confederates. He participated in the Siege of Limerick, 18 May to 23 June. He was part of the team that negotiated with Charles I and his representative in Ireland, James Butler, Earl of Ormond, to secure an alliance between the Irish Confederates and English Royalists in the context of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Ormond was his brother-in-law. Muskerry was sympathetic towards royalism and disliked the more intransigent clerical faction of the Confederates led by Giovanni Battista Rinuccini and Owen Roe O'Neill.
Muskerry took over the command of the Confederate Munster army from Barry some time after its defeat on 3 September 1642 at the Battle of Liscarroll against Inchiquin. Muskerry commanded the foot of the Munster army at the Cloghleagh where the Irish horse under Castlehaven, seconded from the Leinster Army, routed a detachment of Inchiquin's troops.
In 1646 just after the Confederate Ulster army's victory at the Benburb Muskerry with the Confederate Munster army captured Bunratty Castle in mid-July 1646 from the Parliamentarians. Early in August 1647 Muskerry resigned as general of the Confederate Munster Army. The Confederate Supreme Council gave this command to Viscount Taaffe, who lost the Battle of Knocknanauss on 13 November 1647 against English and Munster Protestant troops under Inchiquin. Muskerry sent his eldest son, Charles, at the head of a regiment to France.
In 1649, shortly after the execution of Charles I and the declaration of the Commonwealth of England, the Confederates eventually approved a treaty with Charles II and the English Royalists. However, Ireland was soon invaded by the Parliamentarian New Model Army in 1649 under Oliver Cromwell, who had the aims of avenging the uprising of 1641, confiscating enough Irish Catholic owned land to pay off some of the Parliament's creditors, and eliminating a dangerous outpost of royalism.
Muskerry fought the last three years of this campaign in his own lands in western Cork and Kerry, from where he raised troops from his tenants and guerrilla bands known as "tories". He tried to relieve the siege of Limerick in 1651 but was intercepted and defeated on 26 July 1651 by General Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, later Earl of Orerry, in the Battle of Knocknaclashy (also called Knockbrack), near Banteer, east of Killarney, and never came near Limerick, which surrendered on 27 October. Knocknaclashy was the last pitched battle of the war. Limerick fell on 27 October 1651 and Siege of Galway followed on 12 May 1652. marked the effective end of the Confederacy's resistance to Cromwell's invasion.
Muskerry fell back into the mountains of Kerry. On 27 June 1652 he surrendered to Edmund Ludlow, handing over his last stronghold Ross Castle near Killarney and disbanding his 5000-men army. One of his sons was with him in Ross Castle and was given to Ludlow as hostage to guarantee his father's compliance with the terms. This son must have been Callaghan, his the second son, as his eldest, Cormac, was away in France and Justin was only about nine years old and probably with his mother in France.
He was allowed to embark to Spain. He lost his estates in the Act of Settlement of 1652. His name is the eighth on the list of over 100 men who were excluded from pardon. He found that he was not welcome in Spain because he had opposed Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, the papal nuncio. He therefore returned to Ireland in 1653, where he was put on trial in Dublin, being accused of having been responsible for the murder of English settlers in 1641 during their evacuation from his house at Macroom to Cork. However, it was established that he had tried to protect them and he was acquitted.
After his acquittal he was again allowed to embark to Spain, but he seems to have gone to France where his family had already moved some time before the capture of Ross Castle. His wife lived with her sister Mary Butler, Lady Hamilton, in the convent of the Feuillantines in Paris, and his daughter Helen was sent to boarding school at the abbey of Cistercian nuns of Port-Royal-des-Champs, near Versailles, together with her cousin Elizabeth Hamilton. In 1657 Charles II sent Muskerry, together with Sir George Hamilton to Madrid on a fruitless diplomatic mission. Charles II, in exile at Brussels in 1658, rewarded him with the title of Earl of Clancarty.
Later life, death, and timeline
At the restoration Clancarty, as he was now, and his family returned to the British Isles. He eventually recovered his estates under the Act of Settlement of 1662.
In 1665 his son Charles, Lord Muskerry, was killed in the Battle of Lowestoft, a naval engagement with the Dutch during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667). Charles left an infant son, also called Charles, who became heir apparent.
