|Type of business||Subsidiary|
|Founded||23 September 2010|
|General manager||Lila Ibrahim|
|Employees||700 (as of Dec 2017)|
|Parent||Independent (2010–2014) |
Google Inc. (2014–2015)
Alphabet Inc. (2015–present)
Acquired by Google in 2014, the company has created a neural network that learns how to play video games in a fashion similar to that of humans, as well as a Neural Turing machine, or a neural network that may be able to access an external memory like a conventional Turing machine, resulting in a computer that mimics the short-term memory of the human brain.
- 1 History
- 2 Machine learning
- 3 DeepMind Health
- 4 DeepMind Ethics and Society
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
During one of the interviews, Demis Hassabis said that the start-up began working on artificial intelligence technology by teaching it how to play old games from the seventies and eighties, which are relatively primitive compared to the ones that are available today. Some of those games included Breakout, Pong and Space Invaders. AI was introduced to one game at a time, without any prior knowledge of its rules. After spending some time on learning the game, AI would eventually become an expert in it. “The cognitive processes which the AI goes through are said to be very like those a human who had never seen the game would use to understand and attempt to master it.” The goal of the founders is to create a general-purpose AI that can be useful and effective for almost anything.
Major venture capital firms Horizons Ventures and Founders Fund invested in the company, as well as entrepreneurs Scott Banister and Elon Musk. Jaan Tallinn was an early investor and an adviser to the company. On 26 January 2014, Google announced the company had acquired DeepMind for $500 million, and that it had agreed to take over DeepMind Technologies. The sale to Google took place after Facebook reportedly ended negotiations with DeepMind Technologies in 2013. The company was afterwards renamed Google DeepMind and kept that name for about two years.
In September 2015, DeepMind and the Royal Free NHS Trust signed their initial Information Sharing Agreement (ISA) to co-develop a clinical task management app, Streams.
After Google's acquisition the company established an artificial intelligence ethics board. The ethics board for AI research remains a mystery, with both Google and DeepMind declining to reveal who sits on the board. DeepMind, together with Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft, is a founding member of Partnership on AI, an organization devoted to the society-AI interface. DeepMind has opened a new unit called DeepMind Ethics and Society and focused on the ethical and societal questions raised by artificial intelligence featuring prominent philosopher Nick Bostrom as advisor. In October 2017, DeepMind launched a new research team to investigate AI ethics.
DeepMind Technologies' goal is to "solve intelligence", which they are trying to achieve by combining "the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build powerful general-purpose learning algorithms". They are trying to formalize intelligence in order to not only implement it into machines, but also understand the human brain, as Demis Hassabis explains:
[...] attempting to distil intelligence into an algorithmic construct may prove to be the best path to understanding some of the enduring mysteries of our minds.
Google Research has released a paper in 2016 regarding AI Safety and avoiding undesirable behaviour during the AI learning process. Deepmind has also released several publications via its website. In 2017 DeepMind released GridWorld, an open-source testbed for evaluating whether an algorithm learns to disable its kill switch or otherwise exhibits certain undesirable behaviours.
To date, the company has published research on computer systems that are able to play games, and developing these systems, ranging from strategy games such as Go to arcade games. According to Shane Legg, human-level machine intelligence can be achieved "when a machine can learn to play a really wide range of games from perceptual stream input and output, and transfer understanding across games[...]."
Research describing an AI playing seven different Atari 2600 video games (the Pong game in Video Olympics, Breakout, Space Invaders, Seaquest, Beamrider, Enduro, and Q*bert) reportedly led to the company's acquisition by Google. Hassabis has mentioned the popular e-sport game StarCraft as a possible future challenge, since it requires a high level of strategic thinking and handling imperfect information. The first demonstration of the DeepMind progress in StarCraft II occurred on January 24, 2019 on StarCrafts Twitch channel and DeepMind's YouTube channel.
Deep reinforcement learning
As opposed to other AIs, such as IBM's Deep Blue or Watson, which were developed for a pre-defined purpose and only function within its scope, DeepMind claims that its system is not pre-programmed: it learns from experience, using only raw pixels as data input. Technically it uses deep learning on a convolutional neural network, with a novel form of Q-learning, a form of model-free reinforcement learning. They test the system on video games, notably early arcade games, such as Space Invaders or Breakout. Without altering the code, the AI begins to understand how to play the game, and after some time plays, for a few games (most notably Breakout), a more efficient game than any human ever could.
In 2013, DeepMind demonstrated an AI system could surpass human abilities in games such as Pong, Breakout, Space Invaders, Seaquest, Beamrider, Enduro and Q*bert. DeepMind's AI had been applied to video games made in the 1970s and 1980s; work was ongoing for more complex 3D games such as Doom, which first appeared in the early 1990s.
