Charles Peter Wuorinen ( //; June 9, 1938 – March 11, 2020) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American composer of contemporary classical music based in New York City. He performed his works and other 20th-century music as pianist and conductor.
He composed more than 270 works, including works for orchestra, operas such as Brokeback Mountain, chamber music, and solo instrumental and vocal works. Salman Rushdie and Annie Proulx have collaborated with him. Wuorinen's work has been described as serialist, but he came to disparage that term as meaningless. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music for Time's Encomium, his only purely electronic piece. Wuorinen was also an academic teacher at several institutions including Columbia University and Manhattan School of Music.
Life and career
Wuorinen was born on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City. His father, John H. Wuorinen, was chairman of the history department at Columbia University. He was a noted scholar of Scandinavian affairs, who also worked for the Office of Strategic Services, and was the author of five books on his native Finland. His mother, Alfhild Kalijarvi, received her M.A. in biology from Smith College. Wuorinen excelled academically, graduating from Trinity School (New York City) as valedictorian in 1956; he later received a B.A. (1961) and an M.A. (1963) in music from Columbia University. Early supporters included Jacques Barzun and Edgard Varèse.
1940s and 1950s
Wuorinen began composing at age 5 and began piano lessons at 6. At 16 he was awarded the New York Philharmonic's Young Composers' Award and the John Harms Chorus premiered his choral work O Filii et Filiae at Town Hall on May 2, 1954. He was active as a singer and pianist with the choruses at the Church of the Heavenly Rest and the Church of the Transfiguration (Little Church Around the Corner), and was the rehearsal pianist for the world premiere of Carlos Chávez's opera Panfilo and Lauretta at Columbia University during the spring of 1957. From 1952 to 1956 Wuorinen was President of the Trinity School Glee Club. He was pianist, librarian, and General Manager of the Columbia University Orchestra in 1956–57. During the summers of 1955 and 1956, he was the organist at Saint Paul's Church in Gardner, Massachusetts, where his parents stayed during the summer months. He was awarded the Bearns Prize three times, the BMI Student Composers Award four times, and the Lili Boulanger Award. He was a fellow at the Bennington Composers Conference for several years. Many early professional performances of Wuorinen's compositions took place on the Music of Our Time series at the 92nd Street Y run by violinist Max Pollikoff.
In 1962 Wuorinen and fellow composer-performer Harvey Sollberger formed The Group for Contemporary Music. The ensemble raised the standard of new music performance in New York, championing such composers as Milton Babbitt, Elliott Carter and Stefan Wolpe, who wrote several works for the ensemble. Many of Wuorinen's works were premiered by The Group, including Chamber Concerto for Cello and the Chamber Concerto for Flute. Major Wuorinen compositions of the '60s include Orchestral and Electronic Exchanges, premiered by the New York Philharmonic conducted by Lukas Foss; the First Piano Concerto, with composer as soloist; the String Trio, written for the then newly formed new music ensemble Speculum Musicae; and Time's Encomium, Wuorinen's only purely electronic piece, composed using the RCA Synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center on a commission from Nonesuch Records, for which Wuorinen was awarded the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for Music at the age of 32. Wuorinen was appointed to instructor at Columbia in 1964 and promoted to assistant professor in 1969, the year he received an Ingram Merrill Foundation grant; during this period, he was visiting lecturer at the New England Conservatory (1968–71), Princeton University (1969–71), the University of Iowa (1970), and the University of South Florida (1971).
