|Quran, Hadith, and Sunnah|
Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दी; Pashto and Persian: دیوبندی; Urdu: دیوبندی; Arabic: الديوبندية; Bengali: দেওবন্দি ; Odia: ଦେଓବନ୍ଦି) is an Islamic revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam that formed around the Darul Uloom Islamic seminary in the town of Deoband, India, where the name derives from, during the late 19th century. The seminary was founded by Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and several other figures in 1866, eight years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857-58; the Deobandi movement's political wing, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, was founded in 1919 and played a major role in the Indian independence movement through its propagation of the doctrine of composite nationalism.
Theologically, the Deobandis uphold the doctrine of Taqlid (conformity to legal precedent) and adhere to the Hanafi school. Founders of the Deobandi school drew inspiration from the religio-political doctrine of the Islamic scholar and mujaddid Shah Waliullah, and were also influenced by the Wahhabi ideology. During its early years, the Deobandi school engaged in interfaith debates with Christian and Hindu scholars in peaceful mane, and during the initial phase of its establishment the operating expenses are said to have been partially borne by Hindus because Deobandi philosophers of those times talked about the unity of Hindus, Christians and Muslims, multiculturalism and opposition to the partition of India, a far cry from its current hardline position and Islamic fundamentalism.
Since the late 1970s, the movement is said to have been influenced by Salafism in Afghanistan and Pakistan. From the early 1980s to the early 2000s some Deobandis were heavily funded by Saudi Arabia. The Pakistani government deliberately cultivated Deobandi militancy to fight the Soviet Union and India (in Kashmir). The money and guns supplied later fuelled civil conflict. More recently, Pakistani establishments like the Defence Housing Authority have been accused of favoring the appointment of Deobandi Imams over Imams of other sects at mosques in their public housing complexes. The movement, now centered mainly in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, has spread to the United Kingdom, and has a presence in South Africa. The Pakistani and Afghani branches and the original Indian seminaries have far less contact since the Partition of India, for political reasons related to the India-Pakistan border. Followers of the Deobandi movement are extremely diverse; some advocate for non-violence and some are militant, The Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the civil actions of the Taliban, but repeatedly condemned Islamic terrorism in the 2000s, issuing a fatwa against it in 2008.
The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism in India, which was seen by a group of Indian scholars— consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fazlur Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi— to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary (madrassa) known as Darul Uloom Deoband, where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Towards the time of the Indian independence movement and afterward in post-colonial India, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British rule.
In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the partition of India. Deobandi scholar Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani helped to spread these ideas through his text Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam. A group later dissented from this position and joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League, including Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Zafar Ahmad Usmani and Muhammad Shafi Deobandi forming the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945.
Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat, the Deobandi movement began to spread. From the early 1970s to the 2000s, Deobandi seminaries (madaaris) in Pakistan and Afghanistan were heavily influenced by Salafism and Wahhabism, due to fundings by Saudi Arabia. Graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband in India from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China, and Malaysia opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world.
Through the use of its curriculum and the proliferation of its graduates, Deoband is often linked to the spread of extremist ideologies most vividly exemplified by the Taliban.
The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. Only about 17% of Indian Muslims identify as Deobandi.[unreliable source?] Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis' by their opponents – the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.
An estimated 15-25 percent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims consider themselves Deobandi. According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement. Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith. Many Deobandi schools in Pakistan teach Wahhabi principles.
Deobandi-affiliated groups such as the TTP, SSP, LeJ, etc. have a militant character and have attacked and destroyed Sufi sites holy to Sunni Muslims of the Barelvi movement, such as Data Darbar in Lahore, Abdullah Shah Ghazi's tomb in Karachi, Khal Magasi in Balochistan, and Rahman Baba's tomb in Peshawar. The murders of various Barelvi leaders have also been committed by Deobandi militants. Some Deobandi leaders have ties to anti-Shia and militant groups as well, and recruit militants; other Deobandis resent such activities as an intrusion of Pakistani politics into their religion.
As with the rest of the Indian subcontinent, the majority of Muslims in Bangladesh are traditional Sunni, who mainly follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence (madh'hab) and consequently the Maturidi school of theology. The majority of them are Deobandi along with Tabligh (51%) and Barelvi or Sufi (26%); the Deobandi, in the form of Qawmi institutions, own the vast majority of private Islamic seminaries and produce the majority of the ulema in Bangladesh. Among Sunnis who are not traditional Hanafi, the Salafi-influenced Ahle Hadith and the Jamaat e Islami (19%) have a substantial following.