AlphaGo and successors
In October 2015, a computer Go program called AlphaGo, developed by DeepMind, beat the European Go champion Fan Hui, a 2 dan (out of 9 dan possible) professional, five to zero. This is the first time an artificial intelligence (AI) defeated a professional Go player. Previously, computers were only known to have played Go at "amateur" level. Go is considered much more difficult for computers to win compared to other games like chess, due to the much larger number of possibilities, making it prohibitively difficult for traditional AI methods such as brute-force.
In the 2017 Future of Go Summit, AlphaGo won a three-game match with Ke Jie, who at the time continuously held the world No. 1 ranking for two years. It used a supervised learning protocol, studying large numbers of games played by humans against each other.
In 2017, an improved version, AlphaGo Zero, defeated AlphaGo 100 games to 0. AlphaGo Zero's strategies were self-taught. AlphaGo Zero was able to beat its predecessor after just three days with less processing power than AlphaGo; in comparison, the original AlphaGo needed months to learn how to play.
Later that year, AlphaZero, a modified version of AlphaGo Zero but for handling any two-player game of perfect information, gained superhuman abilities at chess and shogi. Like AlphaGo Zero, AlphaZero learned solely through self-play.
AlphaGo technology was developed based on the deep reinforcement learning approach. This makes AlphaGo different from the rest of AI technologies on the market. With that said, AlphaGo's ‘brain’ was introduced to various moves based on the historical tournament data. The number of moves was increased gradually until it eventually processed over 30 million of them. The aim was to have the system mimic the human player and eventually become better. It played against itself and learned not only from its own defeats but wins as well; thus, it learned to improve itself over the time and increased its winning rate as a result.
AlphaGo used two deep neural networks: a policy network to evaluate move probabilities and a value network to assess positions. The policy network trained via supervised learning, and was subsequently refined by policy-gradient reinforcement learning. The value network learned to predict winners of games played by the policy network against itself. After training these networks employed a lookahead Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS), using the policy network to identify candidate high-probability moves, while the value network (in conjunction with Monte Carlo rollouts using a fast rollout policy) evaluated tree positions.
Zero trained using reinforcement learning in which the system played millions of games against itself. Its only guide was to increase its win rate. It did so without learning from games played by humans. Its only input features are the black and white stones from the board. It uses a single neural network, rather than separate policy and value networks. Its simplified tree search relies upon this neural network to evaluate positions and sample moves, without Monte Carlo rollouts. A new reinforcement learning algorithm incorporates lookahead search inside the training loop. AlphaGo Zero employed around 15 people and millions in computing resources. Ultimately, it needed much less computing power than AlphaGo, running on four specialized AI processors (Google TPUs), instead of AlphaGo's 48.
In 2016 DeepMind turned its artificial intelligence to protein folding, one of the toughest problems in science. In December 2018, DeepMind's AlphaFold won the 13th Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) by successfully predicting the most accurate structure for 25 out of 43 proteins. “This is a lighthouse project, our first major investment in terms of people and resources into a fundamental, very important, real-world scientific problem,” Hassabis said to The Guardian.
Also in 2016, DeepMind introduced WaveNet, a text-to-speech system. It was originally too computationally intensive for use in consumer products, but in late 2017 it became ready for use in consumer applications such as Google Assistant. In 2018 Google launched a commercial text-to-speech product, Cloud Text-to-Speech, based on WaveNet.
In January 2019, DeepMind introduced AlphaStar, a program playing the real-time strategy game StarCraft II. AlphaStar used reinforcement learning based on replays from human players, and then played against itself to enhance its skills. At the time of the presentation, AlphaStar had knowledge equivalent to 200 years of playing time. It won 10 consecutive matches against two professional players and lost just one.
In July 2019, AlphaStar began playing against random humans on the public 1v1 European multiplayer ladder. Unlike the first iteration of AlphaStar, which played only Protoss v. Protoss, this one played as all of the game's races.
Miscellaneous contributions to Google
Google has stated that DeepMind algorithms have greatly increased the efficiency of cooling its data centers. In addition, DeepMind (alongside other Alphabet AI researchers) assists Google Play's personalized app recommendations. DeepMind has also collaborated with the Android team at Google for the creation of two new features which will be available to people with devices running Android Pie, the ninth installment of Google's mobile operating system. These features, Adaptive Battery and Adaptive Brightness, use machine learning to conserve energy and make devices running the operating system easier to use. It is the first time DeepMind has used these techniques on such a small scale, with typical machine learning applications requiring orders of magnitude more compute power.