The 1970s were a particularly fruitful period for Wuorinen, who taught at the Manhattan School of Music from 1971 to 1979. Chamber works during this decade include his first two string quartets, the Six Pieces for Violin and Piano, Fast Fantasy for cello and piano, and two large works for the Tashi ensemble, Tashi and Fortune. Works for orchestra include Grand Bamboula for strings, A Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky, which incorporates the elder master's last sketches, the Second Piano Concerto, and the Concerto for Amplified Violin and Orchestra, which caused a scandal at its premiere at the Tanglewood Festival with Paul Zukofsky and the BSO conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas. In 1976 Wuorinen completed his Percussion Symphony, a five-movement work for 24 players including two pianos for the New Jersey Percussion Ensemble and his longtime colleague Raymond DesRoches, as well as his opera subtitled "a baroque burlesque", The W. of Babylon with an original libretto by Renaud Charles Bruce. The New Jersey Percussion Ensemble had also performed and recorded Wuorinen's composition "Ringing Changes" in collaboration with the Group for Contemporary Music prior to the Percussion Symphony, setting the stage for this challenging larger-scale work. The ensemble, created by Raymond DesRoches, recorded the Percussion Symphony, which was released in 1978 by Nonesuch. In the late 1970s Wuorinen became interested in the work of the mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot and with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation he conducted sonic experiments at Bell Labs in New Jersey. In an interview with Richard Burbank, Wuorinen is quoted as saying:
What I did at Bell Labs (with Mark Liberman) was to try various experiments in which strings of pseudo-random material, usually pitches but sometimes other things, were generated and then subjected to traditional types of compositional organization, including twelve-tone procedures. What I wanted to do was to see whether or not these things sounded "composed," sounded purposively chosen. They did, at least by my lights. The random sequences were not just any old random sequences but were that of a kind called 1/f randomness.
The 1980s were framed by two large-scale works for chorus and orchestra based on Biblical texts, the 60-minute oratorio The Celestial Sphere for the 100th Anniversary of the Handel Oratorio Society in Rock Island Illinois of 1980 and Genesis (1989), jointly commissioned by the Minnesota Orchestra and San Francisco Symphony. Other major orchestral works during this period include the Rhapsody for Violin and Orchestra; the Third Piano Concerto, written for pianist Garrick Ohlsson; Movers and Shakers, the first work commissioned by the Cleveland Orchestra for music director Christoph von Dohnányi; Bamboula Squared for computer-generated sound and orchestra (inspired by Wuorinen's work at Bell Labs); and The Golden Dance. Wuorinen was composer in residence with the San Francisco Symphony from 1984 to 1989. Major chamber works of the 1980s include his Third String Quartet commissioned to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Hopkins Center for the Arts at Dartmouth College, The Blue Bamboula for pianist Ursula Oppens, the Sonata for Violin and Piano commissioned by the Library of Congress and premiered at the Library on an all-Wuorinen concert, String Sextet, New York Notes, Third Piano Sonata for Alan Feinberg, and trios for various combinations including three works for horn trio. In the 1980s Wuorinen began an association with the New York City Ballet which resulted in a series of works designed for dance: Five (Concerto for Amplified Cello and Orchestra) for choreographer Jean-Pierre Bonnefoux and Wuorinen's longtime colleague and champion Fred Sherry, Delight of the Muses based on works of Mozart and commissioned in honor of the Mozart's bicentennial, and three works inspired by scenes from Dante's La Divina Commedia for Peter Martins (The Mission of Virgil, The Great Procession and The River of Light). In addition to the Dante texts Wuorinen was influenced by the watercolors of William Blake. For the New York City Ballet Wuorinen also made a two-piano arrangement of Schoenberg's Variations for Orchestra (Schoenberg) choreographed by Richard Tanner, and Martins created a ballet based on Wuorinen's A Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky. In 1985 Wuorinen was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship.
Wuorinen devoted increased attention to writing works for voice, including his setting of Dylan Thomas's A Winter's Tale for soprano Phyllis Bryn-Julson and the Fenton Songs I & II on poems by British poet James Fenton, with whom Wuorinen was collaborating on an opera. Major chamber works included the Saxophone Quartet for the Raschèr Saxophone Quartet, Percussion Quartet, Piano Quintet, and Sonata for Guitar and Piano. Orchestral works included the Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra and Symphony Seven as well as the Dante works for the New York City Ballet.
