Conscription (sometimes called the draft in the United States) is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and it continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military. Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force.
Conscription is controversial for a range of reasons, including conscientious objection to military engagements on religious or philosophical grounds; political objection, for example to service for a disliked government or unpopular war; sexism, in that historically only men have been subject to the draft; and ideological objection, for example, to a perceived violation of individual rights. Those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country, and seeking asylum in another country. Some selection systems accommodate these attitudes by providing alternative service outside combat-operations roles or even outside the military, such as Siviilipalvelus (alternative civil service) in Finland, Zivildienst (compulsory community service) in Austria and Switzerland. Several countries conscript male soldiers not only for armed forces, but also for paramilitary agencies, which are dedicated to police-like domestic only service like internal troops, border guards or non-combat rescue duties like civil defence.
As of the early 21st century, many states no longer conscript soldiers, relying instead upon professional militaries with volunteers. The ability to rely on such an arrangement, however, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities. Many states that have abolished conscription still, therefore, reserve the power to resume conscription during wartime or times of crisis. States involved in wars or interstate rivalries are most likely to implement conscription, and democracies are less likely than autocracies to implement conscription. With a few exceptions, such as Singapore and Egypt, former British colonies are less likely to have conscription, as they are influenced by British anti-conscription norms that can be traced back to the English Civil War; the United Kingdom abolished conscription in 1960.
In pre-modern times
Around the reign of Hammurabi (1791–1750 BC), the Babylonian Empire used a system of conscription called Ilkum. Under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war. During times of peace they were instead required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for this service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land. It is possible that this right was not to hold land per se but specific land supplied by the state.
Various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have been practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Later records show that Ilkum commitments could become regularly traded. In other places, people simply left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them. With the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Under the feudal laws on the European continent, landowners in the medieval period enforced a system whereby all peasants, freemen commoners and noblemen aged 15 to 60 living in the countryside or in urban centers, were summoned for military duty when required by either the king or the local lord, bringing along the weapons and armor according to their wealth. These levies fought as footmen, sergeants, and men at arms under local superiors appointed by the king or the local lord such as the arrière-ban in France. Arrière-ban denoted a general levy, where all able-bodied males age 15 to 60 living in the Kingdom of France were summoned to go to war by the King (or the constable and the marshals). Men were summoned by the bailiff (or the sénéchal in the south). Bailiffs were military and political administrators installed by the King to steward and govern a specific area of a province following the king's commands and orders. The men summoned in this way were then summoned by the lieutenant who was the King's representative and military governor over an entire province comprising many bailiwicks, seneschalties and castellanies. All men from the richest noble to the poorest commoner were summoned under the arrière-ban and they were supposed to present themselves to the King or his officials.
In medieval Scandinavia the leiðangr (Old Norse), leidang (Norwegian), leding, (Danish), ledung (Swedish), lichting (Dutch), expeditio (Latin) or sometimes leþing (Old English), was a levy of free farmers conscripted into coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm.
The bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the freemen of each county. In the 690s laws of Ine of Wessex, three levels of fines are imposed on different social classes for neglecting military service.
Some modern writers claim military service in Europe was restricted to the landowning minor nobility. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year. The historian David Sturdy has cautioned about regarding the fyrd as a precursor to a modern national army composed of all ranks of society, describing it as a "ridiculous fantasy":
The persistent old belief that peasants and small farmers gathered to form a national army or fyrd is a strange delusion dreamt up by antiquarians in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries to justify universal military conscription.
In medieval Japan the shogun degree of 1393 exempted money lenders from religious or military levies, in return for a yearly tax. The Ōnin War weakened the shogun and levies were imposed again on money lenders. This overlordism was arbitrary and unpredictable commoners. While the money lenders were not poor, several overlords tapped them for income. Levies became necessary for the survival of the overlord, allowing the lord to impose taxes at will. These levies included. tansen tax on agricultural land for ceremonial expenses, yakubu takumai tax was raised on all land to rebuild the Ise Grand Shrine, and the munabechisen tax was imposed on all houses. At the time, land in Kyoto was acquired by commoners through usury and in 1422 the shogun threatened to reposes the land of those commoners who failed to pay their levies.
The system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers (ghulams or mamluks) by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s. The Turkish troops soon came to dominate the government, establishing a pattern throughout the Islamic world of a ruling military class, often separated by ethnicity, culture and even religion by the mass of the population, a paradigm that found its apogee in the Mamluks of Egypt and the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, institutions that survived until the early 19th century.
In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, with a slave army called the Kapıkulu. The new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands, especially from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme (translated "gathering" or "converting"). The captive children were forced to convert to Islam. The Sultans had the young boys trained over several years. Those who showed special promise in fighting skills were trained in advanced warrior skills, put into the sultan's personal service, and turned into the Janissaries, the elite branch of the Kapıkulu. A number of distinguished military commanders of the Ottomans, and most of the imperial administrators and upper-level officials of the Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way. By 1609, the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000.
In later years, Sultans turned to the Barbary Pirates to supply their Jannissaries corps. Their attacks on ships off the coast of Africa or in the Mediterranean, and subsequent capture of able-bodied men for ransom or sale provided some captives for the Sultan's system. Starting in the 17th century, Christian families living under the Ottoman rule began to submit their sons into the Kapikulu system willingly, as they saw this as a potentially invaluable career opportunity for their children. Eventually the Sultan turned to foreign volunteers from the warrior clans of Circassians in southern Russia to fill his Janissary armies. As a whole the system began to break down, the loyalty of the Jannissaries became increasingly suspect. Mahmud II forcibly disbanded the Janissary corps in 1826.
Similar to the Janissaries in origin and means of development were the Mamluks of Egypt in the Middle Ages. The Mamluks were usually captive non-Muslim Iranian and Turkish children who had been kidnapped or bought as slaves from the Barbary coasts. The Egyptians assimilated and trained the boys and young men to become Islamic soldiers who served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th-century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste. On more than one occasion, they seized power, for example, ruling Egypt from 1250 to 1517.
From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak origin. Slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corps of troops. They eventually revolted in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. The Mamluks' excellent fighting abilities, massed Islamic armies, and overwhelming numbers succeeded in overcoming the Christian Crusader fortresses in the Holy Land. The Mamluks were the most successful defence against the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt.
On the western coast of Africa, Berber Muslims captured non-Muslims to put to work as laborers. They generally converted the younger people to Islam and many became quite assimilated. In Morocco, the Berber looked south rather than north. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail, called "the Bloodthirsty" (1672–1727), employed a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard. He used them to coerce the country into submission.
In modern times
Modern conscription, the massed military enlistment of national citizens (Levée en masse), was devised during the French Revolution, to enable the Republic to defend itself from the attacks of European monarchies. Deputy Jean-Baptiste Jourdan gave its name to the 5 September 1798 Act, whose first article stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation." It enabled the creation of the Grande Armée, what Napoleon Bonaparte called "the nation in arms", which overwhelmed European professional armies that often numbered only into the low tens of thousands. More than 2.6 million men were inducted into the French military in this way between the years 1800 and 1813.
The defeat of the Prussian Army in particular shocked the Prussian establishment, which had believed it was invincible after the victories of Frederick the Great. The Prussians were used to relying on superior organization and tactical factors such as order of battle to focus superior troops against inferior ones. Given approximately equivalent forces, as was generally the case with professional armies, these factors showed considerable importance. However, they became considerably less important when the Prussian armies faced Napoleon's forces that outnumbered their own in some cases by more than ten to one. Scharnhorst advocated adopting the levée en masse, the military conscription used by France. The Krümpersystem was the beginning of short-term compulsory service in Prussia, as opposed to the long-term conscription previously used.