In July 2016, a collaboration between DeepMind and Moorfields Eye Hospital was announced to develop AI applications for healthcare. DeepMind would be applied to the analysis of anonymised eye scans, searching for early signs of diseases leading to blindness.
In August 2016, a research programme with University College London Hospital was announced with the aim of developing an algorithm that can automatically differentiate between healthy and cancerous tissues in head and neck areas.
There are also projects with the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust to develop new clinical mobile apps linked to electronic patient records. Staff at the Royal Free Hospital were reported as saying in December 2017 that access to patient data through the app had saved a ‘huge amount of time’ and made a ‘phenomenal’ difference to the management of patients with acute kidney injury. Test result data is sent to staff's mobile phones and alerts them to change in the patient's condition. It also enables staff to see if someone else has responded, and to show patients their results in visual form.[unreliable source?]
In November 2017, DeepMind announced a research partnership with the Cancer Research UK Centre at Imperial College London with the goal of improving breast cancer detection by applying machine learning to mammography. Additionally, in February 2018, DeepMind announced it was working with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs in an attempt to use machine learning to predict the onset of acute kidney injury in patients, and also more broadly the general deterioration of patients during a hospital stay so that doctors and nurses can more quickly treat patients in need.
DeepMind developed an app called Streams, which sends alerts to doctors about patients at risk of acute risk injury. On 13 November 2018, DeepMind announced that its health division and the Streams app would be absorbed into Google Health. Privacy advocates said the announcement betrayed patient trust and appeared to contradict previous statements by DeepMind that patient data would not be connected to Google accounts or services. A spokesman for DeepMind said that patient data would still be kept separate from Google services or projects.
NHS data-sharing controversy
In April 2016, New Scientist obtained a copy of a data-sharing agreement between DeepMind and the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. The latter operates three London hospitals where an estimated 1.6 million patients are treated annually. The agreement shows DeepMind Health had access to admissions, discharge and transfer data, accident and emergency, pathology and radiology, and critical care at these hospitals. This included personal details such as whether patients had been diagnosed with HIV, suffered from depression or had ever undergone an abortion in order to conduct research to seek better outcomes in various health conditions.
A complaint was filed to the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO), arguing that the data should be pseudonymised and encrypted. In May 2016, New Scientist published a further article claiming that the project had failed to secure approval from the Confidentiality Advisory Group of the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.
In May 2017, Sky News published a leaked letter from the National Data Guardian, Dame Fiona Caldicott, revealing that in her "considered opinion" the data-sharing agreement between DeepMind and the Royal Free took place on an "inappropriate legal basis". The Information Commissioner's Office ruled in July 2017 that the Royal Free hospital failed to comply with the Data Protection Act when it handed over personal data of 1.6 million patients to DeepMind.
DeepMind Ethics and Society
As of October 2017, DeepMind has expanded its focus to also include AI ethics. With the former Google UK and EU policy manager Verity Harding co-leading this new team with Sean Legassick, their goal is to fund external research of the following themes: privacy transparency and fairness; economic impacts; governance and accountability; managing AI risk; AI morality and values; and how AI can address the world's challenges. As a result, the team hopes to further understand the ethical implications of AI and aid society to seeing AI can be beneficial.
This new subdivision of DeepMind is a completely separate unit from the partnership of leading companies using AI, academia, civil society organizations and nonprofits of the name Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society of which DeepMind is also a part.
- "DEEPMIND TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED – Overview (free company information from Companies House)". Companies House. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David (26 February 2015). "Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning". Nature. 518 (7540): 529–33. Bibcode:2015Natur.518..529M. doi:10.1038/nature14236. PMID 25719670.
- "DeepMind's CEO told Prince Harry his AI lab now employs 700 staff".
- "About Us | DeepMind". DeepMind.
- "A return to Paris | DeepMind". DeepMind.
- "The Last AI Breakthrough DeepMind Made Before Google Bought It". The Physics arXiv Blog. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Graves, Alex; Wayne, Greg; Danihelka, Ivo (2014). "Neural Turing Machines". arXiv:1410.5401 [cs.NE].
- Best of 2014: Google's Secretive DeepMind Startup Unveils a "Neural Turing Machine", MIT Technology Review
- Graves, Alex; Wayne, Greg; Reynolds, Malcolm; Harley, Tim; Danihelka, Ivo; Grabska-Barwińska, Agnieszka; Colmenarejo, Sergio Gómez; Grefenstette, Edward; Ramalho, Tiago (12 October 2016). "Hybrid computing using a neural network with dynamic external memory". Nature. 538 (7626): 471–476. Bibcode:2016Natur.538..471G. doi:10.1038/nature20101. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 27732574.
