|Death of Muammar Gaddafi|
|Part of the Libyan Civil War|
Situation in Sirte just prior to Gaddafi's death.
|Commanders and leaders|
Mustafa Abdul Jalil |
Muammar Gaddafi † |
Mutassim Gaddafi †
Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr †
Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte. Gaddafi was found hiding in a culvert west of Sirte and captured by National Transitional Council forces. He was killed shortly afterwards. The NTC initially claimed he died from injuries sustained in a firefight when loyalist forces attempted to free him, although a graphic video of his last moments show rebel fighters beating him and one of them sodomizing him with a bayonet before he was shot several times as he pleaded for his life.
- 1 Events
- 2 Concurrent capture or death of relatives and associates
- 3 Subsequent events
- 4 Domestic reactions
- 5 International reactions
- 6 References
After the fall of Tripoli to forces of the opposition National Transitional Council (NTC) in August 2011, Gaddafi and his family escaped the Libyan capital. He was widely rumoured to have taken refuge in the south of the country. In fact, though, Gaddafi had fled in a small convoy to Sirte on the day Tripoli fell. His son Mutassim Gaddafi followed in a second convoy.
On 19 October 2011, Libya's prime minister Mahmoud Jibril said that the former leader was believed to be in the southern desert, reestablishing his government among pro-Gaddafi tribes in the region. By that point the NTC had just taken control of the pro-Gaddafi town of Bani Walid and were close to taking control of Gaddafi's home town, the tribal heartland of Sirte east of Tripoli. According to most accounts, Gaddafi had been with heavily armed regime loyalists in several buildings in Sirte for several months as NTC forces took the city. Mansour Dhao, a member of Gaddafi's inner circle and leader of the regime's People's Guard, said that Gaddafi was "very delusional" and complained about the lack of electricity and water. Attempts to persuade him to flee the country and give up power were ignored. As the last loyalist district of Sirte fell, Gaddafi and other members of the government attempted to flee.
At around 01:30 local time (03:30 UTC) on 20 October 2011, Gaddafi, his army chief Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr, his security chief Mansour Dhao, and a group of loyalists attempted to escape the violence in a convoy of 75 vehicles. A Royal Air Force reconnaissance aircraft spotted the convoy moving at high speed, after NATO forces intercepted a satellite phone call made by Gaddafi.
NATO aircraft then fired on 21 of the vehicles, destroying one. A U.S. Predator drone operated from a base near Las Vegas fired the first missiles at the convoy, hitting its target about 3 kilometres (2 mi) west of Sirte. Moments later, French Air Force Rafale fighter jets continued the bombing. The NATO bombing immobilized much of the convoy and killed dozens of loyalist fighters. Following the first strike, the convoy split into several groups, with a subsequent strike destroying another 11 vehicles. Rebel units on the ground also struck the convoy.
According to their statement, NATO was not aware at the time of the strike that Gaddafi was in the convoy. NATO stated that in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1973, it does not target individuals but only military assets that pose a threat. NATO later learned, "from open sources and Allied intelligence", that Gaddafi was in the convoy and that the strike likely contributed to his capture.
After the airstrike, which destroyed the vehicle in front of Muammar Gaddafi's car, he and his son Mutassim, and former defence minister Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr, took shelter in a nearby house, which was then shelled by NTC forces.
Mutassim then took 20 fighters and went to look for undamaged cars, having persuaded his father to come too. "The group belly-crawled to a sand berm," a UN report, released in March 2012 said, and then through two drainage pipes and set up a defensive position.
One of Gaddafi's guards threw a grenade at advancing rebels on the road above, but it hit a concrete wall above the pipes and fell in front of Gaddafi. The guard tried to pick it up, but it exploded, killing both the guard and Yunis Jabr.
Capture and death
Gaddafi took refuge in a large drainage pipe with several loyalist bodyguards. A nearby group of NTC fighters opened fire, wounding Gaddafi with gunshots to his leg and back. According to one unnamed NTC fighter, one of Gaddafi's own loyalists also shot him, apparently to spare him from being captured. It is unclear if NATO aircraft were involved in helping secure Gaddafi's capture by Libyan forces on the ground. A group of rebels approached the pipe where Gaddafi was hiding and ordered him to come out, which he slowly did. He was then dragged up to his feet as rebels shouted "Muammar, Muammar!"
However, a UN report released in March 2012 revealed a different account of Gaddafi's capture. Gaddafi was wounded by grenade fragmentation from a grenade thrown by one of his own men which bounced off a wall and fell in front of Gaddafi, shredding his flak jacket. He sat on the floor dazed and in shock, bleeding from a wound in the left temple. Then one of his group waved a white turban in surrender.
