|Leader||Carlos Alvarado Quesada|
|President||Marta Eugenia Solano Arias|
|Secretary-General||Antony Cascante Ramírez|
|Vice President||Alfredo Chavarría|
|Treasurer||Aura Martínez Pérez|
|International affiliation||Progressive Alliance|
10 / 57
5 / 82
34 / 508
18 / 486
111 / 1,944
1 / 8
Its platform is based on encouraging citizen participation and involvement in politics. One of its guiding ideals is to fight against corruption, arguing that it is one of the main causes of underdevelopment and voter apathy. The party took a leading role in the failed campaign against Costa Rica's membership of the Central American Free Trade Agreement.
History and elections
Founding and 2002 election
PAC was founded in December 2000 by several dissidents from Costa Rica's two traditional parties, the National Liberation Party and the Social Christian Unity Party. Originally an anti-corruption party, it startled the Costa Rican political arena with a very strong showing in the 2002 general elections. In the presidential vote, party founder and candidate Ottón Solís was able to secure 26% of the votes – an unprecedented amount for a third party in Costa Rica – and force a runoff between the PLN and PUSC.
The party won 21.9% of the popular vote and 14 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly, making it the third strongest political force in the legislature. A few months later, however, after a series of internal disputes, six of the party's 14 deputies resigned from the party, leaving PAC with only eight seats.
In the February 5, 2006 parliamentary election, the party won 17 out of 57 seats. Ottón Solís ran for president again, losing to the PLN's Oscar Arias Sanchez by less than .2% of the votes. Arias only won by a few thousand votes over the 40 percent threshold required to avoid a runoff. The number of spoiled ballots was larger than the margin between Solís and Arias.
After the 2006 election, Ótton Solís took a year away from politics to teach in the United States. Former PLN Secretary General Luis Guillermo Solís' name began being circulated at meetings of the "ungroup," an informal gathering of PAC officials, led by former deputy Alberto Salom. Several PAC officials wanted Luis Guillermo Solís to run as a deputy in San José and as a vice presidential candidate in 2010.
In the 2010 election, Ottón Solís ran for his third and final time as president. Laura Chinchilla of the PLN won, but Ottón Solís finished with 25.2% of the votes. PAC won the second fraction in the Legislative Assembly with 11 deputies elected. Six candidates won municipal elections in the rural communities of Aserrí, Matina, Hojancha, Cañas, Los Chiles y Guatuso.
In 2013, PAC held its second national convention. It was an open convention in which any citizen could vote, despite party affiliation. Four candidates vied for the primary to represent PAC in the 2014 national elections: Epsy Campbell Barr, Juan Carlos Mendoza, Luis Guillermo Solís, and Ronald Solís Bolaños, with Luis Guillermo Solís winning 35% of the votes.
The third national convention was held between only two candidates, both former ministers on PAC's first cabinet; Minister of Economy Welmer Ramos and Minister of Labor Carlos Alvarado. Ramos was an economist, more socially conservative and close to the "ottonista" faction, whilst Alvarado was writer and political scientist, much more socially liberal and younger, close to the "progresista" faction. Alvarado won the primary election becoming PAC's first time candidate during government.
Despite suffering from a diminished popularity due to the Cementazo scandal affecting the image of Luis Guillermo Solis' government, Alvarado's progressive positions boost him into the second round as a counter-reaction after the growth of Evangelical Christian singer and ultra-conservative candidate Fabricio Alvarado after the backlash against the IACHR's ruling ordering the country to legalize same-sex marriage, winning by a wide margin in the second round with 60% of the votes and more than 1,300,000 votes over the 39% and around 800,000 votes of his rival, becoming the second time that the party achieved more than a million votes in second round.
While cleaning up corruption has been one of PAC's main goals since its creation, Solís has added to the party's platform. He wants to build infrastructure, bolster Costa Rica's universal health care and social security systems and push for environmentally friendly policies. Historically, PAC has opposed free trade agreements such as CAFTA, which Solís claims is improperly implemented. In addition, PAC claims that the country's tax system is inadequate, saying that more "progressive" system is needed.
PAC is a member of the Progressive Alliance. It maintains informal relations with other progressive and social democratic parties. Ottón Solís has independently met with Ricardo Lagos of the Socialist Party of Chile during a visit to Costa Rica, Cristina Fernández, and members of the Democratic Party of the United States.
