The Clarendon Commission was a Royal Commission established in 1861 to investigate the state of nine leading schools in England, in the wake of complaints about the finances, buildings and management of Eton College. It sat until 1864, when its Report was published with general recommendations on questions of curriculum and governance. The Clarendon Report gives a detailed picture of life in the nine schools. As a consequence of its publication, the Public Schools Act was passed in 1868.
The Commission's terms of reference were: "To inquire into the nature and application of the Endowments, Funds and Revenue belonging to or received by the hereinafter mentioned Colleges, Schools and Foundations; and also to inquire into the administration and management of the said Colleges, Schools and Foundations"  The nine schools comprised seven boarding schools (Eton, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Westminster and Winchester), and two day schools (St Paul's and Merchant Taylors'). However, the 1868 Act concerned itself only with the seven boarding schools.
- Edward C. Mack, Public Schools and British Opinion since 1860 (1941) online
- Maclure, J. Stuart (1973). Educational Documents: England and Wales, 1816 to present day (3rd ed.). London: Methuen. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-416-78290-5.
- Shrosbree, Colin (1988). Public Schools and Private Education: the Clarendon Commission, 1861-64, and the Public Schools Acts. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 12. Retrieved 28 March 2013.