Gaddafi was killed shortly afterwards. There are conflicting reports; according to one report, Gaddafi said "Please don't shoot!" prior to being shot, and when questioned by Misratan rebel fighters about the damage done to Misrata by his forces, denied any involvement, and begged his captors not to hit or kill him. One fighter demanded Gaddafi stand up, but he struggled to do so. Gaddafi can be heard in one video saying "God forbids this" and "Do you know right from wrong?" when being shouted at by his captors. In a video of his arrest he can be seen draped on the hood of a car, held by rebel fighters. A senior NTC official said that no order was given to execute Gaddafi. According to another NTC source, "they captured him alive and while he was being taken away, they beat him and then they killed him". Mahmoud Jibril gave an alternative account, stating that "when the car was moving it was caught in crossfire between the revolutionaries and Gaddafi forces in which he was hit by a bullet in the head."
Several videos related to the death were broadcast by news channels and circulated via the Internet. The first shows footage of Gaddafi alive, his face and shirt bloodied, stumbling and being dragged toward an ambulance by armed militants chanting "God is great" in Arabic. The video shows Gaddafi being sodomized with a bayonet. Another shows Gaddafi, stripped to the waist, suffering from an apparent gunshot wound to the head, and in a pool of blood, together with jubilant fighters firing automatic weapons in the air. A third video, posted on YouTube, shows fighters "hovering around his lifeless-looking body, posing for photographs and yanking his limp head up and down by the hair." Another video shows him being stripped naked and verbally abused by his captors.
The interim Libyan authorities decided to keep Gaddafi's body "for a few days", NTC oil minister Ali Tarhouni said, "to make sure that everybody knows he is dead." The body was moved to an industrial freezer where members of the public were permitted to view it until 24 October. Video shows Gaddafi's body on display in the center of an emptied public freezer in Misrata. Some people traveled hundreds of kilometres to see proof that Gaddafi was dead; one said, "God made the pharaoh as an example to the others. If he had been a good man, we would have buried him. But he chose this destiny for himself." One reporter observed gunshot residue on the wounds, consistent with shots at close range.
Gaddafi's body was displayed alongside that of his son, Mutassim Gaddafi, who also died in the custody of Misratan fighters after his capture in Sirte on 20 October. The younger Gaddafi's body was removed from the refrigerator for burial at the same time as his father's on 24 October.
Although an NTC spokesman said Gaddafi's body would be returned to his family with a directive to keep his burial site secret after an autopsy had determined the cause of death, the semi-autonomous military council in Misrata said it would be buried quickly instead, vetoing the idea of an autopsy. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch called for an independent autopsy and an investigation into how Gaddafi died, but Jibril said neither step was necessary.
On 25 October, NTC representatives announced that Gaddafi's body had been buried in an unknown location in the desert early that morning, together with those of his son Mutassim Gaddafi and the regime's defense minister Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr. A Dubai-based satellite TV channel Al Aan TV showed amateur footage of the funeral taking place at an unknown location where Islamic prayers were read. Libya's Minister for Information Mahmoud Shammam said that a fatwa had declared that "Gaddafi should not be buried in Muslim cemeteries and should not be buried in a known place to avoid any sedition."
Moments after it was reported that Gaddafi was killed, Fox News published an article titled "U.S. Drone Involved in Final Qaddafi Strike, as Obama Heralds Regime's 'End'", noting that a U.S. Predator drone was involved in the airstrike on Gaddafi's convoy in the moments before his death. An anonymous US official subsequently described their policy in hindsight as "lead[ing] from behind".
Because Libyan rebels had consistently told American government officials that they did not want overt foreign military assistance in toppling Gaddafi, covert military assistance was used (including arms shipments to opposition). The plan following Gaddafi's death was to immediately begin flowing humanitarian assistance to eastern Libya and later western Libya, as the symbolism would be critically important. US sources stressed it as important that they would "not allow Turkey, Italy and others to steal a march on it".
Concurrent capture or death of relatives and associates
National Transitional Council officials also announced that one of Gaddafi's sons, Mutassim Gaddafi, once the Libyan national security advisor, was killed in Sirte the same day. A video later surfaced showing Mutassim's body lying in an ambulance. A video aired on Al Arrai television showed Mutassim alive and talking to his captors. The circumstances of his death are unclear.