In the Russian Empire, the military service time "owed" by serfs was 25 years at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1834 it was decreased to 20 years. The recruits were to be not younger than 17 and not older than 35. In 1874 Russia introduced universal conscription in the modern pattern, an innovation only made possible by the abolition of serfdom in 1861. New military law decreed that all male Russian subjects, when they reached the age of 20, were eligible to serve in the military for six years.
In the decades prior to World War I universal conscription along broadly Prussian lines became the norm for European armies, and those modeled on them. By 1914 the only substantial armies still completely dependent on voluntary enlistment were those of Britain and the United States. Some colonial powers such as France reserved their conscript armies for home service while maintaining professional units for overseas duties.
The range of eligible ages for conscripting was expanded to meet national demand during the World Wars. In the United States, the Selective Service System drafted men for World War I initially in an age range from 21 to 30 but expanded its eligibility in 1918 to an age range of 18 to 45. In the case of a widespread mobilization of forces where service includes homefront defense, ages of conscripts may range much higher, with the oldest conscripts serving in roles requiring lesser mobility.
Expanded-age conscription was common during the Second World War: in Britain, it was commonly known as "call-up" and extended to age 51. Nazi Germany termed it Volkssturm ("People's Storm") and included children as young as 16 and men as old as 60. During the Second World War, both Britain and the Soviet Union conscripted women. The United States was on the verge of drafting women into the Nurse Corps because it anticipated it would need the extra personnel for its planned invasion of Japan. However, the Japanese surrendered and the idea was abandoned.
Arguments against conscription
Men's rights activists, feminists, and opponents of discrimination against men:102 have criticized military conscription, or compulsory military service, as sexist. The National Coalition for Men, a men's rights group, sued the US Selective Service System in 2019, leading to it being declared unconstitutional by a US Federal Judge.
Feminists have argued that military conscription is sexist because wars serve the interests of what they view as the patriarchy, the military is a sexist institution, conscripts are therefore indoctrinated in sexism, and conscription of men normalizes violence by men as socially acceptable. Feminists have been organizers and participants in resistance to conscription in several countries.
Conscription has also been criticized as, historically, only men have been subjected to conscription. Men who opt out or are deemed unfit for military service must often perform alternative service, such as Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland, or pay extra taxes, whereas women do not have these obligations. Men who do not sign up for Selective Service in the US, are prohibited from eligibility for citizenship, financial aid, admissions to public colleges or universities, federal grants and loans, federal employment, and in some states, driving licenses.
American libertarians oppose conscription and call for the abolition of the Selective Service System, believing that impressment of individuals into the armed forces is "involuntary servitude". Ron Paul, a former presidential nominee of the U.S. Libertarian Party has said that conscription "is wrongly associated with patriotism, when it really represents slavery and involuntary servitude". The philosopher Ayn Rand opposed conscription, suggesting that "of all the statist violations of individual rights in a mixed economy, the military draft is the worst. It is an abrogation of rights. It negates man's fundamental right—the right to life—and establishes the fundamental principle of statism: that a man's life belongs to the state, and the state may claim it by compelling him to sacrifice it in battle."
In 1917, a number of radicals and anarchists, including Emma Goldman, challenged the new draft law in federal court arguing that it was a direct violation of the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude. However, the Supreme Court unanimously upheld the constitutionality of the draft act in the case of Arver v. United States on 7 January 1918. The decision said the Constitution gave Congress the power to declare war and to raise and support armies. The Court emphasized the principle of the reciprocal rights and duties of citizens:
- "It may not be doubted that the very conception of a just government in its duty to the citizen includes the reciprocal obligation of the citizen to render military service in case of need and the right to compel."
It can be argued that in a cost-to-benefit ratio, conscription during peacetime is not worthwhile. Months or years of service performed by the most fit and capable subtract from the productivity of the economy; add to this the cost of training them, and in some countries paying them. Compared to these extensive costs, some would argue there is very little benefit; if there ever was a war then conscription and basic training could be completed quickly, and in any case there is little threat of a war in most countries with conscription. In the United States, every male resident is required by law to register with the Selective Service System within 30 days following his 18th birthday and be available for a draft; this is often accomplished automatically by a motor vehicle department during licensing or by voter registration.
According to Milton Friedman the cost of conscription can be related to the parable of the broken window in anti-draft arguments. The cost of the work, military service, does not disappear even if no salary is paid. The work effort of the conscripts is effectively wasted, as an unwilling workforce is extremely inefficient. The impact is especially severe in wartime, when civilian professionals are forced to fight as amateur soldiers. Not only is the work effort of the conscripts wasted and productivity lost, but professionally skilled conscripts are also difficult to replace in the civilian workforce. Every soldier conscripted in the army is taken away from his civilian work, and away from contributing to the economy which funds the military. This may be less a problem in an agrarian or pre-industrialized state where the level of education is generally low, and where a worker is easily replaced by another. However, this is potentially more costly in a post-industrial society where educational levels are high and where the workforce is sophisticated and a replacement for a conscripted specialist is difficult to find. Even direr economic consequences result if the professional conscripted as an amateur soldier is killed or maimed for life; his work effort and productivity are lost.
Arguments for conscription
Political and moral motives
Jean Jacques Rousseau argued vehemently against professional armies since he believed that it was the right and privilege of every citizen to participate to the defense of the whole society and that it was a mark of moral decline to leave the business to professionals. He based his belief upon the development of the Roman Republic, which came to an end at the same time as the Roman Army changed from a conscript to a professional force. Similarly, Aristotle linked the division of armed service among the populace intimately with the political order of the state. Niccolò Machiavelli argued strongly for conscription and saw the professional armies as the cause of the failure of societal unity in Italy.
Other proponents, such as William James, consider both mandatory military and national service as ways of instilling maturity in young adults. Some proponents, such as Jonathan Alter and Mickey Kaus, support a draft in order to reinforce social equality, create social consciousness, break down class divisions and allow young adults to immerse themselves in public enterprise. Charles Rangel called for the reinstatement of the draft during the Iraq War not because he seriously expected it to be adopted but to stress how the socioeconomic restratification meant that very few children of upper-class Americans served in the all-volunteer American armed forces.
Economic and resource efficiency
It is estimated by the British military that in a professional military, a company deployed for active duty in peacekeeping corresponds to three inactive companies at home. Salaries for each are paid from the military budget. In contrast, volunteers from a trained reserve are in their civilian jobs when they are not deployed.
It was more financially beneficial for less-educated young Portuguese men born in 1967 to participate in conscription than to participate in the highly-competitive job market with men of the same age who continued to higher education.
Drafting of women
Throughout history, women have only been conscripted to join armed forces in a few countries, in contrast to the universal practice of conscription from among the male population. The traditional view has been that military service is a test of manhood and a rite of passage from boyhood into manhood.
There are nations in present-day who continue to actively draft women into military service. These are Bolivia,Chad,Eritrea,Israel,Mozambique,Norway,North Korea and Sweden.
Norway introduced female conscription in 2015, making it the first NATO member to have a legally compulsory national service for both men and women. In practice only motivated volunteers are selected to join the army in Norway.
Sweden introduced female conscription in 2010, but it was not activated until 2017. This made Sweden the second nation in Europe to draft women, and the second in the world to draft women on the same formal terms as men.
Sudanese law allows for conscription of women, but this is not implemented in practice. In the United Kingdom during World War II, beginning in 1941, women were brought into the scope of conscription but, as all women with dependent children were exempt and many women were informally left in occupations such as nursing or teaching, the number conscripted was relatively few.
In the USSR, there was never conscription of women for the armed forces, but the severe disruption of normal life and the high proportion of civilians affected by World War II after the German invasion attracted many volunteers for what was termed "The Great Patriotic War". Medical doctors of both sexes could and would be conscripted (as officers). Also, the Soviet university education system required Department of Chemistry students of both sexes to complete an ROTC course in NBC defense, and such female reservist officers could be conscripted in times of war. The United States came close to drafting women into the Nurse Corps in preparation for a planned invasion of Japan.
