|Conquest of Shu by Wei|
|Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms period|
|Commanders and leaders|
Liu Shan |
Zhuge Zhan †
|160,000 to 180,000[c]||90,000 to 102,000[d]|
|Conquest of Shu by Wei|
The Conquest of Shu by Wei was a military campaign launched by the state of Cao Wei ("Wei") against its rival Shu Han ("Shu") in late 263 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. The campaign culminated in the fall of Shu and the tripartite equilibrium maintained in China for over 40 years since the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in 220. The conquest signified the beginning of a reunified China under the Jin dynasty (265–420).
- 1 Background
- 2 Wei strategic planning
- 3 Shu strategic planning
- 4 Prelude
- 5 Eastern flank
- 6 Western flank
- 7 Deng Ai's detour
- 8 Battle of Mianzhu
- 9 Fall of Shu
- 10 Aftermath
- 11 Order of battle
- 12 In popular culture
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
Following the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in 220, three contending states emerged in China and fought for control over the territories of the former Han Empire. Among the three, Wei was the most powerful one in terms of military prowess, economic resources, manpower and geographical size. The other two, Shu and Wu, reestablished their alliance against Wei in 223.
Between 228 and 234, the Shu regent Zhuge Liang, who advocated an aggressive foreign policy towards Wei, launched a series of five military campaigns (known as the "Northern Expeditions") to attack Wei territories in Yong and Liang provinces (covering parts of present-day Gansu and Shaanxi). The ultimate goal of the campaigns was to clear the path for Shu forces to capture the Wei capital, Luoyang, and restore the Han dynasty. All the campaigns turned out unsuccessful. After Zhuge Liang died in 234, his successors Jiang Wan and Fei Yi adopted a more defensive stance against Wei and focused on policies promoting internal development and stability in Shu. However, between 240 and 262, the Shu general Jiang Wei followed up on Zhuge Liang's legacy by launching another 11 military campaigns against Wei. However, each campaign was ultimately aborted due to inadequate food supplies, heavy losses on the battlefield, or other reasons. The campaigns not only severely depleted Shu's already limited resources and took a heavy toll on Shu's population, but also resulted in much public resentment against Jiang Wei.
In the meantime, the Wei general Sima Yi came to power after staging a successful coup d'état in 249. After his death in 251, his eldest son Sima Shi succeeded him as regent and consolidated power and control over the Wei government. In 254, Sima Shi deposed the Wei emperor Cao Fang, who tried to seize back power from him, and installed Cao Mao on the throne. Following Sima Shi's death in 255, his younger brother Sima Zhao became the new regent and continued to monopolise power in Wei. In 260, Cao Mao attempted to launch a coup d'état to overthrow Sima Zhao but failed and lost his life. Cao Huan, who succeeded Cao Mao as the Wei emperor, remained a puppet ruler under Sima Zhao's influence and control.
Wei strategic planning
|Timeline of the Conquest of Shu by Wei|
|Approximate date range||Location||Event(s)|
|Winter 262||Luoyang, Henan||Sima Zhao announces his plan for the conquest of Shu to the Wei imperial court. He puts Zhong Hui in charge of military affairs in the Guanzhong region. Wei mobilises about 180,000 troops from its various provinces in preparation for the invasion of Shu.|
|Early 263||Zhugqu County, Gansu||Jiang Wei sends a warning to Chengdu that Wei appears to be preparing for an invasion of Shu. Huang Hao advises Liu Shan to ignore the warning.|
|Autumn 263||Luoyang, Henan||The Wei imperial court issues an edict outlining a three-pronged invasion of Shu: Zhong Hui, Deng Ai and Zhuge Xu would each lead an army to attack Shu from the eastern, western and central flanks respectively.|
|20 September – 19 October 263||Luoyang, Henan||The Wei armies set out from Luoyang.|
|Shaanxi||Zhong Hui executes Xu Yi for failing his mission to oversee the construction of a road leading into Shu.|
|Chenggu County and Mian County, Shaanxi||Zhong Hui orders Li Fu and Xun Kai to attack Lecheng and Hancheng counties respectively. Wang Han and Jiang Bin manage to hold their positions at Lecheng and Hancheng respectively.|
|Ningqiang County, Shaanxi||Zhong Hui sends Hu Lie to attack Yang'an Pass. Jiang Shu surrenders to Hu Lie and assists him in conquering Yang'an Pass. Fu Qian is killed in action while defending the pass.|
|20 October to 17 November 263||Tianshui, Longxi County and Yuzhong County, Gansu, and Ankang, Shaanxi||Wei Commandery administrators Wang Qi, Qian Hong, Yang Xin and Liu Qin lead troops from their respective commanderies to join the invasion of Shu.|
|Longnan and Wen County, Gansu||Liu Shan sends Liao Hua, and Zhang Yi and Dong Jue, to lead reinforcements to Tazhong and Yang'an Pass respectively. The Shu reinforcements stop at Yinping when they learn that Zhuge Xu's army is attacking Jianwei.|
|Zhugqu County, Gansu||Deng Ai defeats Jiang Wei at Tazhong.|
|Intersection of the Bailong and Jialing rivers||Jiang Wei attempts to retreat to Baishui but Yang Xin intercepts him at Qiangchuankou and defeats him.|
|Wen County, Gansu||Jiang Wei heads north to Konghan Valley to bypass Zhuge Xu, who is blocking Wujie Bridge near Yinping. When Zhuge Xu lifts the blockade, Jiang Wei quickly turns back, crosses the bridge and moves on to Jiange. Zhuge Xu arrives too late to stop Jiang Wei.|
|Jiange County, Sichuan||Jiang Wei, Liao Hua, Zhang Yi and Dong Jue retreat to Jiange. Zhong Hui attacks Jiange several times but fails to breach the Shu defences.|
|Wen County, Gansu and Jiange County, Sichuan||Deng Ai comes up with the idea of taking a shortcut from Yinping to Mianzhu to bypass Jiange's defences and go straight for Chengdu. He asks Zhuge Xu to join him but the latter refuses. Zhong Hui frames Zhuge Xu for cowardice and seizes command of his army.|
|18 November – 17 December 263||Wen County, Gansu||Deng Ai leads an elite strike force through a shortcut bypassing Jiange and leading from Yinping to Chengdu.|
|Jiangyou, Sichuan||Ma Miao, the Shu administrator of Jiangyou, surrenders to Deng Ai.|
|Mianzhu, Sichuan||Deng Ai defeats Zhuge Zhan at Mianzhu. Zhuge Zhan, Zhuge Shang, Huang Chong, Li Qiu and Zhang Zun are killed in battle.|
|Mianyang, Sichuan||Jiang Wei abandons Jiange and heads towards Ba Commandery. Zhong Hui moves to Fu County and orders Hu Lie, Tian Xu and Pang Hui to pursue Jiang Wei.|
|Chengdu and Guanghan, Sichuan||Liu Shan sends Zhang Shao, Qiao Zhou and Deng Liang to bring his surrender document and imperial seal to Deng Ai at Luo County. He also instructs Zhang Jun and Jiang Xian to relay his orders for the rest of Shu to surrender to Wei. He sends Li Hu to order Jiang Wei to surrender to Zhong Hui at Fu County.|
|Chengdu, Sichuan||Deng Ai and his forces occupy Chengdu.|
|Mianyang, Sichuan||Jiang Wei surrenders to Zhong Hui at Fu County.|
Wei decision to attack Shu
In 262,[e] Sima Zhao noted that Shu was growing weak and lacking in resources after constantly waging war against Wei, so he wanted to launch a large-scale invasion of Shu to eliminate the threat of Shu. Among those he consulted, only Zhong Hui agreed that Wei was capable of conquering Shu. Zhong Hui then assisted Sima Zhao in formulating a strategy for the conquest of Shu.