Footage had emerged earlier on 20 October of the body of Gaddafi's defence minister, Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr. Abdul Hakim Al Jalil, the commander of the NTC's 11th brigade, stated that former Gaddafi spokesman Moussa Ibrahim had been captured near Sirte. Reports indicate that Ahmed Ibrahim, one of Gaddafi's cousins, was also captured.
Calls for investigation
Numerous organizations, including the United Nations and the U.S. and UK governments, have called for an investigation of the exact circumstances of Gaddafi's death, amid controversy that it was an extrajudicial killing and a war crime. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, had said there should be a full investigation.
The UN Human Rights Office spokesperson said that he expects the UN commission already investigating potential human rights abuse in Libya would look into the case. Waheed Burshan, a member of the NTC, said that an investigation should happen.
On 24 October 2011, the NTC announced that it had ordered an investigation in response to the international calls and that it would prosecute the killers if the investigation showed he died after his capture. Almost a year later, on 17 October 2012, new evidence was revealed by Human Rights Watch showing that mass killings occurred at the site of Gaddafi's death.
In its immediate aftermath, the controversial killing of Gaddafi was thought to have significant implications in the Middle East, as a critical part of the wider 'Arab Spring'. Former CIA analyst Bruce Riedel speculated that the death would intensify protesting in Syria and Yemen, and French officials stated that because of this they were "watching the Algerian situation".
Omran Shaban, the Misrata fighter who discovered Gaddafi in the drain pipe and who had posed in photos with his golden gun, was captured by Green Resistance soldiers in Bani Walid. He was then paralysed and severely tortured. The interim president of Libya secured his release but he died some days later from his wounds in France.
Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril said he wished Gaddafi had remained alive so he could be tried for crimes against humanity, saying he had wanted to serve as Gaddafi's prosecutor, but now that he was dead, Libya would need a meticulous plan for the transition to democracy.
The unelected head of state said, "Our forces' resistance to Gaddafi ended well, with the help of God." He declared Libya to be "liberated" at a ceremony in Benghazi on 23 October, three days after Gaddafi's death.
NTC official Ali Tarhouni said on 22 October that he had instructed the military council in Misrata to keep Gaddafi's body preserved for several days in a commercial freezer "to make sure that everybody knows he is dead". Two days later, Tarhouni admitted that there had been human rights abuses in the Battle of Sirte, which he said the NTC condemned, and claimed the Executive Board "did not want to put an end to that tyrant's life before bringing him to trial and making him answer questions that have always haunted Libyans".
Saadi Gaddafi, one of Muammar Gaddafi's surviving sons in exile in Niger, said through an attorney that he was "shocked and outraged by vicious brutality" toward his father and his brother, Mutassim Gaddafi, and that the killing showed that the new Libyan leadership could not be trusted to hold fair trials.
Many leaders and foreign ministers of European countries, as well as fellow Western countries like Australia, Canada, and the United States, made statements hailing Gaddafi's death as a positive development for Libya. The city-state of Vatican City responded to the event by declaring it recognised the National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate government. World leaders such as Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard suggested that the death of Gaddafi meant the Libyan Civil War was over. Some officials, such as UK Foreign Secretary William Hague, expressed disappointment that Gaddafi was not brought back alive and allowed to stand trial. The United States' Secretary of State at the time, Hillary Clinton, laughingly stated "We came. We saw. He died."
Reactions from the governments of countries including Cuba, Russia, Venezuela, and Nicaragua were negative. Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez described the former Libyan leader's death as an "assassination" and an "outrage", and Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega later called his killing a "crime" during his inauguration on 10 January 2012. Officials of Iran showed considerably diverse reactions.
The video reportedly left a particularly strong and consequential impression on Russia's Vladimir Putin. A senior diplomat who had served at the US embassy in Moscow under the Obama administration reportedly claimed that "Putin had been appalled by Gaddafi’s fate" to the extent that "Putin had watched a video of Gaddafi’s savage death three times, a video that shows him being sodomised with a bayonet." Referring to the U.S. coalition's lobbying efforts for the airstrikes at the U.N., the U.S. diplomat is quoted as saying that a later U.S. intelligence assessment concluded that "Putin blamed himself for letting Gaddafi go, for not playing a strong role behind the scenes" and that the video may have even influenced Putin's decision to support Syrian President Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian civil war since "Putin believed that unless he got engaged Bashar would suffer the same fate – mutilated – and he’d see the destruction of his allies in Syria." Putin also lashed out at the U.S. for the illegal killing of Gaddafi and asked "They showed to the whole world how he (Gaddafi) was killed; there was blood all over. Is that what they call a democracy?"