In 1981 in the United States, several men filed lawsuit in the case Rostker v. Goldberg, alleging that the Selective Service Act of 1948 violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that only men register with the Selective Service System (SSS). The Supreme Court eventually upheld the Act, stating that
"the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity.'"
On October 1, 1999 in Taiwan, the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China in its Interpretation 490 considered that the physical differences between males and females and the derived role differentiation in their respective social functions and lives would not make drafting only males a violation of the Constitution of the Republic of China.[(see discussion) verification needed] Though women are not conscripted in Taiwan, transsexual persons are exempt.
A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or, more often, with any role in the armed forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors have special legal status, which augments their conscription duties. For example, Sweden used to allow (and once again, with the re-introduction of conscription, allows) conscientious objectors to choose a service in the "weapons-free" branch, such as an airport fireman, nurse, or telecommunications technician.
The reasons for refusing to serve in the military are varied. Some people are conscientious objectors for religious reasons. In particular, the members of the historic peace churches are pacifist by doctrine, and Jehovah's Witnesses, while not strictly pacifists, refuse to participate in the armed forces on the ground that they believe that Christians should be neutral in international conflicts.
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Afghanistan||No (abolished in 1992)||N/A|
|Albania||No (abolished in 2010)||N/A|
|Argentina||No. Voluntary; conscription may be ordered for specified reasons; per Public Law No.24.429 promulgated on 5 January 1995||N/A|
|Australia (Conscription)||No (abolished by parliament in 1972)||N/A|
|Austria||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|Bangladesh||No (But can volunteer at Bangladesh Ansar)||N/A|
|Belgium||No (Conscription was abolished as of 1 January 1994 under the so-called Delcroix Bill of 6 July 1993)||N/A|
|Bolivia||Yes (when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal)||Male and Female|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||No (abolished on January 1, 2006)||N/A|
|Brazil (Conscription)||Yes, but almost all recruits have been volunteers in recent years. (alternative service is foreseen in law, but it is not implemented)||Male|
|Bulgaria||No (abolished by law on January 1, 2008)||N/A|
|Canada||No (Occurred during 1917-1918 and 1944-1945)||N/A|
|People's Republic of China||No (Male citizens 18 years of age and over are required to register for military service in PLA recruiting offices, but the policy is not enforced. Policy exempted in Hong Kong and Macao)[failed verification]||N/A|
|Croatia||No (abolished by law in 2008)||N/A|
|Cyprus (Conscription)||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|Czechia||No (abolished in 2005)||N/A|
|Denmark (Conscription)||Yes by law, however a great majority of the recruits have been volunteers over the past few years According to Jyllands Posten, conscription has ended in practice. (alternative service available)||Male|
|Ecuador||No (suspended in 2008)||N/A|
|Egypt||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|El Salvador||No. Legal, not practiced.||N/A|
|Eritrea||Yes (18 months by law, but often extended indefinitely)||Male and female|
|Estonia||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|Finland||Yes (alternative service available)||Male and volunteer female|
|France||No (suspended for peacetime in 2001)||N/A|
|Germany||No (suspended for peacetime by federal legislature effective from 1 July 2011)||N/A|
|Greece||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|Hungary||No (Peacetime conscription abolished in 2004)||N/A|
|Indonesia||No (but has a similar system, called PKRS (Pertahanan Keamanan Rakyat Semesta, Universal People's Defense and Security). The government will draft all men and women if the country has an outbreak of war).||N/A|
|Iraq||No (abolished in 2003)||N/A|
|Israel (Conscription)||Yes||Male and female|
|Italy||No (suspended for peacetime in 2005)||N/A|
|Japan||No. Japanese Constitution abolished conscription. Enlistment in Japan Self-Defense Force is voluntary at 18 years of age.||N/A|
|Jordan||No (ended in 1992)||N/A|
|North Korea||Yes||Male and female|
|South Korea||Yes (alternative service available) The military service law was established in 1948.||Male|
|Lebanon||No (abolished in 2007)||N/A|
|Lithuania||Yes (about 3000 to 4000 conscripts each year must be selected, out of whom up to 10% serve involuntarily)||Male|
|Malaysia||No, (Malaysian National Service) suspended from January 2015 due to government budget cuts||N/A|
|Republic of Moldova||No ||N/A|
|Morocco||Yes (reintroduced in 2018)||Male|
|Netherlands||No. Suspended since 1997 (except for Curaçao and Aruba)||Male and female|
|New Zealand||No, conscription abolished in December 1972.||N/A|
|Nigeria||No. However, under Nigeria's National Youths Service Corps Act, graduates from tertiary institutions are required to undertake national service for a year. The service begins with a 3-week military training.||N/A|
|North Macedonia||No (abolished in 2006)||N/A|
|Norway||Yes by law, but in practice people are not forced to serve against their will. Also total objectors have not been punished since 2011, instead they are simply exempted from the service.||Male and female|
|Poland||No (ended in 2009), but all men aged 18 and above must undergo obligatory military qualification to validate their ability to serve in case of war or mobilisation.||N/A|
|Portugal||No (Peacetime conscription abolished in 2004 but there remains a symbolic military obligation to all 18-year-old people, from both sexes. It is called National Defense Day, (Dia da Defesa Nacional in Portuguese)).||N/A (symbolic obligation is for both male and female)|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||Yes (alternative service available)
According to the Defence Minister, from 2018 there will be no compulsory enlistment for military service, however all men born after 1995 have 4 months of compulsory military training.
|Romania||No (abolished in 2007)||N/A|
|Russia||Yes (alternative service available)||Male|
|Singapore||Yes (National Service)||Male|
|Slovakia||No (abolished on January 1, 2006)||N/A|
|South Africa||No (ended in 1994, formalized in 2002)||N/A|
|Spain||No (abolished by law on December 31, 2001)||N/A|
|Sweden||Yes (alternative service available)||Male and female|
|Switzerland||Yes (Alternative service available)||Male|
|Trinidad and Tobago||No||N/A|
|Tunisia||Yes||Male and Female|
|United Arab Emirates||Yes (Implemented in 2014, compulsory for male citizens aged 18–30)||Male|
|United Kingdom (Conscription)||No (abolished December 31, 1960, except Bermuda Regiment)||N/A|
|United States (Conscription)||No (abandoned in 1973), but registration is still required among men for various government benefits.||N/A|
|Venezuela||Yes||Male and female|
Every male citizen of the Republic of Austria up to the age of 35[clarification needed] can be drafted for a six-month long basic military training in the Bundesheer. For men refusing to undergo this training, a nine-month lasting community service is mandatory.
Belgium abolished the conscription in 1994. The last conscripts left active service in February 1995. To this day (2019), a small minority of the Belgian citizens supports the idea of reintroducing military conscription, for both men and women.
Bulgaria had mandatory military service for males above 18 until conscription was ended in 2008. Due to a shortfall in the army of some 5500 soldiers, parts of the current ruling coalition have expressed their support for the return of mandatory military service, most notably Krasimir Karakachanov. Opposition towards this idea from the main coalition partner, GERB, saw a compromise in 2018, where instead of mandatory military service, Bulgaria could have possibly introduced a voluntary military service by 2019 where young citizens can volunteer for a period of 6 to 9 months, receiving a basic wage. However this has not gone forward.
Since the signing of the Peace Accord in 1993, there has been no official conscription in the country. Also the National Assembly has repeatedly rejected to reintroduce it due to popular resentment. However, in November 2006, it was reintroduced. Although mandatory for all males between the ages of 18 and 30 (with some sources stating up to age 35), less than 20% of those in the age group are recruited amidst a downsizing of the armed forces.
