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Dacoity is a term used for "banditry" in the Indian subcontinent. The spelling is the anglicized version of the Hindustani word, and as a colloquial Indian English word with this meaning, it appears in the Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases (1903). Banditry is criminal activity involving robbery by groups of armed bandits. The East India Company established the Thuggee and Dacoity Department in 1830, and the Thuggee and Dacoity Suppression Acts, 1836–1848 were enacted in British India under East India Company rule. Areas with ravines or forests, such as Chambal and Chilapata Forests, were once known for dacoits.
The word "dacoity", the anglicized version of the Hindustani word ḍakaitī (historically spelled dakaitee, Hindi डकैती or Urdu ڈکیتی), comes from ḍākū (historically spelled dakoo, Hindi: डाकू, Urdu: ڈاکو, meaning "armed robber").
Bandits of Morena and Chambal
The dacoity have had a large impact in the Morena and Chambal regions in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in north-central India. The exact reasons for the emergence of dacoity in the Chambal valley has been disputed. Most explanations have simply suggested feudal exploitation as the cause that provoked many people of this region to take to arms. The area was also underdeveloped and poor, so that banditry posed great economic incentives. However, the fact that many gangs operating in this valley were composed of higher castes and wealthy people appears to suggest that feudalism may only be a partial explanation of dacoity in Chambal valley (Bhaduri, 1972; Khan, 1981; Jatar, 1980; Katare, 1972). Furthermore, traditional honor codes and blood feuds would drive some into criminality.
In Chambal, organized crime controlled much of the countryside from the time of the British Raj up to the early 2000s, with the police offering high rewards for the most notorious bandit chiefs. The criminals regularly targeted local businesses, though they preferred to kidnap wealthy people, and demand ransom from their relatives - cutting off fingers, noses, and ears to pressure them into paying high sums. Many dacoity also posed as social bandits toward the local poor, paying medical bills and funding weddings. One ex-dacoit described his own criminal past by claiming that "I was a rebel. I fought injustice." Following intense anti-banditry campaigns by the Indian Police, highway robbery was almost completely eradicated in the early 2000s. Nevertheless, Chambal is still popularly believed to be unsafe and bandit-infested by many Indians. One police officer noted that the fading of the dacoity was also due to social changes, as few young people were any longer willing to endure the harsh life as highway robber in the countryside. Instead, they prefer to join crime groups in the city, where life is easier.
Dacoits existed in Burma as well – Rudyard Kipling's fictional Private Mulvaney hunted Burmese dacoits in "The Taking of Lungtungpen". Sax Rohmer's criminal mastermind Dr. Fu Manchu also employed Burmese dacoits as his henchmen.
Indian police forces use "Known Dacoit" (K.D.) as a label to classify criminals.
Notable dacoits include:
- Gabbar Singh Gujjar, inspired the famous 1975 film Sholay, based on his life
- Chavviram Singh Yadav, he was became the synonym of awe.
- Kalua Yadav
- Phoolan Devi
- Dadua Gujjar
- Daku Man Singh, involved in 90 police encounters and killed 32 police officers
- Nirbhay Gujjar, the last dacoit and biggest dacoit of Chambal also called the last Lion of Chambal
- Sultana Daku
- Ram Babu gadariya is sardar of gadariya groh active in Shivpuri
- Paan Singh Tomar
- Ramesh Singh Sikarwar
- Biswanath Sardar
- Amritlal Kirar, the infamous daaku of Chambal.
In Madhya Pradesh, women belonging to a village defence group have been issued firearm permits to fend off dacoity. The Ex-chief minister of the state, Shivraj Singh Chouhan, recognised the role the women had played in defending their villages without guns. He stated that he wanted to enable these women to better defend both themselves and their villages, and issued the gun permits to advance this goal.