Sima Zhao made an announcement to the Wei imperial court as follows:
"Since the Shouchun rebellions, we have not sent our troops into battle for six years, nor have we been actively forging and stockpiling weapons and armour in preparation for war against our two rival states. If we were to eliminate Wu, I estimate that the process of constructing ships and opening up waterways will take up thousands of units of manpower. In other words, we will need 100,000 labourers to work over a period of more than 100 days. Besides, the humid climate of the southern lands make our troops more vulnerable to plague and disease. Therefore, I think we should conquer Shu first. Three years later, we can make use of Shu's geographical advantage by sending our navy downstream along the river to attack Wu, while concurrently sending our army to invade Wu by land. It would be as easy as Jin conquering Yu and Guo, and Qin eliminating Han and Wei. According to our calculations, Shu has a 90,000-strong army, of which less than 40,000 troops guard Chengdu and the interior commanderies. This means they only have about 50,000 troops to fight us. As of now, we can distract Jiang Wei at Tazhong and make him unable to deal with the situation in the east. We can then send our army through the Luo Valley to attack them where they least expect it, and seize control of Hanzhong. If the Shu forces continue to hold their respective positions, they will be divided and isolated from each other. We can send our elite forces to attack and capture their cities and our reserve forces to seize their towns and villages. By then, they will have neither sufficient time nor manpower to guard Jiange and Yang'an Pass. Liu Shan is a muddleheaded ruler; Shu's border defences are weak and crumbling; and its people are fearful and panicky. Given these factors, it is no surprise that the fall of Shu is imminent."
The Wei general Deng Ai, who had been leading Wei forces to resist multiple Shu incursions along the Wei–Shu border since 255,[f] voiced strong objections to the campaign against Shu. Sima Zhao worried that Deng Ai would embolden others to oppose the campaign as well, so he commissioned his registrar Shi Zuan (師纂) as a major under Deng Ai and ordered him to "persuade" Deng Ai. Deng Ai then changed his mind and supported the campaign.
Wei's three-pronged invasion of Shu
In the winter of 262, Sima Zhao appointed Zhong Hui as General Who Guards the West (鎮西將軍) and granted him imperial authority to oversee military affairs in the Guanzhong region. The Wei government also mobilised about 180,000 troops from the various provinces throughout Wei in preparation for the invasion of Shu. At the same time, the Wei government also put Tang Zi in charge of overseeing the construction of warships in preparation for a future invasion of Wei's other rival state, Wu.
In the autumn of 263, the Wei imperial court issued an edict outlining a three-pronged invasion of Shu:
- Deng Ai would lead 30,000 troops through Gansong (甘松; southeast of present-day Têwo County, Gansu) to attack Jiang Wei's position at Tazhong (沓中; northwest of present-day Zhugqu County, Gansu);
- Zhuge Xu would lead 30,000 troops to Wujie Bridge (武街橋; northwest of present-day Wen County, Gansu) to block Jiang Wei's retreat route;
- Zhong Hui would lead more than 100,000 troops to attack Shu via the Xie Valley (斜谷; southwest of present-day Mei County, Shaanxi);
- Zhong Hui's subordinates, Li Fu (李輔) and Hu Lie, would lead a detachment through the Luo Valley (駱谷; southwest of present-day Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi).
- The Wei imperial court authorised Wei Guan to supervise Zhong Hui and Deng Ai's military operations. Wei Guan also held the appointment of an acting military judge under Zhong Hui, and had command of 1,000 troops.
Shu strategic planning
Changes in the Shu defences at Hanzhong
Previously, when the Shu general Wei Yan first took charge of guarding Hanzhong Commandery in 219, he borrowed the concept of "double gates" from the Yijing and deployed heavily armed troops at interlocking camps on the outskirts and exits of trails leading into Hanzhong. These camps were meant to obstruct and hold off any invading forces. During the Battle of Xingshi in 244, the Shu general Wang Ping used the same strategy to defend Hanzhong from a Wei invasion led by Cao Shuang.
Jiang Wei pointed out that Wei Yan's idea of the interlocking camps was useful for only defence and would not provide additional advantages. He proposed vacating the camps and moving all their troops and resources to the two fortresses of Hancheng (漢城; east of present-day Mian County, Shaanxi) and Lecheng (樂城; east of present-day Chenggu County, Shaanxi), which provided access the Hanzhong Plain. The idea was to lure the invaders to attack the fortresses, overstretch their supply lines, and wear them down through guerrilla-style attacks. Once the invaders decided to retreat, the defenders would seize the opportunity to launch an all-out counterattack and defeat them.
In 258, Jiang Wei ordered Hu Ji, Jiang Bin and Wang Han (王含), who oversaw Hanzhong's defences, to dismantle the interlocking camps and move their troops and resources to Hanshou (漢壽; northeast of present-day Jiange County, Sichuan), Hancheng and Lecheng respectively. He also ordered the defence infrastructure to be strengthened at a number of locations around Hanzhong: Xi'an (西安), Jianwei (建威), Wuwei (武衛), Shimen (石門), Wucheng (武城), Jianchang (建昌) and Linyuan (臨遠).
Jiang Wei's early warning
"I heard that Zhong Hui has been mobilising troops in Guanzhong and appears to be preparing to launch an invasion. As a precautionary measure, I think we should send Zhang Yi and Liao Hua to lead our forces to guard Yang'an Pass and the bridge at Yinping."
The eunuch Huang Hao, whom Liu Shan trusted, believed fortune-tellers' prediction that Wei would not invade Shu, so he advised the emperor to ignore Jiang Wei's memorial and not put it up for discussion in the imperial court.
Between 20 September and 19 October 263,[a] the Wei troops mobilised for the campaign had gathered in the Wei capital Luoyang and were ready to depart. Before they left, the Wei government gave out promotions and rewards, and staged a drill to boost their morale. During this time, when a Wei officer Deng Dun (鄧敦) said that Shu could not be conquered, Sima Zhao executed him as a warning to others to not speak ill of the campaign.
Zhong Hui had ordered Xu Yi, a son of the veteran Wei general Xu Chu, to oversee the construction of a road leading into Shu. However, when the road turned out to be poorly built, Zhong Hui disregarded Xu Yi's background and executed him for failing his mission. The Wei army was shocked at Zhong Hui's audacity.
Between 20 October and 17 November 263,[g] Sima Zhao ordered three commandery administrators to lead their garrison forces to join the campaign: Wang Qi to lead troops from Tianshui Commandery to attack Jiang Wei's camp; Qian Hong to lead troops from Longxi Commandery and launch a frontal assault on Jiang Wei's position; and Yang Xin (楊欣) to lead troops from Jincheng Commandery (金城郡; around present-day Yuzhong County, Gansu) to attack Gansong.
Shu response to the Wei invasion
Upon receiving news of the Wei invasion, the Shu government ordered Liao Hua to lead reinforcements to support Jiang Wei at Tazhong. At the same time, they also sent Zhang Yi, Dong Jue and others to lead troops to Yang'an Pass (陽安關; a.k.a. Yangping Pass 陽平關; in present-day Ningqiang County, Shaanxi) and assist the Shu forces defending the external perimeter.
When the Shu reinforcements reached Yinping (陰平; present-day Wen County, Gansu), they heard that the Wei army led by Zhuge Xu was attacking Jianwei (建威; northeast of present-day Wudu District, Longnan, Gansu), so they stopped in their tracks at Yinping.
Lecheng and Hancheng
Around September or October 263, after his army passed through the Xie and Luo valleys as planned, Zhong Hui ordered his subordinates Li Fu and Xun Kai (荀愷) to each lead a detachment of 10,000 troops to attack Lecheng and Hancheng respectively. At the time, Lecheng and Hancheng were respectively guarded by the Shu officers Wang Han (王含) and Jiang Bin, who each commanded 5,000 troops.
During this time, Zhong Hui wrote to Jiang Bin to ask him for the location of the tomb of his father Jiang Wan. Jiang Bin politely obliged and told Zhong Hui that his father's tomb was in Fu County (涪縣; present-day Mianyang, Sichuan). Zhong Hui sent his men to pay respects on his behalf at Zhuge Liang's tomb at Mount Dingjun, and later visited Jiang Wan's tomb when he reached Fu County.
Wang Han and Jiang Bin managed to hold their positions at Lecheng and Hancheng respectively. After failing to capture either of the two fortresses, Zhong Hui led his army to bypass the two fortresses and move on towards Yang'an Pass. While Wang Han's eventual fate is unknown, it is recorded that after the fall of Shu, Jiang Bin surrendered to Zhong Hui at Fu County and befriended him.
While Zhong Hui was supervising the assaults on Lecheng and Hancheng, he ordered Hu Lie to lead the vanguard force to attack Yang'an Pass and seize control of the pass's stockpiles of food supplies and equipment.