Universal conscription in China dates back to the State of Qin, which eventually became the Qin Empire of 221 BC. Following unification, historical records show that a total of 300,000 conscript soldiers and 500,000 conscript labourers constructed the Great Wall of China.
In the following dynasties, universal conscription was abolished and reintroduced on numerous occasions.
As of 2011[update], universal military conscription is theoretically mandatory in the People's Republic of China, and reinforced by law. However, due to the large population of China and large pool of candidates available for recruitment, the People's Liberation Army has always had sufficient volunteers, so conscription has not been required in practice at all.
Military service in Cyprus has a deep rooted history entangled with the Cyprus problem. Military service in the Cypriot National Guard is mandatory for all male citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, as well as any male non-citizens born of a parent of Greek Cypriot descent, lasting from the January 1 of the year in which they turn 18 years of age to December 31, of the year in which they turn 50. (Efthymiou, 2016). All male residents of Cyprus who are of military age (16 and over) are required to obtain an exit visa from the Ministry of Defense. Currently, military conscription in Cyprus lasts 14 months.
Conscription is known in Denmark since the Viking Age, where one man out of every 10 had to serve the king. Frederick IV of Denmark changed the law in 1710 to every 4th man. The men were chosen by the landowner and it was seen as a penalty.
Since 12 February 1849, every physically fit man must do military service. According to §81 in the Constitution of Denmark, which was promulgated in 1849:
Every male person able to carry arms shall be liable with his person to contribute to the defence of his country under such rules as are laid down by Statute. — Constitution of Denmark
The legislation about compulsory military service is articulated in the Danish Law of Conscription. National service takes 4–12 months. It is possible to postpone the duty when one is still in full-time education. Every male turning 18 will be drafted to the 'Day of Defence', where they will be introduced to the Danish military and their health will be tested. Physically unfit persons are not required to do military service. It is only compulsory for men, while women are free to choose to join the Danish army. Almost all of the men have been volunteers in recent years, 96.9% of the total number of recruits having been volunteers in the 2015 draft.
After lottery, one can become a conscientious objector. Total objection (refusal from alternative civilian service) results in up to 4 months jailtime according to the law. However, in 2014 a Danish man, who signed up for the service and objected later, got only 14 days of home arrest. In many countries the act of desertion (objection after signing up) is punished harder than objecting the compulsory service.
Conscription in Finland is part of a general compulsion for national military service for all adult males (Finnish: maanpuolustusvelvollisuus; Swedish: totalförsvarsplikt) defined in the 127§ of the Constitution of Finland.
Conscription can take the form of military or of civilian service. According to Finnish Defence Forces 2011 data slightly under 80% of Finnish males turned 30 had entered and finished the military service. The number of female volunteers to annually enter armed service had stabilised at approximately 300. The service period is 165, 255 or 347 days for the rank and file conscripts and 347 days for conscripts trained as NCOs or reserve officers. The length of civilian service is always twelve months. Those electing to serve unarmed in duties where unarmed service is possible serve either nine or twelve months, depending on their training.
Any Finnish male citizen who refuses to perform both military and civilian service faces a penalty of 173 days in prison, minus any served days. Such sentences are usually served fully in prison, with no parole. Jehovah's Witnesses are no longer exempted from service as of February 27, 2019. The inhabitants of the demilitarized Åland Islands are exempt from military service. By the Conscription Act of 1951, they are, however, required to serve a time at a local institution, like the coast guard. However, until such service has been arranged, they are freed from service obligation. The non-military service of Åland islands has not been arranged since the introduction of the act, and there are no plans to institute it. The inhabitants of Åland islands can also volunteer for military service on the mainland. As of 1995, women are permitted to serve on a voluntary basis and pursue careers in the military after their initial voluntary military service.
The military service takes place in Finnish Defence Forces or in the Finnish Border Guard. All services of the Finnish Defence Forces train conscripts. However, the Border Guard trains conscripts only in land-based units, not in coast guard detachments or in the Border Guard Air Wing. Civilian service may take place in the Civilian Service Center in Lapinjärvi or in an accepted non-profit organization of educational, social or medical nature.
Between 1956 and 2011 conscription was mandatory for all male citizens in the German federal armed forces (German: Bundeswehr), as well as for the Federal Border Guard (German: Bundesgrenzschutz) in the 1970s (see Border Guard Service). With the end of the Cold War the German government drastically reduced the size of its armed forces. The low demand for conscripts led to the suspension of compulsory conscription in 2011. Since then, only volunteer professionals serve in the Bundeswehr.
This section needs to be updated.March 2017)(
Since 1914, Greece has had a period of mandatory military service lasting 9 months for men between the ages of 16 and 45. Citizens discharged from active service are normally placed in the reserve and are subject to periodic recalls of 1–10 days at irregular intervals.
Universal conscription was introduced in Greece during the military reforms of 1909, although various forms of selective conscription had been in place earlier. In more recent years, conscription was associated with the state of general mobilisation declared on July 20, 1974 due to the crisis in Cyprus (the mobilisation was formally ended on December 18, 2002).
The period of time that a conscript is required to serve has varied historically, between 12 and 36 months depending on various factors particular to the conscript, and the political situation. Although women are employed by the Greek army as officers and petty officers, they are not required to enlist, as men are. Soldiers receive no health insurance, but they are provided medical support during their army service, including hospitalization costs.
Since 2009, Greece has mandatory military service of 9 months for male citizens between the ages of 19 and 45. However, as the Armed forces had been gearing towards a completely professional army, the government had announced that the mandatory military service period would be cut to 6 months by 2008 or even abolished completely. However, this timetable was under reconsideration as of April 2006, due to severe manpower shortages. These had been caused by a combination of financial difficulties, meaning that professional soldiers could not be hired at the projected rate, and widespread abuse of the deferment process, resulting in two-thirds of the conscripts deferred service in 2005. In August 2009, the mandatory service period was reduced to 9 months for the army, but has remained at 12 months for the navy and the air force. The number of conscripts affected to the latter two has been greatly reduced, with an aim towards full professionalisation. By the end of 2020 the mandatory service period was increased to 12 months for the army and remained at 12 months for the navy and the air force due to increased provocation of the Turks in the Aegean sea and the increased flows of migrants and refugees in Evros river and Dodecanese islands.
There is a mandatory military service for all men and women in Israel who are fit and 18 years old. Men must serve 30 months while women serve 24 months, with the vast majority of conscripts being Jewish.
Some Israeli citizens are exempt from mandatory service:
- Muslim-Arabs and Christian-Arabs
- permanent residents (non-civilian) such as the Druze of the Golan Heights
- Ultra-Orthodox Jews can apply for deferment to study in Yeshiva and the deferment tends to become an exemption, although some do opt to serve in the military
- Female religious Jews, as long as they declare they are unable to serve due to religious grounds. Most of whom opt for the alternative of volunteering in the national service Sherut Leumi
All of the exempt above are eligible to volunteer to the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), as long as they declare so.
Male Druze and male Circassian Israeli citizens are liable for conscription, in accordance with agreement set by their community leaders (their community leaders however signed a clause in which all female Druze and female Circassian are exempt from service).
A few male Bedouin Israeli citizens choose to enlist to the Israeli military in every draft (despite their Muslim-Arab background that exempt them from conscription).
Lithuania abolished its conscription in 2008. In May 2015, the Lithuanian parliament voted to reintroduce conscription and the conscripts started their training in August 2015. From 2015 to 2017 there was enough volunteers to avoid drafting civilians.
Luxembourg practiced military conscription from 1948 until 1967.
Moldova, which currently has male conscription, has announced plans to abolish the practice. Moldova's Defense Ministry announced that a plan which stipulates the gradual elimination of military conscription will be implemented starting from the autumn of 2018.