2014–2018 Legislative Assembly Deputies
|Name (Last, First)||Municipality|
|Morales Mora, Víctor||Aserrí|
|Álvaro, Solano||Los Chiles|
Other notable members of PAC
|Notable Members of PAC|
|Name (Last, First)||Notes|
|Barr, Epsy Campbell||Deputy 2002–2006 and 2014–2018, party president 2005–2009, politician, civil rights advocate|
|Blanco, Wilfrido||Vice Minister of Education Abel Pacheco administration (2002–2006). Former PLN member.|
|Carazo Zeledón, Rodrigo Alberto||National Ombudsman 1993–1997, and deputy 2002–2006. Son of ex-president Rodrigo Carazo Odio|
|Chacón Echeverría, Ana Helena||Minister of Public Safety (Abel Pacheco administration (2002–2006), deputy (2006–2010), daughter of Luis Manuel Chacón (founding member of PUSC), Vice President (2014).|
|Echeverría, Alberto Salom||president of the Costa Rican Federation of University Students 1974–1975, vice president of National University of Costa Rica 1995–2000, deputy for PAC (2006–2010).|
|Escalante, Alberto Cañas||founding member of PAC, secretary of the Founding Junta of the Second Republic 1948, United Nations ambassador 1948–1949, president Editorial Costa Rica, deputy 1962–1966, Legislative Assembly President 1994–1998, Prime Minister 1970–1974.|
|Fallas, Helio||Minister of Planning Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier administration (1990–1994), Minister of Housing during Abel Pacheco administration (2002–2006), Vice President, 2014. Former PUSC member|
|Fonseca Corrales, Dr. Elizabeth||historian, professor Universidad de Costa Rica. 2010 leader of PAC fraction in National Assembly.|
|Miranda, Dr. Guido||Executive President Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. Former PLN member.|
|Mendoza García, Juan Carlos||deputy 2010–2014, Factional President 2010-1011, and Legislative Assembly President 2011–2012.|
|Morales Mora, Víctor||Minister of Labor Miguel Ángel Rodríguez administration (1998–2002), and deputy (Calderón Fournier administration) 1990–1994, Aserrí Mayor. Former PUSC member.|
|Penón Góngora, Margarita||first lady of Costa Rica 1986–1990 (ex-wife of Óscar Arias) and deputy (2002–2006). Replaced by Aguilar Mirambell in 2005 after resignation.|
|Salas Bonilla, Jorge Antonio||Mayor of Tibás Cantón 2007–2011.|
|Solano, Hernán||Vice Minister of Youth Abel Pacheco administration (2002–2006). Former PUSC member.|
|Ottón Solís, Fallas||Minister of Planning Óscar Arias administration (1986–1988), deputy (Figueres administration) 1994–1998, founding member of PAC, three-time presidential candidate for PAC, deputy 2014–2018.|
|Solís Bolaños, Ronald||deputy with PAC 2006–2010, anti-CAFTA activist, businessman. Ran in PAC presidential primary in 2013.|
|Solís Rivera, Luis Guillermo||Politician, historian, professor of Latin American Studies. Ex PLN Secretary General. President Elect 2014–2018.|
|Eduardo Trejos Lalli||Internationalist and advisor, current Intelligence Director|
|Villasuso, Juan Manuel||President of Costa Rican Institute of Electricity Luis Alberto Monge administration (1982–1983), Minister of Planning Luis Alberto Monge administration (1983–1986). Former PLN member.|
|Election||Leader||First round||Second round|
|2014||Luis Guillermo Solís||629,866||30.6%||1/13||-||1,314,327||77.8%||1/2||Won|
|2018||Carlos Alvarado Quesada||466,129||21.6%||2/13||-||1,281,292||60.8%||1/2||Won|
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|2014||Luis Guillermo Solís||480,969||23.4%||
13 / 57
|2018||Carlos Alvarado Quesada||347,703||16.3%||
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- Badilla, Gabriela. "Solís visitó finca de los Figueres en lo que denominó un "acto histórico"". Teletica. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
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- Oviedo, Estaban (8 April 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís: El profesor desconocido que, en tres años, llegó a ser el presidente" [Luis Guillermo Solís: The unknown professor who, in three years, became president]. La Nación (San Jose) (in Spanish). San José. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Ortiz de Zárate (editor), Roberto (March 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís Rivera, CIDOB" (in Spanish). Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. Retrieved 1 April 2014.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
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- Garcia, David Alire; Pretel, Enrique Andres. "Costa Rica center-left easily wins presidency in vote fought on gay rights". Reuters. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Stanley, Katherine. "Carlos Alvarado wins Costa Rica's presidency in a landslide". The Tico Times. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Dyer, Zach (3 November 2013). "Costa Rican presidential candidate Luis Guillermo Solís: 'It's not going to be business as usual'". The Tico Times. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Díaz, Luis Edo. (27 January 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís llama a sus seguidores a 'cambiar la historia' patria" [Luis Guillermo Solís calls on his supporters to 'change history' for the country]. La Nación (in Spanish). San José. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Sequeira, Aaron (20 February 2014). "Luis Guillermo Solís propone evitar firma de nuevos tratados comerciales" [Luis Guillermo Solís proposes avoiding the signing of new free trade agreements]. La Nación (in Spanish). San José. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Leiton, Patricia (24 March 2014). "PAC haría reforma fiscal, impuesto por impuesto" [PAC will make fiscal reforms, tax by tax]. La Nacion (in Spanish). San José. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- http://progressive-alliance.info/network/parties-and-organisations/. Missing or empty
- "Felicita Argentina a presidente-electo de Costa Rica" [Argentina congratulates president-elect of Costa Rica]. La Prensa Latina (in Spanish). Havana. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Ruiz Ramón, Gerardo (9 October 2013). "PAC ofrece candidatura a la vicepresidencia a Ana Helena Chacón". La Nacion (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- diputados Accessed on Nov 22, 2007.
- Official website (in Spanish)