The Shu general Fu Qian was in charge of guarding Yang'an Pass. His subordinate, Jiang Shu (蔣舒), previously served as an area commander at Wuxing (武興縣; present-day Lueyang County, Shaanxi). However, due to incompetence, he was removed from his appointment and reassigned to Yang'an Pass. As a result, he bore a grudge against the Shu government and secretly desired to defect to Wei.
Jiang Shu first attempted to persuade Fu Qian to lead his troops out of Yang'an Pass to engage the enemy in battle, but Fu Qian refused as he felt that it was too risky. Jiang Shu then lied to Fu Qian that he would go out to fight the enemy while Fu Qian would remain behind to guard the pass. After Fu Qian agreed, Jiang Shu led the troops out of Yang'an Pass to Yinping, where he surrendered to Hu Lie. Seeing that Yang'an Pass's defences had weakened after Jiang Shu's defection, Hu Lie led his troops to attack the pass and succeeded in capturing it along with its resources. Fu Qian fought bravely to resist the enemy but ultimately lost his life. The Wei soldiers were impressed by his heroism.
From Tazhong to Yinping
Around mid-November 263, after one month of battle at Tazhong, Deng Ai defeated Jiang Wei in battle and forced him to retreat towards Yinping. After Jiang Wei received news that Zhong Hui's army had taken Yang'an Pass and occupied Hanzhong, he attempted to retreat to Baishui (白水; in present-day Qingchuan County, Sichuan) but Yang Xin caught up with him and defeated him at Qiangchuankou (彊川口; the intersection of the Bailong and Jialing rivers) near Yinping.
Upon learning that Zhuge Xu had blocked his retreat route at the Wujie Bridge near Yinping, Jiang Wei led his remaining troops through Konghan Valley (孔函谷; south of present-day Xigu District, Lanzhou, Gansu) to the northern road in an attempt to bypass Zhuge Xu's position. When Zhuge Xu heard about it, he retreated back by 30 li. By then, Jiang Wei and his troops had travelled about 30 li on the northern road when they heard that Zhuge Xu had lifted the blockade at the bridge. Jiang Wei ordered his troops to turn back and quickly cross the bridge. Zhuge Xu tried to turn back to block Jiang Wei again but arrived at the bridge one day too late. After crossing the bridge, Jiang Wei moved to the fortified mountain pass Jiange (in present-day Jiange County, Sichuan) and garrisoned there.
Shu defence of Jiange
By the time the Shu reinforcements led by Zhang Yi and Dong Jue reached Hanshou County, Jiang Wei and Liao Hua had decided to abandon their position at Yinping and rendezvous with Zhang Yi and Dong Jue at Jiange.
During this time, Zhong Hui launched several assaults on Jiange but failed to breach the mountain pass's defences. He then wrote a letter to Jiang Wei to persuade him to surrender:
"Sir, you are skilled in both civil and military affairs. You are exceptionally brilliant in strategy and your achievements are well-known throughout the Bashu region and the rest of the Empire. People from near and afar admire you. Every time I reflect on history, I hope that we can serve the same dynasty. Our relationship is like the friendship between Jizha and Zichan."
Jiang Wei did not reply to Zhong Hui's letter, and ordered his troops to strengthen their defences at Jiange. Zhong Hui also wrote a long address to the Shu forces to urge them to surrender:
"In the past, when the Han dynasty declined, the Empire became fragmented and the people suffered extreme hardships. Emperor Wu used his divinely-bestowed military genius to bring order to chaos, save the people from their suffering, and restore peace and stability to the Empire. Emperor Wen followed the will of Heaven and the people, and took the throne. Emperor Ming expanded on their legacy and made glorious achievements during his reign. Outside our borders, there are many people living under different regimes and having different cultures from us, and they have yet to experience the grace and benevolence of our Empire. The three Previous Emperors thought it was a great pity. The current Emperor has a magnanimous heart and the will to expand his predecessors' legacy. His subjects serve with the utmost loyalty, do their best to serve the dynasty, maintain order and stability in government, and bring peace and prosperity to the people. That is why our Empire is so well-ruled. When we show benevolence towards ethnic minorities, they willingly submit to our rule. Are the people of Shu any different from other peoples? It is a shame that the people of Shu are bound to a lifetime of endless servitude. Our army has received a mission to act in accordance with Heaven's will and punish those who oppose the dynasty. The General Who Attacks the West, Inspector of Yong Province, and General Who Guards the West are leading five armies on this mission. The armies of ancient times went to war in the name of righteousness and benevolence. A ruler's army should seek to win the people's hearts instead of simply fighting. Yu Shun ruled with benevolence to win over the Miao; when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty, he opened up the vaults and distributed the riches to the people, and honoured the virtuous officials who previously served under Shang. At the present, the General Who Guards the West goes to war not for the purposes of gaining greater glory for himself and the dynasty; what he truly desires is to save the people from suffering. He shall explain the perilous situation you are currently in, and he hopes that you will heed his honest advice.
The Former Lord of Yi Province had grand ambitions when he built an army from scratch. When he suffered defeats in Ji and Xu provinces and got threatened by Yuan Shao and Lü Bu, our Emperor Wu came to his aid and developed a bond with him. However, he betrayed Emperor Wu later and they no longer shared similar beliefs. While Zhuge Kongming governed Shu well and secured its borders, Jiang Boyue kept waging war, harassing our borders and causing harm to the Qiang and Di peoples. At the time, as we were busy with other affairs, we had no time to deal with his intrusions. Now that our borders are peaceful and our Empire is stable, we decide to amass our forces and wait for an opportunity to launch an all-out retaliatory strike. Shu draws its military strength from only one province and its defences are scattered around; it stands no chance against our imperial army. The Shu forces has already suffered disastrous defeats at Duan Valley and Houhe; it cannot hope to resist the might of our army. In recent years, Shu has never been quite peaceful as it has constantly been in a state of war and its people are already exhausted. How can it hope to resist an army united in spirit and purpose? You have witnessed it. In the past, Shu's chancellor Chen Zhuang was captured by the Qin army, while Gongsun Shu was killed by Wu Han. As you can see, no power can occupy and rule any of the Nine Provinces for long. You would have probably heard that intelligent people can foresee danger and wise people can avoid disaster. That was how Weizi left the Shang dynasty and became a guest of the Zhou dynasty; that was how Chen Ping left Xiang Yu to serve the Han dynasty and made great achievements later. Your desire to seek a moment's peace is akin to consuming a slow-acting poison. Can you not think of doing something better than limiting yourself to serving Shu? Our Empire is willing to spare our enemies and our leaders are willing to show benevolence. Those who surrender to us early receive generous treatment; those who surrender to us late will not be spared. When the Wu general Sun Yi surrendered to us, he received promotions and rewards. Wen Qin and Tang Zi betrayed us and joined the enemy. In the end, when Tang Zi was captured and Wen Qin's two sons surrendered to us, we still treated them well by awarding them titles and appointing them as generals. Tang Zi even had the opportunity to participate in high-level state affairs. The Emperor also highly favoured Sun Yi. Shu has so many virtuous talents, so all the more we would welcome them with open arms. If you can carefully assess the situation and decide to follow in the footsteps of Weizi and Chen Ping, we are willing to treat you and your descendants generously. Imagine how nice this would be: Everyone in the Empire lives in peace and harmony; farmers work in the fields; markets bustle with activity; there is no danger; there is only prosperity for everyone. If you persist in seeking a moment's peace and refuse to mend your ways, it will be too late for regrets by the time our army destroys Shu. Please carefully consider your choices and make the best decision for yourself. You should also inform the others and let everyone know our intentions."
When his army's food supplies ran low, Zhong Hui considered giving up on taking Jiange and retreating.
Zhong Hui seizing command of Zhuge Xu's army
When Deng Ai asked Zhuge Xu to join him in taking a detour to bypass Jiange, the latter refused because he was not authorised to. Zhuge Xu then led his army to Baishui to rendezvous with Zhong Hui and join him in attacking Jiang Wei at Jiange. Zhong Hui wanted to seize control of Zhuge Xu's army so he secretly reported to the Wei imperial court that Zhuge Xu showed cowardice during battle. As a result, Zhuge Xu was relieved of his command and sent back to the Wei capital Luoyang in a prison cart.