Immediately after Gaddafi's death, NATO released a statement denying it knew beforehand that Gaddafi was travelling in the convoy it struck. Admiral James G. Stavridis, NATO's top officer, said the death of Gaddafi meant that NATO would likely wind down its operations in Libya. Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the NATO secretary-general, said NATO would "terminate [its] mission in coordination with the United Nations and the National Transitional Council".
- "Muammar Gaddafi: How he died". BBC News. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- Martin Chulov (20 October 2012). "Gaddafi's last moments: 'I saw the hand holding the gun and I saw it fire'". theguardian.com. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
one fighter crouched in the dirt behind the frightened captive and sodomised him with a bayonet
- Greenhill, Sam (28 October 2011). "Gaddafi's killers will be put on trial over mob execution, vow Libya's new rulers". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Kareem Fahim (22 October 2011). "In his last days, Gadhafi survived on pasta and delusions". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi 'is recruiting fighters from other African countries'". The Guardian. London. Associated Press. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Libya's Moammar Gadhafi killed in hometown battle". MSNBC. Associated Press. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Fahim, Kareem; Gladstone, Rick; Shadid, Anthony (20 October 2011). "Violent End to an Era as Qaddafi Dies in Libya". The New York Times. Misrata. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Fahim, Kareem (22 October 2011). "In His Last Days, Qaddafi Wearied of Fugitive's Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Harding, Thomas (20 October 2011). "Col Gaddafi killed-convoy bombed by drone flown by pilot in Las Vegas". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Wie die Nato Gaddafi jagte". Der Spiegel (in German). 21 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Williams, David (21 October 2011). "How a NATO air strike finished off Gaddafi". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- James Blitz and Hugh Carnegy. "Confusion over Nato role in Gaddafi death" (20 October 2011). Financial Times.
- "Gaddafi wanted to stage last stand in desert - U.N. report". Reuters. 2 March 2012.
- Gabbatt, Adam (20 October 2011). "Gaddafi killed as Sirte falls". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- David Martin – "Who shot Qaddafi? Was it his own bodyguards?" – CBS News – 20 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Martin Chulov. "Gaddafi's last moments: 'I saw the hand holding the gun and I saw it fire'". the Guardian.
- ""Don't shoot": Qaddafi's last moments". CBS News. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Libyan fighter: I spoke to Gaddafi before he died". BBC News. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- "Clues to Gaddafi's death concealed from public view". Reuters. 23 October 2011.
- Raymond A. Schroth (27 October 2011). "Readings: Any Hope for Libya?". America Magazine. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Gaddafie Captured alive then Executed footage". Liveleak. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi's death – who pulled the trigger?". Reuters. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Muammar Gaddafi killed in Libya". BBC. 20 October 2011.
- "GlobalPost: Qaddafi apparently sodomized after capture". CBS. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
a GlobalPost analysis of video footage suggests a Libyan fighter sodomized the former dictator after he was captured near Sirte.
- Seymour Hersh. "Military to Military: Seymour M. Hersh on US intelligence sharing in the Syrian war". London Review of Books. 38 (1): 11–14. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
He also echoed a view held by some in the Pentagon when he alluded to a collateral factor behind Russia’s decision to launch airstrikes in support of the Syrian army on 30 September: Putin’s desire to prevent Assad from suffering the same fate as Gaddafi. He had been told that Putin had watched a video of Gaddafi’s savage death three times, a video that shows him being sodomised with a bayonet.
- Chulov, Martin (28 October 2011). "Gadafy's killers will be tried, claims NTC". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
The footage, including images of a wounded Gadafy being sodomised with what looked like a bayonet, caused widespread revulsion outside the country.
- "Footage shows Gaddafi's bloodied body". Al Jazeera. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Faraway (26 December 2011). "(Exclusive Video) Gaddafi stripped naked by rebels before his death". All Voices. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Barry Malone (20 October 2011). "Gaddafi killed in hometown, Libya eyes future". Reuters.
- "Libya delays burial plans for Muammar Gaddafi". BBC. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi, in meat locker, still divides Libya". Reuters. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Libya's NTC orders probe into Gaddafi killing". Al Jazeera. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Kim, Kyle (21 October 2011). "Gaddafi's body "packed in shopping center freezer" (VIDEO) (GRAPHIC)". GlobalPost. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Libya "liberated" but Gaddafi still unburied". Reuters. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "Ignominious end for dictator Gaddafi as he is buried with his son Mutassim in unmarked desert grave at dawn". Daily Mail. London. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Muammar Gaddafi family demands body, Nato ends Libya war". The Times of India. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "22 October 2011". Al Jazeera.
