|Family||House of Muhammad|
The children of Muhammad include the three sons and four daughters, born to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. All were born to Muhammad's first wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid except one son, who was born to Maria al-Qibtiyya.
His attitude and treatment towards his children, enshrined in the hadith, is viewed by Muslims as an exemplar to be imitated. However, critics have noted double standard favouritism (included in Sahib al-Bukhari) towards his daughter Fatimah in refusing her husband Ali’s pursuit of a second wife (Abu Jahl's daughter Juwayriya), despite the Islamic legality of polygamy.
All of Muhammad's children, except his daughters Fatimah (married to Ali ibn Abi Talib) Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum (married to Uthman) and Zainab (married to Abu al-As ibn al-Rabi') died in childhood and it is through Fatimah that Muhammad's lineage continued in the form of the respected Sayyid (meaning Leader or Sir) and Sharif (meaning noble), though it is worth mentioning that after the deaths of both Muhammad and Fatimah, Ali married Zaynab's daughter Umamah, and had sons with her before his death, after which she married Al-Mughirah ibn Nawfal ibn Al-Harith, and had a son with him.:27–28, 163–164:13, 162 Muhammad's sons never reached adulthood and died as infants. The early deaths of Muhammad's sons has been viewed as being detrimental to the cause of those who advocated for a hereditary-based system of succession to Muhammad.
Muhammad also had an adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah.
List of children
In chronological order, Muhammad's children were:
- Qasim ibn Muhammad (AD 598 – 601)
- Zainab bint Muhammad (AD 599 – 629)
- Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (AD 601 – 624)
- Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad (AD 603 – 630)
- Fatimah bint Muhammad ( AD 605 – 632)
- Abdullah ibn Muhammad (AD 611 - 615)
- Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (AD 630-632)
A notable connection here is that they all died at relatively young ages; ranging from 2–30 years.
There is much controversy between Sunni and Shia regarding how many daughters Muhammad had. While all Sunnis accept that he had four daughters, most Shia accept Fatimah as his only biological daughter and that 3 women were already living in the house of Khadijah before her marriage with Muhammad.
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- Paul Gwynne (23 Dec 2013). Buddha, Jesus and Muhammad: A Comparative Study. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118465493.
According to Sunni Islam, Khadija bore Muhammad four daughters (Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum and Fatima) and two sons ('Abdallah and Qasim).
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- Al-Basri Al-Hashimi, Muhammad ibn Sa'd (1995). Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir [The Women of Madina] (in Arabic). 8. Translated by Bewley, Aisha. London, the U.K.: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1998). The History of al-Tabari. XXXIX: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors. Translated by E. Landau-Tasseron. Albany, New York, the U.S.A.: State University of New York Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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Muhammad's lack of male offspring—which would continue with his later wives as well—was to have serious implications for the future of Islam. When controversy surged over the question of succession, there was no male heir to the Prophet. The Shi'ites, who were to claim that the succession belonged by right to the closest male relative, could do no better than to point to Muhammad's cousin Ali as their candidate—which did not carry the day for them. Had there been a son, things might have turned out rather differently.