Deng Ai's detour
When he was at Yinping, Deng Ai came up with the idea of taking a shortcut through Deyang Village to Fu County that would lead them to an area about 100 li west of Jiange and about 300 li from the Shu capital Chengdu. His idea was to lure Jiang Wei to send reinforcements from Jiange to Fu County and weaken Jiange's defences; if Jiang Wei did not send reinforcements, Fu County would be isolated and easily conquered.
Zhong Hui approved Deng Ai's idea and even ordered his subordinate Tian Zhang (田章) to join Deng Ai on the expedition. Some time between 18 November and 17 December 263,[h] Deng Ai led a strike force from Yinping through the shortcut, bypassing the west of Jiange and heading straight towards Jiangyou. The shortcut covered a distance of more than 700 li and cut across mountainous terrain. Deng Ai and his men had to construct several bridges along the way. The mountains were high and the valleys were deep, which made the journey extremely dangerous. After some time, they were completely cut off from their supply train. Deng Ai wrapped himself in a large piece of felt and rolled down the mountain. His men climbed trees and scaled cliffs in single file. Along the way, they encountered three groups of Shu ambushers, defeated them and destroyed their camps. Deng Ai let Tian Zhang lead the vanguard and clear the path.
After successfully navigating their way through the shortcut, Deng Ai and his men showed up at Jiangyou unexpectedly. Ma Miao (馬邈), the Shu-appointed administrator of Jiangyou, was so shocked that he gave up resistance and surrendered to Deng Ai.
Battle of Mianzhu
Following their capture of Jiangyou, Deng Ai and his men pushed on further to Fu County, where they encountered resistance from Shu forces led by Zhuge Zhan. Zhuge Zhan's subordinate, Huang Chong, urged his superior to swiftly take control of the mountainous terrain around Fu County and use that geographical advantage to stop the Wei forces from entering the flat lands. When Zhuge Zhan hesitated, Huang Chong broke down in tears as he repeatedly urged the former to do so.
Zhuge Zhan then ordered his vanguard force to attack Deng Ai at Fu County but they lost the battle. Zhuge Zhan and his remaining troops then retreated to Mianzhu, where he soon received a letter from Deng Ai asking him to surrender. A furious Zhuge Zhan executed the messenger who delivered the letter, and ordered his troops to assemble in formation outside Mianzhu and prepare to engage the enemy in battle.
Deng Ai ordered his son Deng Zhong (鄧忠) and subordinate Shi Zuan (師纂) to each lead a detachment of troops to flank Zhuge Zhan from the right and left respectively. After failing to break the Shu formation, they returned to Deng Ai and told him: "The enemy cannot be defeated." Deng Ai sternly replied: "This battle will determine whether we live or die. What do you mean when you say the enemy cannot be defeated?" When he threatened to execute them for cowardice, they quickly turned back and led their troops to attack again. On their second attempt, they succeeded in breaking the Shu formation and then proceeded to occupy Mianzhu. Zhuge Zhan, along with his son Zhuge Shang and subordinates Huang Chong, Li Qiu and Zhang Zun, were all killed in action at Mianzhu.
Fall of Shu
When Jiang Wei learnt of the fall of Mianzhu, he led his forces east towards Ba Commandery (巴郡; present-day Chongqing). Zhong Hui led his army to Fu County and ordered Hu Lie, Tian Xu, Pang Hui and others to lead troops to pursue Jiang Wei.
Liu Shan's surrender
In the meantime, after capturing Mianzhu, Deng Ai and his men pressed on further to Luo County (雒縣; north of present-day Guanghan, Sichuan) near the Shu capital Chengdu. Around this time, when Liu Shan held a discussion with his subjects on what options they had, some suggested that they flee to their ally state Wu while others proposed retreating southward into the Nanzhong region (covering parts of present-day southern Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou).
Liu Shan ultimately heeded Qiao Zhou's suggestion to give up resistance and surrender to Deng Ai. One of Liu Shan's sons, Liu Chen, had strongly advocated making a last stand against Deng Ai. However, after Liu Shan decided to surrender, Liu Chen went to the ancestral temple of his grandfather Liu Bei and cried his heart out. He then killed his wife and children before committing suicide.
Liu Shan wrote a surrender document as follows:
"Due to two rivers cutting across our lands, we have become deeply and distantly separated from each other. We occupied Shu by chance, thought that we could hold up in one corner, and defied Heaven's will and the Empire's might. As the years passed, we gradually found ourselves drifting further away from the imperial capital by tens of thousands of li. I often recall the time during the Huangchu era when Emperor Wen sent General Xianyu Fu to Shu to announce a warmly- and sincerely-worded imperial edict, reiterate his kindness, and open his doors to accepting our surrender. He made his benevolence and righteousness so obvious. I am of poor character and virtue. I failed to see the bigger picture, greedily clung on to the mediocre legacy of my predecessor, put up a struggle for so many years, and resisted attempts by the Empire to make us more civilised. When Heaven expresses its fury, it is just a matter of time before all things submit to its authority. The Empire's grand army shows its might and instils fear everywhere it goes. Who dares to not have a change of heart and meekly submit to its power? I have ordered all my officers and soldiers to lay down their weapons and remove their armour, all the government offices to keep their treasuries and stores intact, all my people to line up in the outskirts of their cities, and all food supplies to be left in the fields. We await the Empire's grace, and hope that our people can preserve their lives. I bow down in the hope that the Great Wei Empire will, with the aid of wise and virtuous officials like Yi Yin and the Duke of Zhou, rule with benevolence and spread its virtues throughout the world. I hereby send my aides Palace Attendant Zhang Shao, Household Counsellor Qiao Zhou, and Chief Commandant of Escorting Cavalry Deng Liang to present my seal of authority to you as an act of surrender and as a token of my sincerity and allegiance. My fate shall totally rest in the hands of you, General. I will also bring along a coffin when I meet you. There is no need for me to say anything further.
As instructed, Zhang Shao, Qiao Zhou and Deng Liang brought the surrender document and Liu Shan's imperial seal to Deng Ai at Luo County. Deng Ai was so pleased to receive the surrender document and imperial seal that he reported victory to the Wei government and sent Zhang Shao and Deng Liang back to Chengdu. At the same time, Liu Shan also instructed Zhang Jun (張峻) and others to relay his orders throughout the Shu territories to surrender to Wei, and sent Jiang Xian to order Jiang Wei to surrender to Zhong Hui at Fu County. He then sent Li Hu (李虎) to present to Deng Ai a record book containing demographic and other statistical data about Shu. According to the records, Shu had 280,000 households, a population of 940,000, an army of 120,000, 40,000 officials, over 400,000 hu of grain, 2,000 jin of gold, 2,000 jin of silver, and 400,000 rolls of brocade and coloured silk.
When Deng Ai and his troops arrived at the north gate of Chengdu, Liu Shan tied himself up and brought along a coffin as he led an entourage of over 60 people to officially surrender to Deng Ai. Deng Ai burnt the coffin, freed Liu Shan from his bonds and treated him kindly. Using the acting imperial authority granted to him by the Wei government, Deng Ai appointed Liu Shan as acting General of Chariots of Cavalry (驃騎將軍) and granted other titles to former Shu nobles and officials. He allowed Liu Shan to continue living in his palace and even visited Liu Shan and his family later. At the same time, he forbid his troops from plundering and pillaging Chengdu, and ordered that daily activities in the city resume as per normal. The people of Shu were very impressed with Deng Ai's generosity and kindness; some former Shu officials even became his subordinates.
Deng Ai appointed Shi Zuan as the Inspector of Yi Province and put Qian Hong in charge of overseeing the former Shu commanderies. He also ordered the construction of a memorial at Mianzhu to glorify his victory and had the fallen Wei soldiers buried there alongside their Shu counterparts.