This section does not cite any sources. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Conscription, which was called "Service Duty" (Dutch: dienstplicht) in the Netherlands, was first employed in 1810 by French occupying forces. Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, who was King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, had tried to introduce conscription a few years earlier, unsuccessfully. Every man aged 20 years or older had to enlist. By means of drawing lots it was decided who had to undertake service in the French army. It was possible to arrange a substitute against payment.
Later on, conscription was used for all men over the age of 18. Postponement was possible, due to study, for example. Conscientious objectors could perform an alternative civilian service instead of military service. For various reasons, this forced military service was criticized at the end of the twentieth century. Since the Cold War was over, so was the direct threat of a war. Instead, the Dutch army was employed in more and more peacekeeping operations. The complexity and danger of these missions made the use of conscripts controversial. Furthermore, the conscription system was thought to be unfair as only men were drafted.
In the European part of Netherlands, compulsory attendance has been officially suspended since 1 May 1997. Between 1991 and 1996, the Dutch armed forces phased out their conscript personnel and converted to an all-professional force. The last conscript troops were inducted in 1995, and demobilized in 1996. The suspension means that citizens are no longer forced to serve in the armed forces, as long as it is not required for the safety of the country. Since then, the Dutch army has become an all-professional force. However, to this day, every male and – from January 2020 onward – female citizen aged 17 gets a letter in which they are told that they have been registered but do not have to present themselves for service.
As of March 2016[update], Norway currently employs a weak form of mandatory military service for men and women. In practice recruits are not forced to serve, instead only those who are motivated are selected. About 60,000 Norwegians are available for conscription every year, but only 8,000 to 10,000 are conscripted. Since 1985, women have been able to enlist for voluntary service as regular recruits. On 14 June 2013 the Norwegian Parliament voted to extend conscription to women, making Norway the first NATO member and first European country to make national service compulsory for both sexes. In earlier times, up until at least the early 2000s, all men aged 19–44 were subject to mandatory service, with good reasons required to avoid becoming drafted. There is a right of conscientious objection.
In addition to the military service, the Norwegian government draft a total of 8,000 men and women between 18 and 55 to non-military Civil defence duty. (Not to be confused with Alternative civilian service.) Former service in the military does not exclude anyone from later being drafted to the Civil defence, but an upper limit of total 19 months of service applies. Neglecting mobilisation orders to training exercises and actual incidents, may impose fines.
As of 1 January 2011[update], Serbia no longer practises mandatory military service. Prior to this, mandatory military service lasted 6 months for men. Conscientious objectors could however opt for 9 months of civil service instead.
Sweden had conscription (Swedish: värnplikt) for men between 1901 and 2010. During the last few decades it was selective. Since 1980, women have been allowed to sign up by choice, and, if passing the tests, do military training together with male conscripts. Since 1989 women have been allowed to serve in all military positions and units, including combat.
In 2010, conscription was made gender-neutral, meaning both women and men would be conscripted –on equal terms. The conscription system was simultaneously deactivated in peacetime. Seven years later, referencing increased military threat, the Swedish Government reactivated military conscription. Beginning in 2018, both men and women are conscripted.
The United Kingdom introduced conscription to full-time military service for the first time in January 1916 (the eighteenth month of World War I) and abolished it in 1920. Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom, was exempted from the original 1916 military service legislation, and although further legislation in 1918 gave power for an extension of conscription to Ireland, the power was never put into effect.
In all, eight million men were conscripted during both World Wars, as well as several hundred thousand younger single women. The introduction of conscription in May 1939, before the war began, was partly due to pressure from the French, who emphasized the need for a large British army to oppose the Germans. From early 1942 unmarried women age 19–30 were conscripted. Most were sent to the factories, but they could volunteer for the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) and other women's services. Some women served in the Women's Land Army: initially volunteers but later conscription was introduced. However, women who were already working in a skilled job considered helpful to the war effort, such as a General Post Office telephonist, were told to continue working as before. None was assigned to combat roles unless she volunteered. By 1943 women were liable to some form of directed labour up to age 51. During the Second World War, 1.4 million British men volunteered for service and 3.2 million were conscripted. Conscripts comprised 50% of the Royal Air Force, 60% of the Royal Navy and 80% of the British Army.
Conscription in the United States ended in 1973, but males aged between 18 and 25 are required to register with the Selective Service System to enable a reintroduction of conscription if necessary. President Gerald Ford had suspended mandatory draft registration in 1975; but, President Jimmy Carter reinstated that requirement when the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan five years later. Consequently, Selective Service registration is still required of almost all young men. There have been no prosecutions for violations of the draft registration law since 1986. Males between the ages of 17 and 45, and female members of the US National Guard may be conscripted for federal militia service pursuant to 10 U.S. Code § 246 and the Militia Clauses of the United States Constitution.
In February 2019, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas ruled that male-only conscription breached the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. In National Coalition for Men v. Selective Service System, a case brought by non-profit men's rights organisation the National Coalition for Men against the U.S. Selective Service System, judge Gray H. Miller issued a declaratory judgement that the male-only registration requirement is unconstitutional, though did not specify what action the government should take.
- Conscription in Australia
- Conscription in Canada
- Conscription in Egypt
- Conscription in France
- Conscription in Gibraltar
- Conscription in Malaysia
- Conscription in Mexico
- Conscription in New Zealand
- Conscription in Russia
- Conscription in Singapore
- Conscription in South Korea
- Conscription in Switzerland
- Conscription in the Ottoman Empire
- Conscription in the Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Conscription in the Russian Empire
- Civil conscription
- Civilian Public Service
- Economic conscription
- Impressment and the Quota System
- Male expendability
- National service
- Pospolite ruszenie, mass mobilization in Poland
- Bevin Boys
- Civil conscription
- Ephebic Oath
- Home front during World War I
- Home front during World War II
- List of countries by number of troops
- Men's Rights
- Military history
- Military recruitment
- Timeline of women's participation in warfare
- War resister
- "Ukraine removes last conscripts from war zone". The Daily Star. Lebanon. Agence France-Presse. 2 November 2016.
- "Military conscription to stop completely from 2018". Focus Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Central News Agency. 12 December 2016.
- "Kazakh Military Draft To End By 2016". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 9 October 2013.
- "Conscription". Merriam-Webster Online.
- "Seeking Sanctuary: Draft Dodgers". CBC Digital Archives.
- "World War II". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Canada. 15 July 2015.
- Asal, Victor; Conrad, Justin; Toronto, Nathan (2017-08-01). "I Want You! The Determinants of Military Conscription". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61 (7): 1456–1481. doi:10.1177/0022002715606217. ISSN 0022-0027. S2CID 9019768.
- Postgate, J.N. (1992). Early Mesopotamia Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 0-415-11032-7.
- Postgate, J.N. (1992). Early Mesopotamia Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 0-415-11032-7.
- "arrière-ban". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Nicolle, D. (2000). French Armies of the Hundred Years War (Vol. 337). Osprey Publishing.
- Nicolle, D. (2004). Poitiers 1356: The capture of a king (Vol. 138). Osprey Publishing.
- CURRY, A. (2002). Essential Histories–The Hundred Years’ War. Nova York, Osprey.
- Attenborough Laws of the Earliest English Kings https://archive.org/stream/lawsofearliesten00grea#page/52
- Sturdy, David Alfred the Great Constable (1995), p. 153
- Gay, Suzanne (2001). The Moneylenders of Late Medieval Kyoto. University of Hawaii Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780824864880.
- Lewis, Bernard. "Race and Slavery in the Middle East". Chapter readings for class at Fordham University.
- Inalcik, Halil (1979). "Servile Labor in the Ottoman Empire". In A. Ascher, B. K. Kiraly; T. Halasi-Kun (eds.). The Mutual Effects of the Islamic and Judeo-Christian Worlds: The East European Pattern. Brooklyn College. sec. In the Service of the State and Military Class. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017.
