- the Mycenaean Cyclopean fortifications of the Acropolis of Athens
- the Pelasgic wall at the foot of the Acropolis
- the so-called "Archaic Wall", whose existence and course are debated by scholars
- the Themistoclean Wall, built in 479 BC, the main city wall during Antiquity, restored and rebuilt several times (under Conon, Demosthenes, Demetrios Poliorketes, etc.)
- the Long Walls, built in the 460s and 440s BC, connecting Athens with its ports at Piraeus and Phaleron
- the Diateichisma, built in the 280s BC as a second line of defence against Macedonian-held Piraeus
- the Valerian Wall, built in ca. 260 AD, partly along the lines of older walls, partly as a new fortification, to protect the city against barbarian attacks
- the Herulian Wall, a much smaller circuit built in c. 280 AD, enclosing the very centre of the ancient city following its sack by the Heruli in 267 AD
- the Rizokastro, built in the 11th/12th century around the Acropolis
- the Wall of Haseki, constructed in 1778 by the Ottoman governor of Athens, Hadji Ali Haseki
- Judeich, Walther (1931). Topographie von Athen (in German) (2nd ed.). Munich: Beck.
- Papadopoulos, J. K. (2008). "The Archaic Walls of Athens. Reality or Myth?" (PDF). Opuscula. 1: 31–46.
- Theocharaki, Anna Maria (2011). "The Ancient Circuit Wall of Athens: Its Changing Course and the Phases of Construction". Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 80 (1): 71–156. doi:10.2972/hesp.80.1.0071. JSTOR 10.2972/hesp.80.1.0071.
- Weir, Robert G. A. (1995). "The Lost Archaic Wall around Athens". Phoenix. 49 (3): 247–258. JSTOR 1192524.
- Winter, F. E. (1971). Greek Fortifications. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-608154244.