Most of these disputes can be traced to Shi'a-Sunni disagreements. Shi'a often argue that history has been distorted to further a Banu Umayyad agenda. In many cases, complications with the historiography of early Islam have also resulted in lack of consensus within denominations of Islam.
List of disputed issues
The uncertainties include:
- Succession to Muhammad
- The date of birth of Muhammad
- The date of Muhammad's death
- The age at which Khadija married Muhammad (25–40 years)
- The date of birth of Fatimah (±10 years)
- The marriage in which three of Khadija's three daughters were born
- The number of marriages Khadija was in before marrying Muhammad
- The prohibition of Nikah Mut'ah
- Date of birth of Aisha
- Identity of the second wife of Muhammad (Sawda bint Zamʿa or Aisha)
- Disputes over the identity of the "Umm Khulthum" that married Umar (bint Ali, Bint Abu Bakr or a third)
- The existence of Fatimah's third son, Muhsin ibn Ali
- The ultimate faith of Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
- Mohammad's inheritance and the dispute on the land of Fadak & Khaybar
- Burial place of Fatimah
- Whether the night ascension (Miʿraj) was a physical journey or a spiritual one.
- Qur'an and History — a Disputed Relationship: Some Reflections on Qur'anic History and History in the Qur'an / القرآن والتاريخ: علاقة موضع جدل Angelika Neuwirth and ٲنجليکا نيوورث. Journal of Qur'anic Studies. Vol. 5, No. 1 (2003), pp. 1–18. Edinburgh University Press.
- Tayeb El-Hibri, Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History: The Rashidun Caliphs. Columbia University Press, 2010.
- Jóhann Páll Árnason, Civilizations in Dispute: Historical Questions and Theoretical Traditions. BRILL, Jan 1, 2003.
- Régis Blachère, The problem of Muhammad - test critical biography of the founder of Islam, a volume of 135 pages, University Press of France, Paris, 1952.
- Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.
- Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.
- Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.
- Some 20th-century Shia scholars have protested the conversion of history into mythology. Prominent critics include: Morteza Motahhari (Meaning of 'Ashura: Misrepresentations & Distortions, 'Ashura - History and Popular Legend and 'Ashura - Misrepresentations and Distortions Archived November 14, 2005, at the Wayback Machine), Abbas Qomi, author of Nafas al-Mahmoum (Nafasul Mahmoom), and Sayyid Abd-al-Razzaq Al-Muqarram, author of Maqtalul-Husayn (Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī, Al, Encyclopedia of Religion)
- The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (edited). "The historical Muhammad and the Qur'an".
- "Khadija's age at the Time of her Marriage with the Prophet: 40 or 28?". 2016-03-17. Retrieved 26 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Khadijah, Daughter of Khuwaylid, Wife of Prophet Muhammad". 2013-01-20. Retrieved 26 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Fatima ['a] The Gracious http://www.al-islam.org/gracious/7.htm
- There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the first Quranic revelations, during the time of the rebuilding of the Kaaba in 605, although this does imply she was over 18 at the time of her marriage, which was unusual in Arabia.(See MSN Encarta article on Fatimah Archived 2007-09-02 at the Wayback Machine and Encyclopædia Britannica) Twelver Shia sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years after the first Qur'anic revelations, but that timeline would imply her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth.
- For more, see Genealogy of Khadija's daughters.
- Early Troubles in Muslim History, Shia articles at shiabook.blogspot