- "Janissary corps, or Janizary, or Yeniçeri (Turkish military)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "The Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (Timeline)". Sunnah Online. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- Lewis (1994). "Race and Slavery in the Middle East". Oxford University Press.
- "Conscription". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-28.
- Dierk Walter. Preussische Heeresreformen 1807–1870: Militärische Innovation und der Mythos der "Roonschen Reform". 2003, in Citino, p. 130
- "Military service in Russia Empire". roots-saknes.lv. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
- "Conscription and Resistance: The Historical Context archived from the original". 2008-06-03. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- "Records of the Selective Service System (World War I)". 15 August 2016.; see also Selective Service Act of 1917 and Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.
- "The German Volkssturm from Intelligence Bulletin". LoneSentry.com. February 1945.
- "CBC News Indepth: International military". CBC News. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013.
- Messner 1997, p. 41–48. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMessner1997 (help)
- Stephen Blake Boyd; W. Merle Longwood; Mark William Muesse, eds. (1996). Redeeming men: religion and masculinities. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-664-25544-2.
In contradistinction to profeminism, however, the men's rights perspective addresses specific legal and cultural factors that put men at a disadvantage. The movement is made up of a variety of formal and informal groups that differ in their approaches and issues; Men's rights advocates, for example, target sex-specific military conscription and judicial practices that discriminate against men in child custody cases.
- Stephen, Lynn (1981). "Making the Draft a Women's Issue". Women: A Journal of Liberation. 8 (1). Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Lindsey, Karen (1982). "Women and the Draft". In McAllister, Pam (ed.). Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. New Society Publishers. ISBN 0865710163.
- Levertov, Denise (1982). "A Speech: For Antidraft Rally, D.C. March 22, 1980". Candles in Babylon. New Directions Press. ISBN 9780811208314.
- Berlatsky, Noah (May 29, 2013). "When Men Experience Sexism". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Benatar, David (May 15, 2012). The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-67451-2. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Pager, Tyler (2019-02-24). "Drafting Only Men for the Military Is Unconstitutional, Judge Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- Pager, Tyler (2019-02-24). "Drafting Only Men for the Military Is Unconstitutional, Judge Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
- Michalowski, Helen (May 1982). "Five feminist principles and the draft". Resistance News (8): 2.
- Neudel, Marian Henriquez (July 1983). "Feminism and the Draft". Resistance News (13): 7.
- "Letters from draft-age women about why they wouldn't register for the draft". Resistance News (2): 6. 1 March 1980.
- "Gestation: Women and Draft Resistance". Resistance News (11). November 1982.
- "Women and the resistance movement". Resistance News (21). 8 June 1986.
- "No to Equality in Militarism! (Statement of the feminist collective TO MOV co-signed by the Association of Greek Conscientious Objectors)". Countering the Militarisation of Youth. War Resisters International. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Goldstein, Joshua S. (2003). "War and Gender: Men's War Roles – Boyhood and Coming of Age". In Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures. Volume 1. Springer. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-306-47770-6. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Kronsell, Anica (June 29, 2006). "Methods for studying silence: The 'silence' of Swedish conscription". In Ackerly, Brooke A.; Stern, Maria; True, Jacqui Feminist Methodologies for International Relations. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-139-45873-3. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Selmeski, Brian R. (2007). Multicultural Citizens, Monocultural Men: Indigineity, Masculinity, and Conscription in Ecuador. Syracuse University. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-549-40315-9. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Joenniemi, Pertti (2006). The Changing Face of European Conscription. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 142–49. ISBN 978-0-754-64410-1. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- "RS 661.1 Ordonnance du 30 août 1995 sur la taxe d'exemption de l'obligation de servir (OTEO)". www.admin.ch. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- Korte, Gregory. "For a million U.S. men, failing to register for the draft has serious, long-term consequences". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Selective Service | USAGov". www.usa.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Conscription and the Military". Libertarian Party. www.dehnbase.org.
- U.S. Representative Ron Paul Conscription Is Slavery, antiwar.com, January 14, 2003.
- "Draft". aynrandlexicon.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- John Whiteclay Chambers II, To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America (1987) pp. 219–20
- Henderson, David R. "The Role of Economists in Ending the Draft" (August 2005).
- Friedman, Milton (1967). "Why Not a Volunteer Army?". New Individualist Review. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Rousseau, J-J. Social Contract. Chapter "The Roman Comitia"
- Aristotle, Politics, Book 6 Chapter VII and Book 4 Chapter XIII.
- Harris, Phil; Lock, Andrew; Rees, Patricia (2002). Machiavelli, Marketing and Management. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9781134605682.
- James, William (1906). "The Moral Equivalent of War".
- Alter, Jonathan. "Cop Out on Class". Newsweek.
- "Interview with Mickey Kaus". realclearpolitics.com.
- Postrel, Virginia. "Overcoming Merit".
- Hägglund, Gustav (2006). Leijona ja kyyhky (in Finnish). Otava. ISBN 951-1-21161-7.
- Card, David; Cardoso, Ana Rute (October 2012). "Can Compulsory Military Service Raise Civilian Wages? Evidence from the Peacetime Draft in Portugal" (PDF). American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 4 (4): 57–93. doi:10.1257/app.4.4.57. hdl:10261/113437. S2CID 55247633.
- Shephard, Ben (2003). A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-674-01119-9.
- Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin (2003). Encyclopedia of sex and gender: men and women in the world's cultures. Volume 2. Springer. pp. 108–09. ISBN 978-0-306-47770-6.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "South America :: Bolivia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "CIA World Factbook: Chad".
- "Women in the military – international". CBC News Indepth: International military. May 30, 2006. Archived from the original on September 13, 2013.
- "The Economic Costs and the Political Allure of Conscription" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-06-07. (see footnote 3)
- "Africa :: Eritrea — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "Middle East :: Israel — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "Africa :: Mozambique — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "Universal Conscription". Norwegian Armed Forces. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Korea, North — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- Persson, Alma; Sundevall, Fia (2019-03-22). "Conscripting women: gender, soldiering, and military service in Sweden 1965–2018". Women's History Review. 28 (7): 1039–1056. doi:10.1080/09612025.2019.1596542. ISSN 0961-2025.
- "Naisten vapaaehtoinen asepalvelus - Puolustusvoimat - Intti edessä - Intti.fi Intti.fi". intti.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-04-12.
- Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Säädösmuutosten hakemisto: 194/1995". finlex.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2021-04-12.
- "Norway's military conscription becomes gender neutral". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Abuse of IDF Exemptions Questioned". The Jewish Daily Forward. 16 December 2009
- "World Resisters International: Sudan, Country Report". War Resisters' International.
- Broad, Roger (2006). Conscription in Britain, 1939–1964: the militarisation of a generation. Taylor & Francis. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-7146-5701-1.
^ "Conscription into military service". Peace Pledge Union. Archived from the original on 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
- Cassin-Scott, Jack; McBride, Angus (1980). Women at war, 1939–45. Osprey Publishing. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-85045-349-2.
- "Draft Women?". Time. January 15, 1945. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
- Kalisch, PA; Kalisch PA; Kalisch BJ (1973). "The women's draft. An analysis of the controversy over the nurses' Selective Service Bill of 1945". Nursing Research. PubMed. 22 (5): 402–13. doi:10.1097/00006199-197309000-00004. PMID 4580476.
- "Rostker v. Goldberg". Cornell Law School. Retrieved 26 December 2006.
- "Judicial Yuan Interpretation 490". translated by Jiunn-rong Yeh. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "Attachment of the standard of the class of physical condition of a draftee" (in Chinese). Conscription Agency, Ministry of the Interior.[dead link]
- On July 30, 1993, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Para. 11: "Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Framework for communications. Conscientious Objection". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; See Article 18". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
- "Conscientious Objection to Military Service | Information Packet". JW.ORG.