In popular culture
As the dacoits flourished through the 1940s–1970s, they were the subject of various Hindi films made during this era, leading to the emergence of the dacoit film genre in Bollywood. The genre began with Mehboob Khan's Aurat (1940), which he remade as Mother India (1957). Mother India received an Academy Award nomination, and defined the dacoit film genre, along with Dilip Kumar's Gunga Jumna (1961). Other popular films in this genre included Homi Wadia's Diamond Queen (1940), Raj Kapoor’s Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai (1961) and Moni Bhattacharjee's Mujhe Jeene Do (1963).
Pakistani actor Akmal Khan had two dacoit films, Malangi (1965) and Imam Din Gohavia (1967). Other films in this genre included Khote Sikkay (1973), Mera Gaon Mera Desh (1971), and Kuchhe Dhaage (1973) both by Raj Khosla.
The most famous dacoit film is Sholay (1975), written by Salim-Javed and starring Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, and with its dacoit character Gabbar Singh played by Amjad Khan. It was a masala film that combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with that of Spaghetti Westerns, spawning the Dacoit Western genre, often known as the "Curry Western" genre. The film also borrowed elements from Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai. Sholay became a classic in the genre, and its success led to a surge of films in this genre, including Ganga Ki Saugandh (1978), once again starring Amitabh Bachchan and Amjad Khan.
An internationally acclaimed example of the genre is Bandit Queen (1994).
Tamil movie, Karthi starrer Theeran Adhigaaram Ondru (2017) deals elaborately about Bandits. The film reveals the real dacoity incidents which held in Tamil Nadu between 1995 and 2005. Director Vinoth did a 2 year research about Bandits to develop the script.
A related genre of crime films are Mumbai underworld films.
Dacoits armed with pistols and swords appear in Age of Empires III: Asian Dynasties.
- Here, "Anglo-Indian" refers to the language, or linguistic usage. See Yule, Henry and Burnell, Arthur Coke (1886) Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive J. Murry, London; reprinted 1903; see page page 290 of the 1903 edition for "dacoit".
- Paul Salopek (6 February 2019). "Trekking India's wild north, where bandits ruled". National Geographic. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-32493120. Missing or empty
- Phoolan Devi; Marie-Therese Cuny & Paul Rambali. "The Bandit Queen of India: An Indian Woman's Amazing Journey from Peasant to International Legend". Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59228-641-6.
- Staff (5 September 1955) "India: Dead Man" Time magazine
- "The 'Last Lion of Chambal' gunned down by police". www.southasianpost.com. September 20, 2005. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.
- Paan Singh Tomar[circular reference]
- "Indian Women Granted Gun Permits to Fend Off Armed Robbers" LearnAboutGuns.com
- Salopek, Paul (February 6, 2019). "Outlaw Trails". National Geographic Society.
They have grown up on news accounts and Bollywood movies about the remote Chambal, a vast badland at the northern heart of their country: a no-go zone of lumpy hills and silty rivers infested with thugs, robbers, murderers, gangsters—with infamous highwaymen called dacoits.
- Teo, Stephen (2017). Eastern Westerns: Film and Genre Outside and Inside Hollywood. Taylor & Francis. p. 122. ISBN 9781317592266.
- "THE REAL LIFE HERO". Screen. Jun 6, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- Pandya, Haresh (27 December 2007). "G. P. Sippy, Indian Filmmaker Whose Sholay Was a Bollywood Hit, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Phoolan Devi, with Marie-Therese Cuny, and Paul Rambali, The Bandit Queen of India: An Indian Woman's Amazing Journey from Peasant to International Legend Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2006 ISBN 978-1-59228-641-6
- Mala Sen, India's Bandit Queen: The true Story of Phoolan Devi, HarperCollins Publishers (September 1991) ISBN 978-0-00-272066-3.
- G. K. Betham, The Story of a Dacoity, and the Lolapaur Week: An Up-Country Sketch. BiblioBazaar, 2008. ISBN 0-559-47369-9.
- Shyam Sunder Katare, Patterns of dacoity in India: a case study of Madhya Pradesh. S. Chand, 1972.
- Mohammad Zahir Khan, Dacoity in Chambal Valley. National, 1981.
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