Deobandi Islam is the most popular form of pedagogy in the Pashtun belt on both sides of the Durand Line that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan. Moreover, prominent Afghan and Pakistani Taliban leaders have studied in Deobandi seminaries.
In the United Kingdom
In the 1970s, Deobandis opened the first British-based Muslim religious seminaries (Darul-Ulooms), educating Imams and religious scholars. Deobandis "have been quietly meeting the religious and spiritual needs of a significant proportion of British Muslims, and are perhaps the most influential British Muslim group." In 2015 Ofsted highlighted the Deobandi seminary in Holcombe as a good example of a school "promoting British values, preventing radicalisation and protecting children". The journalist, Andrew Norfolk, did not agree with this assessment.
According to a 2007 report by Andrew Norfolk, published in The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to "shed blood" for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which The Times said had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries. An opinion column in The Guardian described this report as "a toxic mixture of fact, exaggeration and outright nonsense."
In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain's mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.
Most Muslim prison chaplaincies in Britain are Deobandi, and in 2016 Michael Spurr (chief executive of the National Offender Management Service) wrote to Britain's prison governors bringing to their attention that Ofsted had said that "the UK’s most influential Deobandi seminary promotes 'fundamental British values such as democracy, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those of different faiths'." Andrew Norfolk did not agree with this assessment.
The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762).
Fiqh (Islamic law)
Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Deobandi must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism. They themselves claims the followers of the Hanafi school. Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.
With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i-Hadith, also known as the Ghair Muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith. They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling. Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.
In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed. In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence.
Sufism and Wahhabism
Deobandis oppose traditional Sufi practices such as celebrating the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and seeking help from him, the celebration of Urs, pilgrimage to the shrines of Sufi saints, practice of Sema, and loud dhikr. Some Deobandi leaders incorporate elements of Sufism into their practices. Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic holy scriptures (Quran, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the legal practice of Islam, as understood by scholars of the Deobandi movement.
Arshad Madani, an influential Deobandi scholar and leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, on the other hand rejected Sufism and said, "Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? This is a thing for those who don't know Quran and Hadith." Madani also said "Sufism is nothing."
Founders of the Deobandi school, Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, were inspired by the religio-political doctrine of Shah Waliullah and also by Wahhabi ideology, amongst other sources of inspiration. A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi studied under the Sufi shaykh, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, although he differed with his views in many ways. Rashid Ahmad Gangohi's Fatawa-yi Rashidiyya opposed traditional Sufi practices such as loud dhikr, visiting the tombs of Sufi saints, celebrating Urs, visualizing a Sufi leader (tasawwuf-i shaykh), reciting the Fatihah on special occasions, and engaging in Sema.
Darul Uloom Deoband's conservatism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with Wahhabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there. Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi, noted hadith scholar and Sufi Shaykh of Deobandis, says that,
According to Brannon D. Ingram, Deobandis differ from Barelvis on three theological positions.
- A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi stated that God has the ability to lie. This doctrine is called Imkan-i Kizb. According to this doctrine, because God is omnipotent, God is capable of lying. Gangohi however clarified God would not lie, though having power to do.
- Rashid Ahmad Gangohi supported the doctrine that God has the ability to make additional prophets after Muhammad (Imkan-i Nazir) and other prophets equal to Muhammad. Gangohi clarifies that although God has the ability to make prophets on "par" with Muhammad, he "would never do so."
- Deobandi scholars like Rashid Ahmad Gangohi have opposed the Sufi doctrine that Muhammad has knowledge of the unseen (ilm e ghaib). This belief of the Deobandis conflicts with traditional Sufi views of Muhammad having unparalled and unequal knowledge that encompasses the unseen realm.
Other positions of the Deobandis, include:
- Rashid Ahmad Gangohi issued multiple fatwa's against the Mawlid and stated it is an innovation (bidah).
- Rashid Ahmad Gangohi opposed the practice of standing up in honour of Muhammad during Mawlid.
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Deobandi organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Kifayatullah Dehlawi who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement. The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan. The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.
Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded 29 December 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founders of the party. The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party.[page needed] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and against establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as criticism of the Ahmadiyya movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.
Tablighi Jamaat, a non-political Deobandi missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Deobandi Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 200 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, it has now established an independent identity though it still maintains close ties with Deobandi ulema in many countries with large South Asian Muslim populations such as the UK.
Associated political organizations
- Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
- Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
- Ahrar Party (India)
- Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
- Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh
Associated militant organizations
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (Army of Jhangvi) was a Deobandi militant organization. Formed in 1996, it operated in Pakistan as an offshoot of Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors. The group, now practically defunct since the successful Operation Zarb-e-Azab, is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States, It was involved in attacks on civilians and protectors of them. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi. The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.
The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political and militant movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law. While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law, the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism. Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.
The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun.
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997. In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad." A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."
Right after Darul Uloom Deoband, the main center of Deobandism throughout the world, Mazahir Uloom, Saharanpur is the second known Deobandi madrassa in India, which produced the scholars like Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi. Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi's established Madrasa Shahi, Moradabad, the alma of scholars like Mufti Mahmud and Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi has its position. Darul Uloom Karachi, founded by Mufti Shafi Usmani, Jamia Binoria and Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia in Pakistani are top Deobandi institutions there. Darul Uloom Bury, Holcombe, established by Yusuf Motala during 1970s is the first Deobandi madrasssa of the West In South Africa, Darul Ulum Newcastle, was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema and Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya in Lenasia, Madrasah In'aamiyyah, Camperdown is known for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org. Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam is the first established Deobandi madrassa in Bangladesh, which produced the scholars like Shah Ahmad Shafi, Junaid Babunagari. Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, Ontario, Canada, Darul Uloom Al-Madania in Buffalo, New York, Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan in Iran and Darul Uloom Raheemiyyah are some top Deobandi institutions.
- Mahmud Deobandi (died 1886) - First teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband.
- Mahmud Hasan Deobandi (1851-1920) – popularly known as "Shaykh al-Hind".
- Hussain Ahmed Madani (1879-1957)
- Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943)
- Anwar Shah Kashmiri (1875-1933)
- Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi (1884-1944)– Founder of Tablighi Jamaat.
- Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi (1898-1982)
- Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949)
- Muhammad Shafi Deobandi (1897-1976) – First Grand Mufti of Pakistan.
- Abdur Rahman Bangladeshi (1920-2015) – Grand Mufti of Bangladesh, also known as Faqihul Millat. He was the founder director of Islamic Research Center Bangladesh, Dhaka & Many Deobandi school. Ex chairman of the Shariah Council of Many Islamic Bank.
- Abdul Matin Chowdhury (1915-1990)
- Nur Uddin Gohorpuri (1924-2005)
- Yusuf Motala (1946-2019) – UK; Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi scholars have studied under his patronage."
- Allama Khalid Mahmood (1925-2020) – UK. He was the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester. which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan (Shariat Appellate Bench).
- Ebrahim Desai, South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website, askimam.org.
- Shah Ahmad Shafi (1916-2020), former Chief of Hefajat-e-Islam Bangladesh, rector of Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam Hathazari and also the chairman of Bangladesh Qawmi Madrasah Education Board.
- Muhammad Abdul Wahhab (1923-2018) – former (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat Pakistan Chapter.
- Nur Hossain Kasemi (1945-2020) — former Secretary General of Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh.
- Muhibbullah Babunagari, Chief advisor of Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh (born 1935)
- Mahmudul Hasan, Bangladesh - President of Al-Haiatul Ulya Lil-Jamiatil Qawmia Bangladesh and Befaqul Madarisil Arabia Bangladesh, Chancellor of Jamia Islamia Darul Uloom Madania, Amir of Majlis-e-Dawatul Haq Bangladesh.
- Abdul Halim Bukhari, Bangladesh - Chancellor of Al Jamia Al Islamia Patiya
- Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Pakistan - President and senior lecturer of Jamia Darul Uloom, Karachi.
- Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Pakistan - Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance, and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi movement.
- Junaid Babunagari, Bangladeshi Islamic Scholar, He is serving as the assistant director of Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam Hathazari, and secretary general of Hefajat-e-Islam Bangladesh.