- "Nationmaster: Conscription". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997. Data collected from the nations concerned, or as otherwise indicated.
- Koci, Jonilda (August 21, 2008). "Albania to abolish conscription by 2010". SETimes. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Brown, Gary (October 12, 1999). "Current Issues Brief 7 1999–2000 – Military Conscription: Issues for Australia". Parliamentary library; Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Group. Archived from the original on August 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- "Official information website".
- "The World Factbook: Military service age and obligation". CIA.
- "South America > Bolivia > Military". nationmaster.com.
- "NATO and the Defence Reform Commission: partners for progress". setimes.com.
- Brasil, Portal. "Publicidade sobre isenção no serviço militar é proibida". Portal Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Lei No 4.375, de 17 de Agosto de 1964. – Military Service Law at government's official website
- "Country report and updates: Bulgaria22 October 2008". War Resisters' International. 22 October 2008.
- "Country report and updates: China". War Resisters' International. 15 March 1998.
All male citizens must register at the local PLA office in the year they reach the age of 18. Local governments get annual recruitment quotas, and local PLA offices select recruits according to medical and political criteria and military requirements. Call-up for military service then takes place at the age of 18.
- "Croatia to abolish conscription military service sooner". Southeast European Times. May 10, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Official site of Ministry of defense and armed forces of the Czech Republic". Ministry of Defense and armed forces of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Værnepligtige ('Conscripts')". Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- "Militæret er nu valgfrit" (in Danish). 31 May 2010.
- "Værnepligtsloven (Law on conscription)" (in Danish).
- "Lov om værnepligtens opfyldelse ved civilt arbejde (Law on fulfilling conscription duties by civilian work)" (in Danish).
- "Country report and updates: France". War Resisters' International. October 23, 2008.
- "WPflG – Einzelnorm". gesetze-im-internet.de.
- "Country report and updates: Hungary". War Resisters' International. October 23, 2008.
- warresisters (23 October 2008). "Italy". wri-irg.org. War Resisters International.
- ChartsBin. "Military Conscription Policy by Country". chartsbin.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "North Korea, Military Conscription and Terms of Service". Based on the Country Studies Series by Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- "Korean history databases".
- Toumi, Habib. "Kuwait lawmakers approve military conscription". Gulf News. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- "Lebanon". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Baltic Times – Lithuania welcomes first 495 volunteers to its army".
- "Baigiamas 2019 metų šaukimas į nuolatinę privalomąją pradinę karo tarnybą | Karys.lt".
- "BBC News – Asia-Pacific – Malaysian youth face call-up". bbc.co.uk. 8 December 2003. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Budget Revision: National Service 2015 suspended – Nation – The Star Online". thestar.com.my. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Olaru, Anna (20 March 2018). В Молдове отменят обязательную военную службу. noi.md (in Russian). Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- Fitch, Chris (26 October 2018). "Reintroduction of military conscription in Morocco". Geographical. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "Burma to bring in conscription". January 11, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.[dead link]
- "Burma: World's Highest Number of Child Soldiers". Human rights Watch. October 15, 2002.
- "Six Youths Conscripted into Burmese Army". Narinjara. August 4, 2009. Archived from the original on June 14, 2010.
- "Arakanese Youth Arrested and Conscripted by Burmese Army". War Resisters' International. June 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009.
- "Six Youths Conscripted into Burmese Army". Narinjara. August 4, 2009. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011.
- Nationmaster : Conscription, citing Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC)
- Conscription still exists, but compulsory attendance was held in abeyance per January 1, 1997 (effective per August 22, 1996), (unknown) (October 12, 1999). "Afschaffing dienstplicht". Tweede Kamer (Dutch House of Representatives) and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Dutch Library). Archived from the original on 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Macedonia: Conscription abolished". War Resisters' International. 1 June 2006.
- "Norway: end of substitute service for conscientious objectors". War Resisters' International.
- Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Factbook: Military Service Age and Obligation". Retrieved 28 February 2016.
17–23 years of age (officers 20–24) for voluntary military service; no conscription; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens with either 72 college credit hours (enlisted) or a baccalaureate degree (officers) (2013)
- "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chan Robles Law Library.
- Section 4 Article II of the Philippine constitution reads, "The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or civil service." Section 4 Article XVI of the Philippine constitution reads, "The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State."
- "Poland's defence minister, Bogdan Klich, said the country will move towards a professional army and that from January, only volunteers will join the armed forces.", Day, Matthew (5 August 2008). "Poland ends army conscription". telegraph.co.uk. London. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
- Instituto Português da Juventude. "Portal da Juventude – Dia da Defesa Nacional – Época 2011–2012". juventude.gov.pt.
- "Substitute Service Center". Department of Compulsory Military Service, Taipei City Government. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
- s.r.o, S.-EPI s r o , AION CS. "570/2005 Z. z. Zákon o brannej povinnosti | Aktuálne znenie". epi.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2019-05-04.
- "Changing the Way Slovenia Sees the Armed Forces". Slovenia News. November 18, 2003. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "End Conscription Campaign (ECC)". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Wilkinson, Isambard (April 18, 2014). "Conscription ends in Spain after 230 years".
- "Login". www.rekryteringsmyndigheten.se. Archived from the original on 2017-03-11. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- The situation of conscientious objectors in Switzerland – compared with the guidelines of the European Union, zentralstelle-kdv.de Archived February 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "Yeni Askerlik sistemi yürürlüğe girdi". TRT Haber (in Turkish). 25 June 2019.
- Salama, Samir (7 June 2014). "Mandatory national service in UAE approved". GulfNews.com.
- "BBC News – Ukraine reinstates conscription as crisis deepens". BBC News. 2 May 2014.
- Committee Publishes Report on Overseas Territories (item 26), 4 July 2008
- The United States has not actually conscripted anyone since 1973 but the U.S. Selective Service System remains in operation and the President retains the authority to order a draft through it. Mandatory registration for men aged 18-26 was abolished by executive order in 1975 and reinstated by Congress in 1980. While there have been no prosecutions for failure to register since 1988, men who have not registered are barred from government employment and may be ineligible for public benefits such as drivers' licenses and federal student financial aid and if they do not register by the age of 26 may remain ineligible for life. WHO MUST REGISTER Archived May 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 20 January 2012.
- "Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Promulgation date)" (PDF). analitica.com. December 20, 1999. Articles 134, 135. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
- Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (18 December 2003). "Venezuela: Military service, including length of service, existence of alternative forms of service and penalties imposed on those who refuse to serve". U.N. Refugee Agency. Retrieved 2009-11-01.[permanent dead link]
- "Bulgaria: conscription ended". War Resisters' International.
- "Първа стъпка към връщането на казармата". 16 January 2018.
- "Старото се уволнява, зайците реват... И ето идва... Каракачанова казарма – Dnes.bg".
- UN and Amnesty International (August 1998). "Country report and updates: Cambodia". www.wri-irg.org.
- WRI, London 1998 and Xinhua News Agency (1 November 2006). "Cambodia introduces conscription". www.wri-irg.org.
- "chinapage.com". www.chinapage.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011.
- Panyue, Huang (March 2017). "Military Service Law of the People's Republic of China (2011 Amendment) [Effective]". Mnistry of National Defense The People's Republic of China.
- Efthymiou, Stratis Andreas (2019). "Nationalism, Militarism and Masculinity After the Construction of the Border". Nationalism, Militarism and Masculinity in Post-Conflict Cyprus. Springer International. pp. 23–53. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-14702-0_2. ISBN 978-3-030-14701-3.
- Efthymiou, Stratis Andreas (2016-10-01). "Militarism in post-war Cyprus: the development of the ideology of defence" (PDF). Defence Studies. 16 (4): 408–426. doi:10.1080/14702436.2016.1229126. ISSN 1470-2436. S2CID 157301069.