- Kohs, Greg (29 September 2017), AlphaGo, Ioannis Antonoglou, Lucas Baker, Nick Bostrom, retrieved 9 January 2018
- Silver, David; Hubert, Thomas; Schrittwieser, Julian; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Lai, Matthew; Guez, Arthur; Lanctot, Marc; Sifre, Laurent; Kumaran, Dharshan; Graepel, Thore; Lillicrap, Timothy; Simonyan, Karen; Hassabis, Demis (5 December 2017). "Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm". arXiv:1712.01815 [cs.AI].
- "Google Buys U.K. Artificial Intelligence Company DeepMind". Bloomberg. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Google makes £400m move in quest for artificial intelligence". Financial Times. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Demis Hassabis: 15 facts about the DeepMind Technologies founder". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Marr, Bernard. "How Google's Amazing AI Start-Up 'DeepMind' Is Making Our World A Smarter Place". Forbes. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- "DeepMind buy heralds rise of the machines". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "DeepMind Technologies Investors". Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Cuthbertson, Anthony (4 August 2014). "Elon Musk: Artificial Intelligence 'Potentially More Dangerous Than Nukes'". International Business Times UK.
- "Recode.net – DeepMind Technologies Acquisition". 26 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Google to buy artificial intelligence company DeepMind". Reuters. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Google Acquires UK AI startup Deepmind". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Report of Acquisition, TechCrunch". TechCrunch. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (27 January 2014). "Reuters Report". Reuters. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Google Acquires Artificial Intelligence Start-Up DeepMind". The Verge. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Google acquires AI pioneer DeepMind Technologies". Ars Technica. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Google beats Facebook for Acquisition of DeepMind Technologies". Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Hall of Fame Awards: To celebrate the success of companies founded by Computer Laboratory graduates". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Lomas, Natasha. "Documents detail DeepMind's plan to apply AI to NHS data in 2015". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- "Inside Google's Mysterious Ethics Board". Forbes. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Ramesh, Randeep (4 May 2016). "Google's DeepMind shouldn't suck up our NHS records in secret". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Home/ Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society". 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Hern, Alex (4 October 2017). "DeepMind announces ethics group to focus on problems of AI". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- "DeepMind has launched a new 'ethics and society' research team". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "DeepMind launches new research team to investigate AI ethics". The Verge. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "DeepMind Technologies Website". DeepMind Technologies. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Legg, Shane; Veness, Joel (29 September 2011). "An Approximation of the Universal Intelligence Measure". arXiv:1109.5951 [cs.AI].
- Hassabis, Demis (23 February 2012). "Model the brain's algorithms" (PDF). Nature. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Amodei, Dario; Olah, Chris; Steinhardt, Jacob; Christiano, Paul; Schulman, John; Mané, Dan (21 June 2016). "Concrete Problems in AI Safety". arXiv:1606.06565 [cs.AI].
- "Publications". DeepMind. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "DeepMind Has Simple Tests That Might Prevent Elon Musk's AI Apocalypse". Bloomberg.com. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Alphabet's DeepMind Is Using Games to Discover If Artificial Intelligence Can Break Free and Kill Us All". Fortune. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Huang, Shih-Chieh; Müller, Martin (12 July 2014). Investigating the Limits of Monte-Carlo Tree Search Methods in Computer Go. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8427. Springer. pp. 39–48. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.500.1701. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4. ISBN 978-3-319-09164-8.
- "Q&A with Shane Legg on risks from AI". 17 June 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "DeepMind founder Demis Hassabis on how AI will shape the future". The Verge. 10 March 2016.
- DeepMind - StarCraft II demonstation in StarCraft II Oficial Website
- "DeepMind AI’s new trick is playing ‘Quake III Arena’ like a human". Engadget. 3 July 2018.
- Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Graves, Alex; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Wierstra, Daan; Riedmiller, Martin (12 December 2013). "Playing Atari with Deep Reinforcement Learning". arXiv:1312.5602 [cs.LG].
- Deepmind artificial intelligence @ FDOT14. 19 April 2014.
- "A look back at some of AI's biggest video game wins in 2018". VentureBeat. 29 December 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "Google achieves AI 'breakthrough' by beating Go champion". BBC News. 27 January 2016.
- "Première défaite d'un professionnel du go contre une intelligence artificielle". Le Monde (in French). 27 January 2016.
- "Research Blog: AlphaGo: Mastering the ancient game of Go with Machine Learning". Google Research Blog. 27 January 2016.