Clancarty died in London on 4 August 1665. He was succeeded by Charles's infant as the 2nd Earl of Clancarty but little Charles's reign lasted less than two months as he died on 22 September 1666. The succession then reverted to Donough's second son Callaghan, who succeeded as the 3rd Earl of Clancarty.
|As only the year, but not the month and day, of his birth is known, his age could be a year younger than given.|
|0||1594||Born, probably at Blarney Castle.|
|31||1625, 27 Mar||Accession of King Charles I, succeeding King James I|
|38||1632, about||Married Eleanor Butler, eldest sister of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond.|
|39||1633 or 1634||Eldest son Cormac or Charles born.|
|40||1634||Sat as MP for County Cork in the Irish Parliament.|
|44||c. 1638||Created Baronet MacCarty by Charles I|
|46||1640||Succeeded his father as 2nd Viscount Muskerry.|
|49||1643, Mar||Joins the confederates.|
|49||1643, about||Youngest son Justin born.|
|49||1643, 4 Jun||Commanded the foot at the Battle of Cloughleagh and arrived too late.|
|52||1646, 5 Jun||Confederate victory at the Battle of Benburb|
|52||1646, Jul||Besieged and captured Bunratty Castle.|
|55||1649, 15 Aug||Oliver Cromwell landed in Dublin.|
|57||1651, early||His wife and children fled to France;|
|57||1651, 16 Jul||Defeated at the Battle of Knocknaclashy.|
|58||1652, 12 May||Fall of Galway.|
|58||1652, 27 Jun||Surrendered at Ross Castle.|
|64||1658, 14 Jun N.S.||His son Charles fights at the Battle of the Dunes|
|64||1658, 27 Nov||Created Earl of Clancarty by Charles II at Brussels;|
|66||1660, 29 May||Restoration of King Charles II.|
|66||1660||Returned to England and Ireland with the Restoration.|
|71||1665, 3 Jun||Son Charles killed in the Battle of Lowestoft, a naval engagement with the Dutch.|
|71||1665, 4 Aug||Died in London.|
- Cokayne 1913, p. 214, line 19: "Donough MacCarty ... was b. 1594;"
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 26: "Blarney Castle, just north of Cork City and 'a place of great strength' was the family's principal residence."
- O'Hart 1892, p. 122: "CORMAC MACCARTY MOR, Prince of Desmond (see the MacCarty Mór Stem, No. 115,) had a second son, Dermod Mór, of Muscry (now Muskerry) who was the ancestor of MacCarthy, lords of Muscry and earls of Clan Carthy."
- Burke 1866, p. 406, left column: "DONOGH O'BRIEN, 4th Earl of Thomond, and lord-president of Munster, called "the great earl", m. 1st Ellen, dau. of Maurice, Lord Viscount Roche of Fermoy, and had a dau., Margaret, m. to Charles McCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry."
- Cokayne 1893, p. 425: "He [Charles MacCarty] m. firstly, about 1590, Margaret, da. of Donough (O'Brien), 4th Earl of Thomond..."
- Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 25: "I. Cormac d. young."
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 24: "With the death of his elder brother Cormac, Donough became heir ..."
- Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 26: "I. Mary m. 1st, Sir Valentine Browne; and 2ndly, Edward FitzGerald of Ballymellon"
- Lodge 1789, p. 197: "Colonel Edmond Fitz-Maurice, who married Ellena, fifth daughter o Charles, Lord Viscount Muskerry."
- Lainé c. 1830, p. 75, line 10: "Elinor Mac-Carthy, mariée en 1636 avec Cormac ou Charles Mac-Carthy-Reagh."
- Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 28: "II. Eleanor, m. to Charles-Mac Carthy Reagh, whose only dau. Ellen became wife of John DeCourcy, 21st Baron Kingsale."
- Cokayne 1902, p. 441, line 32: "... b. 1593, was Knighted before 1634 ..."
- Cokayne 1913, p. 215: "He d. v.p. being slain on board 'the Royal Charles' in a sea-fight against the Dutch, 3, and was bur. 22 June 1665 in Westm. Abbey."
- Lainé c. 1830, p. 76 line 1: "... dans un combat naval livré aux Hollandais, le 13 juin 1665 [N.S.] à l'âge de trente-et-un ans."
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 35: "... Donough MacCarthy had married by 1641 Eleanor (or Ellen; 1612–1682), the eldest daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles, and sister of James, later Duke of Ormond."
- Burke 1866, p. 344, right column: Lists children as Charles, Callaghan, Justin, Helen, and Margaret.
- Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 13: "He d. v.p. slain on board 'the Royal Charles' in a sea-fight against the Dutch, 3, and was bur. 22 June 1665 in Westm. Abbey."
- Cokayne 1913, p. 216, line 6: "CALLAGHAN (MACCARTY) EARL OF CLANCARTY etc [I.], uncle and h., being 2nd s. of the 1st Earl."