- Nurul Islam Jihadi, Secretary General of Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh. (born 1948)
- Allama Nurul Islam Olipuri - One of the best Mufassir from Bangladesh.
- Tariq Jameel, Pakistan - Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.
- A F M Khalid Hossain - Bangladesh.
- Mushtaque Ahmad - Bangladesh.
- Mamunul Haque - Secretary General of Bangladesh Khelafat Majlish and President of Bangladesh Khelafat Youth Majlish.
- Islam in Afghanistan
- Islam in Bangladesh
- Islam in India
- Islam in Pakistan
- Islam in South Africa
- Islam in the United Kingdom
- Islamic fundamentalism
- Islamic schools and branches
- Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism
- Salafi movement
- Schools of Islamic theology
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Some prominent founders of the Darul Uloom Deoband, such as Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, drew further inspiration from the religiopoliticial concept of Shah Waliullah, as well as from Wahhabi ideology, and they set up an Islamic seminary at Deoband in UP on 30 May 1866.
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Muslim politics in India opened a new chapter after the formation of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1919 A.D. under the initiative of Ulemas of Deoband. It was founded by the dedicated freedom figher Sheikh-Ul-Hindi Maulana Mahmudul Hasan of Darul-Uloom, Deoband. Jamiat played a very active role in India's freedom struggle.
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- Ali, Asghar (9 April 2011). "Islamic identity in secular India". The Milli Gazette.
The Ulama of Deoband opposed partition and stood by united nationalism. Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, then chief of Jami’at-ul-Ulama-i-Hind, wrote a tract Muttahida Qaumiyyat aur Islam i.e., the Composite Nationalism and Islam justifying composite nationalism in the light of Qur’an and hadith and opposing Muslim League’s separate nationalism. While the educated elite were aspiring for power and hence wanted their exclusive domain; the Ulama’s priority was an independent India where they could practice Islam without fear or hindrance.
- Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900 (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8.
- Sareen, Sushant (2005). The Jihad Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. p. 282. ISBN 9788124110751.
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- Rana Tanveer, "Barelvis demand share of mosques in DHA", The Express Tribune
- "Barelvi leader alleges pro-Deobandi bias in Defence Housing Authority", The Express Tribune,
In a letter to the corps commander, who is vice chairman of the DHA, the secretary general of the Milade Mustafa Welfare Society in DHA Lahore said that the Religious Affairs Department was interfering in the Human Resources Department’s responsibilities to ensure that Deobandi scholars are appointed to positions in mosques in DHA. "Because of Deobandi khateebs in DHA mosques, Barelvi people have ... opted not to go to DHA mosques", he added.
- Timol, Riyaz (14 October 2019). "Structures of Organisation and Loci of Authority in a Glocal Islamic Movement: The Tablighi Jama'at in Britain". Religions. MDPI. 10 (10): 573. doi:10.3390/rel10100573. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
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- Templin, James D. (June 2015). "Religious Education of Pakistan's Deobandi Madaris and Radicalisation". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research. 7 (5): 15–21. JSTOR 26351354. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- Abbas, Tahir (2011). "Islamic political radicalism: origins and destinations". Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience. London: Routledge. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-415-57224-8. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332
- The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband
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US Mission in India (2 February 2010), Indian Islam: Deobandi-Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam in India, Wikileaks
This says that "Over 85 percent of Indian Muslims are Sunni" and that "Deobandis... make up approximately 20 percent of India's Sunni population". This is about 17%.
- M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1.
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By one estimate, in Pakistan, the Shias are 18%, Ismailis 2%, Ahmediyas 2%, Barelvis 50%, Deobandis 20%, Ahle Hadith 4%, and other minorities 4%. [...] By another estimate some 15% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims would consider themselves Deobandi, and some 60% are in the Barelvi tradition based mostly in the province of Punjab. But some 64% of the total seminaries are run by Deobandis, 25% by the Barelvis, 6% by the Ahle Hadith and 3% by various Shiite organisations.
- Bedi, Rohan (April 2006), Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions? (PDF), Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, p. 3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013.
This estimates that 15% of Pakistani Muslims are Deobandi and 20% Shia, which equates to about 19% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims being Deobandi.
- Valentine, Simon (9 January 2015). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 248. ISBN 9781849046152.
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- Metcalf, Barabara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present."
- Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". Islamic Studies. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 14 (4): 284.