Jiang Wei's surrender
Meanwhile, the Shu forces under Jiang Wei received confusing information about the situation in Chengdu. Some said that Liu Shan wanted to remain in Chengdu and defend the city, while others claimed that the Shu emperor was going to abandon Chengdu and flee south to Jianning Commandery (建寧郡; covering parts of present-day Yunnan and Guizhou). Jiang Wei thus prepared to lead his troops to Qi County (郪縣; present-day Santai County, Sichuan), which was nearer to Chengdu, to verify the truth. Just then, they received orders from Chengdu to lay down their arms and surrender to Zhong Hui at Fu County. Many Shu soldiers felt so shocked and angry when they heard of their emperor's surrender that they drew their swords and slashed at rocks to vent their frustration.
When Zhong Hui finally met Jiang Wei, he asked him: "Why are you late?" With a solemn expression on his face and tears streaming down his cheeks, Jiang Wei replied: "Our meeting today came too early." Zhong Hui was impressed by Jiang Wei's response.
Between 18 November and 17 December 263,[i] the Shu government had made an urgent request for support from their ally state, Wu, in the east. On 8 January 264,[i] the Wu emperor Sun Xiu ordered five officers to lead three separate forces to attack Wei territories in the hope of diverting Wei attention away from Shu: Ding Feng to attack Shouchun (壽春; present-day Shou County, Anhui); Liu Ping and Shi Ji to attack Nan Commandery (南郡; around present-day Jingzhou, Hubei); and Ding Fēng and Sun Yi (孫異) to attack Wei territories along the middle Mian River. The Wu forces pulled back when they received news of the fall of Shu.
Deng Ai's arrest and downfall
Feeling proud of his achievements, Deng Ai became very arrogant and boastful as he took control of and oversaw the post-war Shu territories. Around February 264, he wrote to Sima Zhao to suggest ideas to conquer Wei's other rival state, Wu. When Sima Zhao told him that his proposal had to be discussed in the imperial court before approval, Deng Ai grew impatient and hinted that he was justified in ignoring standard protocol and behaving autocratically as long as he acted in Wei's interests. Zhong Hui, who secretly desired to rebel against Wei, used the opportunity to exploit and manipulate Deng Ai's arrogance to great effect. After intercepting a report from Deng Ai to the Wei imperial court, he imitated Deng Ai's handwriting and edited the report to make it sound rude and demanding. He also destroyed a letter from Sima Zhao to Deng Ai.
In late February 264, the Wei imperial court ordered Zhong Hui and Wei Guan to arrest Deng Ai, relieve him of his command, and send him back to Luoyang in a prison cart. On or after 3 March 264, Wei Guan sent Tian Xu to lead soldiers to intercept and kill Deng Ai, his son Deng Zhong and subordinate Shi Zuan at the west of Mianzhu.
Zhong Hui's rebellion
After Deng Ai was arrested and taken away, Zhong Hui assumed overall command of the Wei forces occupying former Shu territories. At Jiang Wei's instigation, he decided to start a rebellion against Sima Zhao, and came up with a strategy to attack Luoyang with Jiang Wei's assistance.
On 1 March 264, a day after arriving in Chengdu, Zhong Hui summoned all the high-ranking Wei officers to attend a meeting and showed them a fake imperial decree ordering them to rise up against Sima Zhao and overthrow him. However, he became worried that the officers were unwilling to support him so he instructed his close aides to seize command of the officers' units and detain the officers. On 3 March, when there were rumours that Zhong Hui wanted to purge all the officers who refused to participate in the rebellion, the detained officers broke out of captivity, regrouped with their units, and launched a mutiny against Zhong Hui. Chaos broke out in Chengdu and hundreds of people were killed. Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei fought the mutinying soldiers but were ultimately overwhelmed and killed.
Wu invasion of Badong
During the Wei invasion of Shu, the Shu general Yan Yu (閻宇), who was in charge of guarding Badong Commandery (巴東郡; covering parts of present-day Chongqing), received orders to lead troops from Badong to support the Shu forces at the frontline. Yan Yu's deputy, Luo Xian, remained behind with only 2,000 troops to guard Yong'an (永安; present-day Fengjie County, Chongqing), the capital of Badong Commandery.
In November or December 263, when news of Chengdu's fall reached Yong'an, Luo Xian managed to calm down the people and restore order and stability in Yong'an. After receiving news confirming that Liu Shan had indeed surrendered to Wei, Luo Xian gathered all his troops and mourned the fall of Shu for three days.
In the meantime, Wu prepared to take advantage of the situation to invade Shu and seize control of former Shu territories under the pretext of sending reinforcements to help Shu resist the Wei invaders. Around March 264, the Wu general Bu Xie led troops from Xiling (西陵; present-day Yichang, Hubei) to attack Yong'an but encountered strong resistance from Luo Xian and his men. As the Wu forces rained arrows on his position, Luo Xian ordered his subordinate Yang Zong (楊宗) to break out of the siege and seek help from Wei. He also surrendered his tallies and sent his son as a hostage to convince the Wei regent Sima Zhao of his sincerity. During this time, he led his men to strike back at the Wu forces and defeated them.
Enraged at Bu Xie's defeat, the Wu emperor Sun Xiu ordered his general Lu Kang to lead 30,000 troops to support Bu Xie and besiege Yong'an. After a six-month-long siege, more than half of Yong'an's population fell sick from infectious diseases. Just then, the Wei general Hu Lie led reinforcements from Jing Province to help Luo Xian and lift the siege on Yong'an. The Wu forces retreated upon seeing the arrival of Wei reinforcements. Sima Zhao accepted Luo Xian's surrender and ordered him to remain behind and continue guarding Yong'an.
Order of battle
- Grand Chief Controller (大都督) Sima Zhao, the regent of Wei, oversaw the entire campaign from the Wei capital Luoyang.
- General Who Guards the West (鎮西將軍) Zhong Hui led an army of over 100,000 to attack Shu from the eastern flank.
- Official of Justice (廷尉卿) Wei Guan served as an acting military judge under Zhong Hui. He also received imperial authority to supervise Zhong Hui and Deng Ai's military operations.
- Chief Clerk (長史) Du Yu
- General of the Vanguard (前將軍) Li Fu (李輔) led a detachment of 10,000 troops to attack Lecheng County.
- Army Protector (護軍) Xun Kai (荀愷) led a detachment of 10,000 troops to attack Hancheng County.
- Army Protector (護軍) Hu Lie led the vanguard force to attack Yang'an Pass.
- Officer of the Standard (牙門將) Xu Yi oversaw the construction of a road leading into Shu. He was executed for failing his mission when the road turned out to be poorly built.
- Tian Zhang (田章) accompanied Deng Ai on his detour through the shortcut to Mianzhu.
- General Who Pacifies Bandits (平寇將軍) Pang Hui
- Army Protector (護軍) Tian Xu
- Inspector of Yong Province (雍州刺史) Zhuge Xu led an army of 30,000 to attack Shu from the central flank.
- General Who Attacks the West (征西將軍) Deng Ai led an army of 30,000 to attack Shu from the western flank.
- Administrator of Weixing (魏興太守) Liu Qin (劉欽) led troops from Weixing Commandery to attack Hanzhong Commandery via the Ziwu Valley.
- Administrator of Tianshui (天水太守) Wang Qi led troops from Tianshui Commandery to attack Tazhong.
- Administrator of Longxi (隴西太守) Qian Hong led troops from Longxi Commandery to attack Tazhong.
- Administrator of Jincheng (金城太守) Yang Xin (楊欣) led troops from Jincheng Commandery to attack Gansong.
- General-in-Chief (大將軍) Jiang Wei led the Shu defences at Tazhong before he retreated to Yinping and then to Jiange.
- Right General of Chariots and Cavalry (右車騎將軍) Liao Hua led reinforcements to support Jiang Wei at Tazhong and Yinping before retreating to Jiange together with him.
- Left General of Chariots and Cavalry (左車騎將軍) Zhang Yi led reinforcements to join Jiang Wei at Jiange.
- Senior General Who Assists the State (輔國大將軍) Dong Jue led reinforcements to join Jiang Wei at Jiange.
- † Left General of the Household (左中郎將) Fu Qian guarded Yang'an Pass.
- Jiang Shu (蔣舒) defected to Wei forces and assisted them in capturing Yang'an Pass.
- Army Inspector (監軍) Wang Han (王含) led 5,000 troops to guard Lecheng County.
- General of Pacifying Martial Might (綏武將軍) Jiang Bin led 5,000 troops to guard Hancheng County.