- Hounshell, Blake (21 October 2011). "Does it really matter if Qaddafi was executed?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- McElroy, Damien (22 October 2011). "Libya to greet dawn of new era". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi buried in unknown location, reports say". The Guardian. London. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi buried in secret location at dawn". ABC News. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- "NTC says Gaddafi buried in secret grave". Al Jazeera. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- Mousa, Jenan. تجهيز جثمان القذافي للدفن في الصحراء الليبية - صور حصرية. Akhbar Alaan (in Arabic). Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Richardson, Clare (26 October 2011). "Gaddafi Funeral Video: Footage Claims To Show Secret Ceremony". Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Col Gaddafi 'buried in secret, desert grave at dawn'". BBC. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- "U.S. Drone Involved in Final Qaddafi Strike, as Obama Heralds Regime's 'End'". Fox News. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Gaddafi killed: A new kind of US foreign policy success". BBC News. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "WikiLeaks". Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Mutassim's body". YouTube. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "UN calls for probe into Gaddafi's death". Al Jazeera. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Saif al-Islam Gaddafi arrested in Libya". Al Jazeera English. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Muammar Gaddafi killed as Sirte falls". Al Jazeera. 20 October 2011.
- Karin Laub (24 October 2011). "Calls grow for full investigation into Gaddafi's death". Business Day. South Africa.
- "Pressure grows for Gaddafi death investigation". ABC News. 22 October 2011.
- "UN calls for probe into Gaddafi's death". Al Jazeera. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- "Muammar Gaddafi: How he died". BBC News. 31 October 2011.
- "Doubts cast on official Gaddafi death account". Al Jazeera. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Libya Vows to Prosecute Gadhafi Killers". Voice of America. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Libya: New Proof of Mass Killings at Gaddafi Death Site". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2012.
- "Arab Spring domino effect: Gaddafi is gone, will Syria's al-Assad be the next Arab autocrat toppled?". 21 October 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Arab Spring: timeline of the African and Middle East rebellions". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Which Middle East Dictator Is Going Down Next?" World News – The Daily Beast - 20 October 2011 – 20 October 2011.
- George Grant (25 September 2012). "Libyan revolutionary who captured Qaddafi dies in Paris". Libya Herald. Retrieved 9 December 2012.(subscription required)
- "Omran Shaban Dead: Rebel Who Helped Catch Gaddafi Dies After Being Captured And Tortured". The WorldPost. Reuters. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Autopsy: Qaddafi was killed by shot to head". CBS News. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Libyan PM: I wish Gaddafi had not been killed". The First Post. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Remember years of agony in Libya, says Mahmoud Jibril". The Scotsman. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Daragahi, Borzou (23 October 2011). "Libya declares liberation after Gaddafi's death". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Libya delays burial plans for dictator". BBC News. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "NTC vows to probe rights abuses, control arms". Magharebia. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Cave, Peter (21 October 2011). "Misurata militia says it still has Gaddafi's body". ABC News. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- "Sun, 23 Oct 2011, 21:02 GMT+3 - Libya". Al Jazeera Blogs. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Satter, Raphael (20 October 2011). "World looks warily to Libya's future post-Gadhafi". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "News of Gadhafi's Death Met With Relief". VOA News. Associated Press Reuters. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Gaddafi death brings 'relief' to Libya: Gillard". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- David S. Cloud." NATO commander expected to recommend ending Libya airstrikes" (20 October 2011).
- Hillary Clinton."We Came, We Saw, He Died"
- "Fidel Castro calls NATO "brutal" for Libya role". Reuters. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Putin 'disgusted' at Gaddafi coverage". ABC News Australia. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Gadhafi's friend to the death, Chavez calls Libyan leader 'a martyr'". CNN. 20 October 2011.
- "Nicaragua's Ortega condemned killing of Gaddafi and offered a prayer for Hussein". MercoPress. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "As it happened: Libya's Col Gaddafi killed". BBC. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Ortega urges Israel to destroy 'nuclear arms'". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "Iran's Ahmadinejad says West set to plunder Libya". Reuters. 25 October 2011.
- "Иран похвалил ливийцев за устранение Каддафи". lenta.ru. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Seymour Hersh, 'Military to Military,' London Review of Books, Vol. 38 No. 1,7 January 2016 pp.11-14. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Deng Shasha (15 December 2011). "Putin slams U.S. on Gaddafi killing". Xinhua. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "NATO commander to recommend Libya mission end" (21 October 2011). Associated Press.