The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq
- Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900 (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8.
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Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling.
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24.
The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39.
...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, "reviewing") all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa
- Syed, Jawad; Pio, Edwina; Kamran, Tahir; Zaidi, Abbas, eds. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 377. doi:10.1057/978-1-349-94966-3. ISBN 978-1-349-94965-6. LCCN 2016951736. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- Gregory C. Kozlowski (21 November 1985), Muslim Endowments and Society in British India, p. 76, ISBN 9780521259866
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- Elizabeth Sirriyeh (9 January 2014), Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defence, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World, RoutledgeCurzon, p. 49, ISBN 9781136812767
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- Ingram, Brannon D., Suﬁs, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi(d. 1905) and the Deobandi Critique of Suﬁsm, Blackwell Publishing, p. 479
- Amir Bashir (December 2015). Muhammad Anwar Khan Qasmi (ed.). "Deobandi Sūfi Doctrine: Towards a Comprehensive Understanding of Tasawwuf within the Context of Tawhīd and Sunnah". Islamic Literature Review. Deoband: Deoband Institute of Islamic Thought. 2 (2): 2. ISSN 2349-1795.
- Ingram, Brannon D. (21 November 2018), Revival from Below: The Deoband Movement and Global Islam, University of California Press, pp. 7, 64, 100, 241, ISBN 9780520298002
- Ingram, Brannon D., Suﬁs, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi(d. 1905) and the Deobandi Critique of Suﬁsm, Blackwell Publishing, p. 484
- Ingram, Brannon D. (21 November 2018), Revival from Below: The Deoband Movement and Global Islam, University of California Press, p. 66, ISBN 9780520298002
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- Ahmad, Syed N. Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective. New York u.a: Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 175
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A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi.
- "Iran condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". Tehran Times. 17 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
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- Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5.
As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country
- Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3.
- Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9.
The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali
- James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (18 November 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
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- Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
In the UK the Dār al-'Ulūm al-'Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the 'Oxbridge' of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-'Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa.
- Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.
- Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5.
It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide.
- Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5.
The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia.
- Abdulkader Tayob; et al., eds. (2011). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5.
For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world.
- Schleifer, Prof. S. Abdallah; Al-Meheid, Dr Minwer; Al-Rawadieh, Dr AlMahdi; Ahmed, Dr Aftab; Asfour, Zeinab, eds. (2012). 2012 Edition (PDF). Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. The 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan: Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding. p. 110. ISBN 978-9957-428-37-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- David Emmanuel Singh, The Independent Madrasas of India: Dar al-'Ulum, Deoband and Nadvat al-'Ulama, Lucknow (PDF), Oxford Centre for Mission Studies, retrieved 4 September 2020
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37.
He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.
- Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15.
وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with].
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216.
After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period.
- Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9.
The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70.
This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.
- Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. doi:10.1163/22138617-08401018.
In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
- Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117.
Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics.
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170.
He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.
- Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi' (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading 'ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-'Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-'Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi'] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes.
- "Noted Islamic scholar Mufti Abdur Rahman passes away". BD Chronicle. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015.
- al-Mahmud, A.H.; Hasan, Syed Mahmudul (2008). সুন্নাতে নববীর মূর্ত প্রতীক: মাওলানা আব্দুল মতিন চৌধুরী শায়খে ফুলবাড়ী রাহ. pp. 78–81.
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- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.
- Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester
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- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69.
Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan.
- "Nur Hossain Kasemi passes away at 75". The Daily Star. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "Mahmudul Hasan new chairman of Qawmi Madrasa Education Board". The Daily Star. 3 October 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
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- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89.
Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement
- "Babunagari denounces government's claim of no death in Hefazat's 2013 protest". Dhaka Tribune. 5 November 2018.
- "Sylhet: Renowned Islamic scholar Allama Nurul Islam Olipuri speaking at the first day of the three daylong Tafsirul Quran Mahfil as Chief Guest in Sylhet organised by Khademul Quran Parishad, Sylhet recently". The New Nation. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134.
He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.
- বাংলাদেশ খেলাফত মজলিসের নতুন কমিটি গঠন [Formation of new committee of Bangladesh Khilafah Majlis]. Daily Naya Diganta (in Bengali). Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09680-5.
- Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3
- The Beliefs of Darul Uloom Deoband Scholars
- Books on Deoband Scholars