- Administrator of Jiangyou (江油太守) Ma Miao (馬邈) guarded Jiangyou.
- † General Who Protects the Army (護軍將軍) Zhuge Zhan guarded Mianzhu.
- Right General-in-Chief (右大將軍) Yan Yu (閻宇) led reinforcements from Badong Commandery to defend Chengdu.
- General-in-Chief (大將軍) Ding Feng led Wu forces to attack Shouchun and divert Wei attention away from Shu.
- Liu Ping led Wu forces to attack Nan Commandery.
- Upper General-in-Chief (上大將軍) Shi Ji led Wu forces to attack Nan Commandery.
- General of the Rear (後將軍) Ding Fēng led Wu forces to attack Wei territories along the middle Mian River.
- Sun Yi led Wu forces to attack Wei territories along the middle Mian River.
- General Who Pacifies the Army (撫軍將軍) Bu Xie led Wu forces to attack Yong'an County after the fall of Shu.
- General Who Guards the Army (鎮軍將軍) Lu Kang led 30,000 troops to reinforce Bu Xie.
In popular culture
Mie Shu Ji (滅蜀記; literally: The Tale of the Destruction of Shu; ISBN 9789867480972) is a 2008 novel by Li Bo (李柏) that dramatises the events leading to the fall of Shu, with Jiang Wei, Deng Ai and Zhong Hui as the central characters.
- The Zizhi Tongjian recorded that the Wei imperial court issued an edict ordering Deng Ai, Zhuge Xu and Zhong Hui to lead Wei forces to attack Shu from three directions. This took place sometime between the 5th and 7th months of the 4th year of the Jingyuan era of Cao Huan's reign. The Wei armies departed the capital Luoyang in the 8th month. The 8th month of the 4th year of Jingyuan corresponds to 20 September to 19 October 263 in the Gregorian calendar.
- Sima Zhao's biography in the Jin Shu recorded that the Wei generals' reports of victory reached Luoyang in the 10th month of the 4th year of the Jingyuan era of Cao Huan's reign. This month corresponds to 18 November to 17 December 263 in the Gregorian calendar.
- Zhong Hui's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Deng Ai and Zhuge Xu each led 30,000 troops and Zhong Hui led more than 100,000 troops during the campaign. Sima Zhao's biography in the Jin Shu recorded that Wei mobilised a total of 180,000 troops for the campaign.
- Sima Zhao estimated that Shu had a total of 90,000 troops (50,000 at the frontline and 40,000 guarding Chengdu and the inner territories) before the campaign. However, the Shu Ji recorded that Shu had 102,000 troops when Liu Shan surrendered to Deng Ai.
- The Zizhi Tongjian recorded that Sima Zhao made this announcement in the 3rd year of the Jingyuan era of Cao Huan's reign. This year corresponds to 262 in the Gregorian calendar. However, Sima Zhao's biography in the Jin Shu recorded that he made this announcement in the summer of the 4th year of the Jingyuan era, which corresponds to the summer of 263. This article follows the dates in the Zizhi Tongjian.
- See Deng Ai#Battles against Shu.
- Sima Zhao's biography in the Jin Shu recorded that this took place in the 9th month of the 4th year of the Jingyuan era of Cao Huan's reign. This month corresponds to 20 October to 17 November 263 in the Gregorian calendar.
- Deng Ai's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that he took the shortcut in the 10th month of the 4th year of the Jingyuan era of Cao Huan's reign. This month corresponds to 18 November to 17 December 263 in the Gregorian calendar.
- Sun Xiu's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Shu requested support from Wu in the 10th month of the 6th year of the Yong'an era of Sun Xiu's reign. This month corresponds to 18 November to 17 December 263 in the Gregorian calendar. Sun Xiu's biography also recorded that Sun Xiu ordered Ding Feng, Liu Ping, Ding Fēng and Sun Yi to lead Wu forces to attack Wei territories on the jiashen day after the 10th month of the 6th year of the Yong'an era. The closest jiashen day after the 10th month is the 22nd day of the 11th month, which corresponds to 8 January 264 in the Gregorian calendar.
- Sima (1084), vol. 78.
- ([景元四年]冬十月，天子以諸侯獻捷交至， ...) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- ([景元]四年秋，乃下詔使鄧艾、諸葛緒各統諸軍三萬餘人，艾趣甘松、沓中連綴維，緒趣武街、橋頭絕維歸路。會統十餘萬衆，分從斜谷、駱谷入。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (於是征四方之兵十八萬， ...) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (景元[四年]夏，帝將伐蜀，乃謀眾曰：「自定壽春已來，息役六年，治兵繕甲，以擬二虜。略計取吳，作戰船，通水道，當用千餘萬功，此十萬人百數十日事也。又南土下濕，必生疾疫。今宜先取蜀，三年之後，在巴蜀順流之勢，水陸並進，此滅虞定虢，吞韓並魏之勢也。計蜀戰士九萬，居守成都及備他郡不下四萬，然則餘眾不過五萬。今絆姜維於遝中，使不得東顧，直指駱穀，出其空虛之地，以襲漢中。彼若嬰城守險，兵勢必散，首尾離絕。舉大眾以屠城，散銳卒以略野，劍閣不暇守險，關���不能自存。以劉禪之暗，而邊城外破，士女內震，其亡可知也。」) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (又遣尚書郎李虎送士民簿， ... 帶甲將士十萬二千， ...) Shu Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- Sima (1084), vol. 69.
- Sima (1084), vol. 70.
- Sima (1084), vols. 71-72.
- Sima (1084), vols. 74-78.
- Sima (1084), vol. 75.
- Sima (1084), vol. 76.
- Sima (1084), vol. 77.
- Sanguozhi vols. 28, 33 and 44, Jin Shu vol. 2, and Zizhi Tongjian vol. 78.
- (文王以蜀大將姜維屢擾邊陲，料蜀國小民疲，資力單竭，欲大舉圖蜀。惟會亦以為蜀可取，豫共籌度地形，考論事勢。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (征西將軍鄧艾以為未有釁，屢陳異議。帝患之，使主簿師纂為艾司馬以喻之，艾乃奉命。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (景元三年冬，以會為鎮西將軍、假節都督關中諸軍事。文王勑青、徐、兖、豫、荊、揚諸州，並使作船，又令唐咨作浮海大船，外為將伐吳者。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (於是征四方之兵十八萬，使鄧艾自狄道攻姜維於遝中，雍州刺史諸葛緒自祁山軍於武街，絕維歸路，鎮西將軍鐘會帥前將軍李輔、征蜀護軍胡烈等自駱穀襲漢中。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (鄧艾、鐘會之伐蜀也，瓘以本官持節監艾、會軍事，行鎮西軍司，給兵千人。) Jin Shu vol. 36.
- Sima (1084), vol. 68.