- http://www.army.gov.cy/en/file/Mz7pGiPfUAqhGYAsl9Rd6A===/[permanent dead link]
- "Άδειες Εξόδου". army.gov.cy. National Guard General Staff. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
όλοι οι Κύπριοι πολίτες, περιλαμβανομένων και των προσώπων που έχουν οποιοδήποτε από τους δύο γονείς κυπριακής καταγωγής, αλλά δεν έχουν καταστεί πολίτες της Δημοκρατίας, ηλικίας 16 μέχρι και 26 ετών, για να τους επιτραπεί η έξοδ��ς από τη χώρα, απαιτείται όπως επιδεικνύουν στα λιμάνια και αεροδρόμια, άδεια εξόδου η οποία εκδίδεται από το Υπουργείο Άμυνας και τα κατά τόπους Στρατολογικά Γραφεία της Εθνικής Φρουράς.
- "Danish Constitution" (PDF). Parliament.
- "Bekendtgørelse af værnepligtsloven". Retsinformation. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Værnepligt". Borger. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Forsvaret". www2.forsvaret.dk. Archived from the original on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Mødet på Forsvarets Dag". Forsvaret. Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Før Forsvarets Dag". Forsvaret. Archived from the original on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Kvinder i Forsvaret". Forsvaret for Danmark. Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "19 unge tvunget i militæret". dr.dk. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Værnepligtige". Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
- "Mødet på Forsvarets Dag". Forsvaret for Danmark. Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Militærnægter". Borger. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Bekendtgørelse af værnepligtsloven". Retsinformation.de (in Danish). Retrieved 2016-11-22.
- Sparre, Sofie (2014-12-14). "René vil ikke i militæret: Nu skal han i fængsel". Nyheder.TV2.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Annual Report 2011. Page 29 Archived 2013-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Finnish Defence Forces
- Siviilipalveluslaki (1446/2007) (Civilian service act), 4§. Retrieved 1-24-2008. (in Finnish)
- Asevelvollisuuslaki (1438/2007) (Conscription act), 37 §. Retrieved 1-24-2008. (in Finnish)
- (Civilian service act), 74, 81§§. Retrieved 4-17-2013. (in Finnish)
- Asevelvollisuuslaki (1438/2007) (Conscription act), 118 §. Retrieved 1-24-2008 (in Finnish)
- "Jehovah's Witnesses lose exemption from military service".
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-04-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Litauen återinför allmän värnplikt".
- "Värnplikten är tillbaka i Litauen - hård konkurrens om platserna".
- "Savanorių gali užtekti visam šaukimui". LRT (in Lithuanian).
- Vlas, Cristi. "Moldova Defense Ministry: Conscription will be gradually abolished starting from this autumn - Moldova.org".
- "Bestaat er een dienstplicht in Nederland". Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Defensie, Ministerie van. "Kaderwet dienstplicht wordt aangepast voor vrouwen". rijksoverheid.nl. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Dienstplicht". Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- "Norway's military conscription becomes gender neutral". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- "NDF official numbers". NDF. Archived from the original on 2011-01-12. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- "Norway becomes first NATO country to draft women into military". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "Sivilforsvaret 75 år – klar for nye oppgaver – Sivilforsvaret.no". www.sivilforsvaret.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "The Norwegian Civil Defence – Sivilforsvaret.no". www.sivilforsvaret.no. Archived from the original on 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- "Fritak fra tjenesteplikt i Sivilforsvaret – Sivilforsvaret.no". www.sivilforsvaret.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- Wilden, Victoria. "En av ti møter ikke". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-08-22.
- Vojska Srbije od sutra i zvanično profesionalna. – Politika (in Serbian)
- "Värnplikten genom åren" (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Roger Broad, Conscription in Britain 1939–1964: The Militarization of a Generation (2006)
- Daniel Hucker, "Franco-British Relations and the Question of Conscription in Britain, 1938–1939", Contemporary European History, November 2008, Vol. 17 Issue 4, pp 437–56
- Jeremy A. Crang, "'Come into the Army, Maud': Women, Military Conscription, and the Markham Inquiry", Defence Studies, November 2008, Vol. 8 Issue 3, pp. 381,–95; statistics from pp. 392–93
- "Those were the days". expressandstar.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Gill, Linda. "Military Conscription, Recruiting and the Draft". About.com US Politics. Missing or empty
- Hasbrouck, Edward. "Prosecutions of Draft Registration Resisters". Resisters.info. National Resistance Committee. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "10 U.S. Code § 246 – Militia: composition and classes". LII / Legal Information Institute.
- Korte, Gregory (Feb 24, 2019). "With women in combat roles, a federal court rules the male-only draft unconstitutional". USA Today. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Burk, James (April 1989). "Debating the Draft in America", Armed Forces and Society p. vol. 15: pp. 431–48.
- Challener, Richard D. The French theory of the nation in arms, 1866–1939 (1955)
- Chambers, John Whiteclay. To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America (1987)
- Fitzpatrick, Edward (1940). Conscription and America: A Study of Conscription in a Democracy. Richard Publishing Company. ASIN B000GY5QW2.
- Flynn, George Q. (1998 33(1): 5–20). "Conscription and Equity in Western Democracies, 1940–75", Journal of Contemporary History in JSTOR
- Flynn, George Q. (2001). Conscription and Democracy: The Draft in France, Great Britain, and the United States. Greenwood. p. 303. ISBN 0-313-31912-X.
- Kestnbaum, Meyer (October 2000). "Citizenship and Compulsory Military Service: The Revolutionary Origins of Conscription in the United States". Armed Forces & Society. 27: vol. 27: pp. 7–36. doi:10.1177/0095327X0002700103. S2CID 144169554.
- Levi, Margaret (1997). Consent, Dissent and Patriotism. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59961-0. Looks at citizens' responses to military conscription in several democracies since the French Revolution.
- Linch, Kevin (2012). Conscription. Mainz: Institute of European History (IEG).
- Krueger, Christine, and Sonja Levsen, eds. War Volunteering in Modern Times: From the French Revolution to the Second World War (Palgrave Macmillan 2011)
- Leander, Anna (July 2004). Drafting Community: Understanding the Fate of Conscription. Armed Forces & Society. p. vol. 30: pp. 571–99.
- Littlewood, David. "Conscription in Britain, New Zealand, Australia and Canada during the Second World War", History Compass 18#4 (2020) online
- MacLean, Alair (2008). "The Privileges of Rank: The Peacetime Draft and Later-life Attainment". Armed Forces and Society. date= July 2008. 34 (4): 682–713. doi:10.1177/0095327X07310336. PMC 2937255. PMID 20842210.
- Mjoset, Lars; Van Holde, Stephen, eds. (2002). The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces. Amsterdam: JAI Press/Elsevier Science Ltd. p. 424.
- Nau, Terry L. (2013). "Chapter 1: Draft Bait". Reluctant Soldier... Proud Veteran: How a cynical Vietnam vet learned to take pride in his service to the USA. Leipzig: Amazon Distribution GmbH. pp. 1–12. ISBN 9781482761498. OCLC 870660174.
- Pfaffenzeller, Stephan (2010). "Conscription and Democracy: The Mythology of Civil-Military Relations". Armed Forces & Society. 36 (3): 481–504. doi:10.1177/0095327X09351226. S2CID 145286033.
- Sorensen, Henning (January 2000). Conscription in Scandinavia During the Last Quarter Century: Developments and Arguments. Armed Forces & Society. p. vol. 26: pp. 313–34.
- Stevenson, Michael D. (2001). Canada's Greatest Wartime Muddle: National Selective Service and the Mobilization of Human Resources during World War II. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-7735-2263-8.