- Cokayne 1893, p. 390: "THE HON. JUSTIN MACCARTY 3d and yst s. of Donough, 1st EARL of CLANCARTY [I.] by Eleanor, sister of James DUKE of ORMONDE ..."
- Murphy 1959, p. 49: "I have been unable to determine the precise date of his [Justin's] birth: the year 1643 is an approximation arrived at ..."
- Wauchope 2004, p. 111, left column: "c. 1643 – 1694"
- Cokayne 1913, p. 233, line 2: "He [William] m. 2ndly Helen, widow of sir John FITZGERALD, of Dromana, co. Waterford (who d. 1662), da. of Donough (MACCARTY), 1st EARL of CLANCARTY [I.] by Eleanor ..."
- Cokayne 1926, p. 386, line 26: "He [Luke Plunkett] m., before 1666, Margaret, da. of Donough (MACCARTY) EARL OF CLANCARTY [I.], by Eleanor, sister of James (BUTLER) 1ST DUKE OF ORMONDE, and da. of Thomas BUTLER, styled VISCOUNT THURLES."
- House of Commons 1878, p. 608: "1634 / 23 June / Sir Donough M'Carthy, knt. / - / ditto [Cork County]"
- House of Commons 1878, p. 609: "1639 / 2 Mar. / Sir Donagh McCarthy, knt. / - / Cork County"
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 45: "In the parliaments of 1634 and 1640 MacCarthy sat as MP for co. Cork and served as member of the committee which presented grievances to Charles I in 1640."
- Cokayne 1902, p. 441, line 25: "MACCARTY: cr. about 1638;"
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 47: "In the same year  he succeeded his father as second Viscount Muskerry."
- Carte 1851, p. 148, line 17: "It was the middle of December before any one gentleman in the province of Munster appeared to favour the rebellion; many of them had shewn themselves zealous to oppose it and had tendered their service for that end. Lord Muskerry, who had married a sister of the Lord Ormond's, offered to raise a 1000 men at his own charge ..."
- M'Enery 1904, p. 172: "Lord Muskerry joined the insurgents early in March ."
- M'Enery 1904, p. 178.
- Castlehaven 1815, p. 40: "I lost no time in the charge, and quickly defeated his horse, who, to save themselves, broke in on the foot, and put them into disorder ..."
- Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 71: "Arg., a stag, trippant, gu., attired and unguled, or."
- Cusack 1871, p. 317: "... encamped at Benburb. Here, on the 5th of June A.D. 1646 he [Owen Roe O’Neill] won a victory ...”
- Coffey 1914, p. 179: "Bunratty fell in the middle of July 1646."
- Coffey 1914, p. 194: "Early in August 1647 Muskerry laid down his command."
- Carte 1851, p. 305: "... had sent over a regiment under his eldest son Cormac Maccarty, then a youth but thirteen years old, who continued to serve abroad until the restoration."
- Coffey 1914, p. 213: "Cromwell landed in Dublin on August 15th ."
- Cokayne 1913, p. 214, line 24: "... he [Muskerry] was severely defeated by Lord Broghill in June 1651, near Dromagh ..."
- Coffey 1914, p. 222: "The last real battle fought in Ireland until the battle of the Boyne, nearly forty years later was at Knockbrack, on July 26th when Broghill fought Muskerry."
- Coffey 1914, p. 222, line 17: "The siege lasted until October 27th, when the town surrendered."
- Cusack 1871, p. 320: "The town [Galway] surrendered on the 12th of May 1652."
- Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column: "he fought on before finally surrendering at Ross Castle (27 June 1652) and fleeing to the continent."
- Firth 1894, p. 320, line 10: "Ross in Kerry; where the Lord Muskerry made his principal rendezvous, and which was the only place of strength the Irish had left, except the woods, bogs and mountains ..."
- Firth 1894, p. 322, line 4: "... his son together with Daniel Obryan were delivered to me as hostages ..."
- Webb 1878, p. 303, right column, line 49: "He then passed into Spain."
- Firth & Rait 1911, p. 599: "That James Butler, Earl of Ormond, ... Donogh Mac Carthy Viscount Muskerry ... be excepted from pardon for Life and Estate."
- Firth 1894, p. 341: "... the court acquitted him ..."
- Clark 1921, p. 8, line 27: "... his [Antoine Hamilton's] mother and his aunt, Lady Muskerry, had apartments at the Couvent des Feuillantines in Paris ..."
- Clark 1921, p. 9: "A little later [in 1657], Charles .. despatched Sir George Hamilton and his brother-in-law, Lord Muskerry, to Madrid to find out whether it would be agreeable to the King of Spain that the Irish now in Spain and those who would come over from the French should be sent immediately into Ireland."
- Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 2: "As reward for his services he was by patent dat. at Brussels 27 Nov., 1658, cr. Earl of Clancarty, Co. Cork [I.]"
- Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 6: "He [the 1st Earl] d. in London, 4 Aug. 1665."
- Cokayne 1913, p. 216, line 4: "... d. an infant, 22 Sep. 1666."
- Smyth 1839, p. xiii, line 18: "Charles I. / [Accession] / 27 March, 1625"
- Seaward 2004, p. 127, right column: "… he sailed to England and on 29 May  he entered London in triumph."
- Seccombe 1893, p. 437, left column, line 16: "He [Donough MacCarty] died in London on 5 Aug. 1665."
- Burke, Bernard (1866). A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire (New ed.). London: Harrison. (for MacCarty)
- Carte, Thomas (1851). The Life of James Duke of Ormond. 2 (new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. - 1641–1643
- Castlehaven, James Touchet (1815). Earl of Castlehaven's Review or his Memoirs of his Engagement and Carriage in the Irish Wars. Dublin: George Mullens.
- Clark, Ruth (1921). Anthony Hamilton: his Life and Works and his Family. London: John Lane.
- Coffey, Diarmid (1914). O'Neill and Ormond - A Chapter of Irish History. Dublin: Maunsel & Company.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1893). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. 5 (1st ed.). London: George Bell and Sons. – L to M (for Mountcashel & Muskerry)
- Cokayne, George Edward (1902). Complete Baronetage, 1611 to 1800. 2 (1st ed.). Exeter: William Pollard & Co. – 1625 to 1649
- Cokayne, George Edward (1913). Gibbs, Vicary (ed.). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. 3 (2nd ed.). London: St Catherine Press. – Canonteign to Cutts (for Clancarty)
- Cokayne, George Edward (1926). Gibbs, Vicary (ed.). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. 5 (2nd ed.). London: St Catherine Press. - EARDLEY OF SPALDING to GOOJERAT (for Fingall)
- Cusack, Mary Francis (1871). A Compendium of Irish History. Boston: Patrick Donahoe.
- Firth, Charles Harding (1894). The Memoirs of Henry Ludlow. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Firth, Charles Harding; Rait, R. S. (1911). The Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum. 2. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
- House of Commons (1878). Return. Members of Parliament – Part II. Parliaments of Great Britain, 1705–1796. Parliaments of the United Kingdom, 1801–1874. Parliaments and Conventions of the Estates of Scotland, 1357–1707. Parliaments of Ireland, 1599–1800. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
- Lainé, P. Louis (c. 1830). Histoire généalogique de la maison de Mac-Carthy (in French). Paris?: A. Pinard.
- Lodge, John (1789). The Peerage of Ireland. 2. Dublin: James Moore. – Earls (for Drogheda)
- M'Enery, M. J. (1904). "A Diary of the Siege of Limerick Castle, 1642". The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 5th. 34 (2): 163–187.
- Murphy, John A. (1959). Justin MacCarthy, Lord Mountcashel, Commander of the Irish brigade in France. Cork: Cork University Press.
- O'Hart, John (1892). Irish Pedigrees: or, the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation. 1 (5th ed.). Dublin: John Duffy & Co. – Irish Stem
- Ohlmeyer, Jane (2004). "MacCarthy, Donough, first earl of Clancarty (1594–1665)". In Matthew, Colin; Harrison, Brian (eds.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 35. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0-19-861385-7.
- Seaward, Paul (2004). "Charles II". In Matthew, Henry Colin Gray.; Harrison, Brian (eds.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 11. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 122–145. ISBN 0-19-861361-X. (for Charles II)
- Seccombe, Thomas (1893). "MacCarthy or MacCarty, Donough, fourth Earl of Clancarty". In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith Elder & Co. pp. 436–438.
- Smyth, Constantine (1839). Chronicle of the Law Officers of Ireland. London: Henry Butterworth. (for Table of reigns)
- Wauchope, Piers (2004). "Maccarthy, Justin, first Viscount Mountcashel (1643–1694)". In Matthew, Colin; Harrison, Brian (eds.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 35. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 0-19-861385-7.
- Webb, Alfred (1878). "MacCarty, Donough, Viscount Muskerry, Earl of Clancarty". Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son. p. 303, right column, line 35.
- Portrait at Hunt Museum, Limerick
|Peerage of Ireland|
|New creation|| Earl of Clancarty
| Viscount Muskerry|
|Baronetage of Nova Scotia|
|New creation|| Baronet
c. 1638 – 1665