- (初，先主留魏延鎮漢中，皆實兵諸圍以禦外敵，敵若來攻，使不得入。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (及興勢之役，王平捍拒曹爽，皆承此制。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (維建議，以為錯守諸圍，雖合周易「重門」之義，然適可禦敵，不獲大利。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (不若使聞敵至，諸圍皆歛兵聚穀，退就漢、樂二城，使敵不得入平，且重關鎮守以捍之。有事之日，令游軍並進以伺其虛。敵攻關不克，野無散穀，千里縣糧，自然疲乏。引退之日，然後諸城並出，與游軍并力搏之，此殄敵之術也。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (於是令督漢中胡濟却住漢壽，監軍王含守樂城，護軍蔣斌守漢城，又於西安、建威、武衞、石門、武城、建昌、臨遠皆立圍���。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- ([景耀]六年，維表後主：「聞鍾會治兵關中，欲規進取，宜並遣張翼、廖化督諸軍分護陽安關口、陰平橋頭以防未然。」) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (皓徵信鬼巫，謂敵終不自致，啟後主寢其事，而羣臣不知。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- ([景元四年]秋八月，軍發洛陽，大賚將士，陳師誓眾。將軍鄧敦謂蜀未可討，帝斬以徇。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (先命牙門將許儀在前治道，會在後行，而橋穿，馬足陷，於是斬儀。儀者，許褚之子，有功王室，猶不原貸。諸軍聞之，莫不震竦。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ([景元四年]九月，又使天水太守王頎攻維營，隴西太守牽弘邀其前，金城太守楊頎趣甘松。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (魏興太守劉欽趣子午谷，諸軍數道平行，至漢中。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (及鍾會將向駱谷，鄧艾將入沓中，然後乃遣右車騎廖化詣沓中為維援，左車騎張翼、輔國大將軍董厥等詣陽安關口以為諸圍外助。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (比至陰平，聞魏將諸葛緒向建威，故住待之。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (會使護軍荀愷、前將軍李輔各統萬人，愷圍漢城，輔圍樂城。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (鐘會分為二隊，入自斜谷，使李輔圍王含于樂城，又使部將荀愷攻蔣斌於漢城。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (蜀令諸圍皆不���戰，退還漢、樂二城守。蜀監軍王含守樂城，護軍蔣斌守漢城，兵各五千。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會徑過，西出陽安口，遣人祭諸葛亮之墓。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (魏大將軍鍾會至漢城，與斌書曰： ... 會得斌書報，嘉歎意義，及至涪，如其書云。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- ([鍾]會攻樂城，不能克，聞關口已下，長驅而前。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (後主旣降鄧艾，���詣會於涪，待以交友之禮。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (使護軍胡烈等行前，攻破關城，得庫藏積糓。會直指陽安，護軍胡烈攻陷關城。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (蜀記曰：蔣舒為武興督，在事無稱。蜀命人代之，因留舒助漢中守。舒恨，故開城出降。) Shu Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (漢晉春秋曰：蔣舒將出降，乃詭謂傅僉曰：「今賊至不擊而閉城自守，非良圖也。」僉曰：「受命保城，惟全為功，今違命出戰，若喪師負國，死無益矣。」舒曰：「子以保城獲全為功，我以出戰克敵為功，請各行其志。」遂率衆出。僉謂其戰也，至陰平，以降胡烈。烈乘虛襲城，僉格鬬而死，魏人義之。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (鍾會攻圍漢、樂二城，遣別將進攻關口，蔣舒開城出降，傅僉格鬬而死。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (���餘，維為鄧艾所摧，還住陰平。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (未到，聞其已破，退趣白水， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (姜維聞之，引還，王頎追敗維於強川。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (維聞鍾會諸軍已入漢中，引退還。欣等追躡於彊川口，大戰，維敗走。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (聞雍州已塞道屯橋頭，從孔函谷入北道，欲出雍州後。諸葛緒聞之，却還三十里。維入北道三十���里，聞緒軍却，尋還，從橋頭過，緒趣截維，較一日不及。維遂東引，還守劒閣。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (維與張翼、廖化合軍守劍閣，鐘會攻之。) Jin Shu vol. 2.
- (翼、厥甫至漢壽，���、化亦舍陰平而退，適與翼、厥合，皆退保劒閣以拒會。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (鍾會攻維未能克。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會與維書曰：「公侯以文武之德，懷邁世之略，功濟巴、漢，聲暢華夏，遠近莫不歸名。每惟疇昔，甞同大化，吳札、鄭喬，能喻斯好。」) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (維不荅書，列營守險。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (往者漢祚衰微，率土分崩，生民���命，幾於泯滅。太祖武皇帝神武聖哲，撥亂反正，拯其將墜，造我區夏。高祖文皇帝應天順民，受命踐阼。烈祖明皇帝奕世重光，恢拓洪業。然江山之外異政殊俗，率土齊民未蒙王化，此三祖所以顧懷遺恨也。今主上聖德欽明，紹隆前緒，宰輔忠肅明允，劬勞王室，布政垂惠而萬邦恊和，施德百蠻而肅慎致貢。悼彼巴蜀，獨為匪民，愍此百姓，勞役未已。是以命授六師，龔行天罰，征西、雍州、鎮西諸軍，五道並進。古之行軍，以仁為本，以義治之；王者之師，有征無戰；故虞舜舞干戚而服有苗，周武有散財、發廩、表閭之義。今鎮西奉辭銜命，攝統戎重，庶弘文告之訓，以濟元元之命，非欲窮武極戰，以快一朝之政，故畧陳安危之要，其敬聽話言。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (益州先主以命世英才，興兵朔野，困躓兾、徐之郊，制命紹、布之手，太祖拯而濟之，與隆大好。中更背違，棄同即異，諸葛孔明仍規秦川，姜伯約屢出隴右，勞動我邊境，侵擾我氐、羌，方國家多故，未遑脩九伐之征也。今邊境乂清，方內無事，畜力待時，并兵一向，而巴蜀一州之衆，分張守備，難以禦天下之師。段谷、侯和沮傷之氣，難以敵堂堂之陳。比年以來，曾無寕歲，征夫勤瘁，難以當子來之民。此皆諸賢所親見也。蜀相牡見禽於秦，公孫述授首於漢，九州之險，是非一姓。此皆諸賢所備聞也。明者見危於無形，智者規禍於未萌，是以微子去商，長為周賔，陳平背項，立功於漢。豈晏安酖毒，懷祿而不變哉？今國朝隆天覆之恩，宰輔弘寬恕之德，先惠後誅，好生惡殺。往者吳將孫壹舉衆內附，位為上司，寵秩殊異。文欽、唐咨為國大害，叛主���賊，還為戎首。咨困逼禽獲，欽二子還降，皆將軍、封侯；咨與聞國事。壹等窮踧歸命，猶加盛寵，况巴蜀賢知見機而作者哉！誠能深鑒成敗，邈然高蹈，投跡微子之蹤，錯身陳平之軌，則福同古人，慶流來裔，百姓士民，安堵舊業，農不易畒，巿不回肆，去累卵之危，就永安之福，豈不美與！若偷安旦夕，迷而不反，大兵一發，玉石皆碎，雖欲悔之，亦無及已。其詳擇利害，自求多福，各具宣布，咸使聞知。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會不能克，糧運縣遠，將議還歸。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (會與緒軍向劒閣，會欲專軍勢，密白緒畏懦不進，檻車徵還。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (艾上言：「今賊摧折，宜遂乘之，從陰平由邪徑經漢德陽亭趣涪，出劒閣西百里，去成都三百餘里，奇兵衝其腹心。劒閣之守必還赴涪，則會方軌而進；劒閣之軍不還，則應涪之兵寡矣。軍志有之曰：『攻其不備，出其不意。』今掩其空虛，破之必矣。」) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ([景元四年]冬十月，艾自陰平道行無人之地七百餘里，鑿山通道，造作橋閣。山高谷深，至為艱險，又糧運將匱，頻於危殆。艾以氊自裹，推轉而下。將士皆攀木緣崖，魚貫而進���) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (鄧艾追姜維到陰平，簡選精銳，欲從漢德陽入江由、左儋道詣緜竹，趣成都，與諸葛緒共行。緒以本受節度邀姜維，西行非本詔，遂進軍前向白水，與會合。會遣將軍田章等從劒閣西，徑出江由。未至百里，章先破蜀伏兵三校，艾使章先登。遂長駈而前。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (先登至江由，蜀守將馬邈降。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (權留蜀子崇，為尚書郎，隨衞將軍諸葛瞻拒鄧艾。到涪縣，瞻盤桓未進，崇屢勸瞻宜速行據險，無令敵得入平地。瞻猶與未納，崇至于流涕。) Sanguozhi vol. 43.
- ([景耀]六年冬，魏征西將軍鄧艾伐蜀，自陰平由景谷道旁入。瞻督諸軍至涪停住，前鋒破，退還，住緜竹。艾遣書誘瞻曰：「若降者必表為琅邪王。」瞻怒，斬艾使。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
- (會艾長驅而前，瞻却戰至緜竹，崇帥厲軍士，期於必死，臨陣見殺。) Sanguozhi vol. 43.
- (恢弟子球，羽林右部督，隨諸葛瞻拒鄧艾，臨陣授命，死于緜竹。) Sanguozhi vol. 43.