- "World's Go Player Ratings". May 2017.
- "柯洁迎19岁生日 雄踞人类世界排名第一已两年" (in Chinese). May 2017.
- "The latest AI can work things out without being taught". The Economist. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- Cellan-Jones, Rory (18 October 2017). "Google DeepMind: AI becomes more alien". BBC News. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "Penn State WebAccess Secure Login". ebookcentral.proquest.com. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- Silver, David; Schrittwieser, Julian; Simonyan, Karen; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Huang, Aja; Guez, Arthur; Hubert, Thomas; Baker, Lucas; Lai, Matthew; Bolton, Adrian; Chen, Yutian; Lillicrap, Timothy; Fan, Hui; Sifre, Laurent; Driessche, George van den; Graepel, Thore; Hassabis, Demis (19 October 2017). "Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge" (PDF). Nature. 550 (7676): 354–359. Bibcode:2017Natur.550..354S. doi:10.1038/nature24270. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29052630.
- Knight, Will. "The world's smartest game-playing AI—DeepMind's AlphaGo—just got way smarter". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- Vincent, James (18 October 2017). "DeepMind's Go-playing AI doesn't need human help to beat us anymore". The Verge. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- Sample, Ian (2 December 2018). "Google's DeepMind predicts 3D shapes of proteins". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Here's Why Google's Assistant Sounds More Realistic Than Ever Before". Fortune. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- Gershgorn, Dave. "Google's voice-generating AI is now indistinguishable from humans". Quartz. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- Novet, Jordan (31 March 2018). "Google is finding ways to make money from Alphabet's DeepMind A.I. technology". CNBC. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Introducing Cloud Text-to-Speech powered by DeepMind WaveNet technology". Google Cloud Platform Blog. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "DeepMind AI Challenges Pro StarCraft II Players, Wins Almost Every Match". Extreme Tech. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Amadeo, Ron (11 July 2019). [in "DeepMind AI is secretly lurking on the public StarCraft II 1v1 ladder"] Check
|url=value (help). Ars Technica. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- "I played against AlphaStar/Deepmind". reddit. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
- "DeepMind AI Reduces Google Data Centre Cooling Bill by 40%". DeepMind Blog. 20 July 2016.
- "DeepMind, meet Android | DeepMind". DeepMind Blog. 8 May 2018.
- Baraniuk, Chris (6 July 2016). "Google's DeepMind to peek at NHS eye scans for disease analysis". BBC. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Baraniuk, Chris (31 August 2016). "Google DeepMind targets NHS head and neck cancer treatment". BBC. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "DeepMind announces second NHS partnership". IT Pro. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Google DeepMind's Streams technology branded 'phenomenal'". Digital Health. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Google DeepMind announces new research partnership to fight breast cancer with AI". Silicon Angle. 24 November 2017.
- "Google's DeepMind wants AI to spot kidney injuries". Venture Beat. 22 February 2018.
- Evenstad, Lis (15 June 2018). "DeepMind Health must be transparent to gain public trust, review finds". ComputerWeekly.com. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Vincent, James (13 November 2018). "Google is absorbing DeepMind's health care unit to create an 'AI assistant for nurses and doctors'". The Verge. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Hern, Alex (14 November 2018). "Google 'betrays patient trust' with DeepMind Health move". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Stokel-Walker, Chris (14 November 2018). "Why Google consuming DeepMind Health is scaring privacy experts". Wired. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Murphy, Margi (14 November 2018). "DeepMind boss defends controversial Google health deal". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Hodson, Hal (29 April 2016). "Revealed: Google AI has access to huge haul of NHS patient data". New Scientist.
- "Leader: If Google has nothing to hide about NHS data, why so secretive?". New Scientist. 4 May 2016.
- Donnelly, Caroline (12 May 2016). "ICO probes Google DeepMind patient data-sharing deal with NHS Hospital Trust". Computer Weekly.
- Hodson, Hal (25 May 2016). "Did Google's NHS patient data deal need ethical approval?". New Scientist. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Martin, Alexander J (15 May 2017). "Google received 1.6 million NHS patients' data on an 'inappropriate legal basis'". Sky News. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- Hern, Alex (3 July 2017). "Royal Free breached UK data law in 1.6m patient deal with Google's DeepMind". The Guardian.
- "Why we launched DeepMind Ethics & Society". DeepMind Blog. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- Temperton, James. "DeepMind's new AI ethics unit is the company's next big move". Wired (UK). Retrieved 3 December 2017. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Hern, Alex (4 October 2017). "DeepMind announces ethics group to focus on problems of AI". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2017.