- (苞子遵為尚書，隨諸葛瞻於綿竹，與鄧艾戰，死。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
- (遂戰，大敗，臨陣死，時年三十七。衆皆離散，艾長驅至成都。瞻長子尚，與瞻俱沒。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
- (蜀衞將軍諸葛瞻自涪還綿竹，列陳待艾。艾遣子惠唐亭侯忠等出其右，司馬師纂等出其左。忠、纂戰不利，並退還，曰：「賊未可擊。」艾怒曰：「存亡之分，在此一舉，何不可之有？」乃叱忠、纂等，將斬之。忠、纂馳還更戰，大破之，斬瞻及尚書張遵等首， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (艾遂至緜竹，大戰，斬諸葛瞻。維等聞瞻已破，率其衆東入于巴。會乃進軍至涪，遣胡烈、田續、龐會等追維。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (後主使羣臣會議，計無所出。或以為蜀之與吳，本為和國，宜可奔吳；或以為南中七郡，阻險斗絕，易以自守，宜可奔南。) Sanguozhi vol. 42.
- (是日，北地王諶傷國之亡，先殺妻子，次以自殺。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- (漢晉春秋曰：後主將從譙周之策，北地王諶怒曰：「若理窮力屈，禍敗必及，便當父子君臣背城一戰，同死社稷，以見先帝可也。」後主不納，遂送璽緩。是日，諶哭於昭烈之廟，先殺妻子，而後自殺，左右無不為涕泣者。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- (奉書曰：「限分江、漢，遇值深遠，階緣蜀土，斗絕一隅，干運犯冒，漸苒歷載，遂與京畿攸隔萬里。每惟黃初中，文皇帝命虎牙將軍鮮于輔，宣溫密之詔，申三好之恩，開示門戶，大義炳然，而否德暗弱，竊貪遺緒，俛仰累紀，未率大教。天威旣震，人鬼歸能之數，怖駭王師，神武所次，敢不革面，順以從命！輒勑羣帥投戈釋甲，官府帑藏一無所毀。百姓布野，餘糧棲畝，以俟后來之惠，全元元之命。伏惟大魏布德施化，宰輔伊、周，含覆藏疾。謹遣私署侍中張紹、光祿大夫譙周、駙馬都尉鄧良奉齎印緩，請命告誠，敬輸忠款，存亡勑賜，惟所裁之。輿櫬在近，不復縷陳。」) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- (紹、良與艾相遇於雒縣。艾得書，大喜，即報書，遣紹、良先還。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- (... 進軍到雒。劉禪遣使奉皇帝璽綬，為箋詣艾請降。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (禪又遣太常張峻、益州別駕汝超[sic]受節度，遣太僕蔣顯有命勑姜維。又遣尚書郎李虎送士民簿，領戶二十八萬，男女口九十四萬，帶甲將士十萬二千，吏四萬人，米四十餘萬斛，金銀各二千斤，錦綺綵絹各二十萬匹，餘物稱此。) Shu Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 33.
- (艾至城北，後主輿櫬自縛，詣軍壘門。艾解縛焚櫬，延請相見。因承制拜後主為驃騎將軍。諸圍守悉被後主勑，然後降下。艾使後主止其故宮，身往造焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (艾至成都，禪率太子諸王及群臣六十餘人靣縛輿櫬詣軍門，艾執節解縛焚櫬，受而宥之。檢御將士，無所虜畧，綏納降附，使復舊業，蜀人稱焉。輙依鄧禹故事，承制拜禪行驃騎將軍，太子奉車、諸王駙馬都尉。蜀群司各隨高下拜為王官，或領艾官屬。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (以師纂領益州刺史，隴西太守牽弘等領蜀中諸郡。使於緜竹築臺以為京觀，用彰戰功。士卒死事者，皆與蜀兵同共埋藏。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (維等初聞瞻破，或聞後主欲固守成都，或聞欲南入建寧，於是引軍由廣漢、郪道以審虛實。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (尋被後主敕令，乃投戈放甲，詣會於涪軍前，將士咸怒，拔刀斫石。) Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (維至廣漢郪縣，令兵悉放器仗，送節傳於胡烈，便從東道詣會降。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (干寶晉紀云：會謂維曰；「來何遲也？」維正色流涕曰：「今日見此為速矣！」會甚奇之。) Jin Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- ([永安六年]冬十月，蜀以魏見伐來告。 ... [十一月]甲申，使大將軍丁奉督諸軍向魏壽春，將軍留平別詣施績於南郡，議兵所向，將軍丁封、孫異如沔中，皆救蜀。蜀主劉禪降魏問至，然後罷。) Sanguozhi vol. 48.
- ([永安]六年，魏伐蜀，奉率諸軍向壽春，為救蜀之勢。蜀亡，軍還。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
- (艾言司馬文王曰：「兵有先聲而後實者， ... 望風而從矣。」文王使監軍衞瓘喻艾：「事當須報，不宜輙行。」艾重言曰：「銜命征行， ... 終不自嫌以損于國也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (世語曰：會善效人書，於劒閣要艾章表白事，皆易其言，令辭指悖傲，多自矜伐。又毀文王報書，手作以疑之也。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會內有異志，因鄧艾承制專事，密白艾有反狀，於是詔書檻車徵艾。司馬文王懼艾或不從命，勑會並進軍成都，監軍衞瓘在會前行，以文王手筆令宣喻艾軍，艾軍皆釋仗，遂收艾入檻車。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (艾父子旣囚，鍾會至成都，先送艾，然後作亂。會已死，艾本營將士追出艾檻車，迎還。瓘遣田續等討艾， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (世語曰：師纂亦與艾俱死。纂性急少恩，死之日體無完皮。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (... 乃詭說會曰：「聞君自淮南已來， ... 而從赤松游乎？」會曰：「君言遠矣，我不能行，且為今之道，或未盡於此也。」維曰：「其佗則君智力之所能，無���於老夫矣。」由是情好歡甚。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 44.
- (會所憚惟艾，艾旣禽而會尋至，獨統大衆，威震西土。自謂功名蓋世，不可復為人下，加猛將銳卒皆在己手，遂謀反。欲使姜維等皆將蜀兵出斜谷，會自將大衆隨其後。旣至長安，令騎士從陸道，步兵從水道順流浮渭入河，以為五日可到孟津，與騎會洛陽，一旦天下可定也。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會以五年正月十五日至，其明日，悉請護軍、郡守、牙門騎督以上及蜀之故官，為太后發喪於蜀朝堂。矯太后遺詔，使會起兵廢文王，皆班示坐上人，使下議訖，書版署置，更使所親信代領諸軍。所請群官，悉閉著益州諸曹屋中，城門宮門皆閉，嚴兵圍守。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (會帳下督丘建本屬胡烈，烈薦之文王，會請以自隨，任愛之。 ... 或謂會：「可盡殺牙門騎督以上。」會猶豫未決。十八日日中，烈軍兵與烈兒雷鼓出門，諸軍兵不期皆鼓譟出，曾無督促之者，而爭先赴城。 ... 斯須，門外倚梯登城，或燒城屋，蟻附亂進，矢下如雨，牙門、郡守各緣屋出，與其卒兵相得。姜維率會左右戰，手殺五六人，衆旣格斬維，爭赴殺會。會時年四十，將士死者數百人。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- (時大將軍閻宇都督巴東，拜憲領軍，為宇副貳。) Jin Shu vol. 57.
- (魏之伐蜀，召宇西還，憲守永安城。) Jin Shu vol. 57.
- (魏之伐蜀，召[閻]宇西還，留宇二千人，令[羅]憲守永安城。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 41.
- (及成都敗，城中擾動，邊江長吏皆棄城走，憲斬亂者一人，百姓乃安。知劉禪降，乃率所統臨於都亭三日。) Jin Shu vol. 57.
- (及鐘會、鄧艾死，百城無主，吳又使步協西征，憲大破其軍。憲臨江拒射，不能禦，遣參軍楊宗突圍北出，告急安東將軍陳騫，又送文武印綬、任子詣晉王。協攻城，憲出與戰，大破其軍。孫休怒，復遣陸抗等帥衆三萬人增憲之圍。被攻凡六月日而救援不到，城中疾病大半。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 41.
- (孫休怒，又遣陸抗助協。憲距守經年，救援不至，城中疾疫太半。會荊州刺史胡烈等救之，抗退。) Jin Shu vol. 57.
- (晉王即委前任，拜憲淩江將軍，封萬年亭侯。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 41.
- (鐘會伐蜀，以預為鎮西長史。) Jin Shu vol. 34.
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- Selected Examples of Battles in Ancient China (1st ed.). Beijing: Chinese Publishing House. 1984.
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