With the start of the 21st century, James Levine became a major champion of Wuorinen's music. Levine commissioned Wuorinen's Fourth Piano Concerto for his first season at the Boston Symphony Orchestra; the tone poem Theologoumenon (a 60th birthday gift for Levine from his longtime manager Ronald Wilford), premiered by the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra; and the Eighth Symphony: Theologoumena, for the BSO. In honor of Wuorinen's 70th birthday Levine conducted two performances of Wuorinen's Ashberyana at the Guggenheim Museum.
Other champions of Wuorinen's music include Peter Serkin, for whom Wuorinen composed three concertos including Time Regained (based on music of Machaut, Matteo da Perugia, Guillaume Dufay, and Orlando Gibbons) and Flying to Kahani, commissioned by Carnegie Hall; the solo Scherzo and Adagio; and the Second Piano Quintet with the Brentano Quartet, another ensemble with which Wuorinen has had a very fruitful relationship and for which he wrote his Fourth String Quartet. In 2004 the New York City Opera premiered his opera Haroun and the Sea of Stories based on the novel by Salman Rushdie, with a libretto by James Fenton. Other works from this decade include Cyclops 2000 for Oliver Knussen and the London Sinfonietta; Ashberyana, settings of poetry by John Ashbery; Spin5, a chamber concerto for violinist Jennifer Koh; the Fourth Piano Sonata, for Anne-Marie McDermott; Synaxis; Metagong; and It Happens Like This, a dramatic cantata on seven poems by James Tate premiered at Tanglewood with the composer conducting.
Between 2008 and 2012, Wuorinen composed the opera Brokeback Mountain, based on Annie Proulx's short story of the same name and with a libretto adapted by Proulx. The piece premiered on January 28, 2014 at the Teatro Real in Madrid to mixed reviews.
Wuorinen has been described as totally committed to twelve-tone composition, with Schoenberg, late Stravinsky, and Babbitt as primary influences. However, in later years he has come to disparage the term serialism as being "almost without meaning".
Much of his music is technically complex, requiring extreme virtuosity by the performer, including wide leaps, extreme dynamic contrasts, and rapid exchange of pitches. Fractals and the mathematical theories of Benoit Mandelbrot are also important aspects of Wuorinen's style, as can be seen in works such as Bamboula Squared and the Natural Fantasy for organ.
Writings and lectures
Wuorinen wrote the book Simple Composition. He described it as
written by a composer and ... addressed to other composers — intending or actual, amateur or professional. Thus it is similar in intent to certain older books on the subject like Thomas Morley's A Plain and Easie Introduction to Practical Musicke (1597), for instance.... It outlines present practice, and while it can be used for purely didactic purposes, it can also be employed in composing "real" music.
Wuorinen lectured at universities throughout the United States and abroad, and served on the faculties of Columbia, Princeton, and Yale Universities, the University of Iowa, University of California (San Diego), Manhattan School of Music, New England Conservatory, State University of New York at Buffalo, and Rutgers University. He wrote the introduction to Joan Peyser's To Boulez and Beyond.
Influence and legacy
Wuorinen's works have influenced a number of other composers. Robert Black cited him as a particular influence on his own style. Black also recorded Wuorinen's New York Notes. Jazz trumpeter Dave Douglas wrote, "Around 1992 I found Charles Wuorinen’s book, Simple Composition, in the Brooklyn Public Library. I thought, 'At last! My problems are over!' Little did I know, they were just beginning... The book had a profound effect on me and spurred a whole new approach to composing for improvising small groups."
In 2019, Perspectives of New Music published a Festschrift — Charles Wuorinen: A Celebration at 80 — comprising analytical articles and compositions written for the occasion by Wuorinen's friends and colleagues. The PNM issue (Volume 56, Number 2, Summer 2018) was followed up by an 80th Birthday Celebration at the Eastman School of Music that featured a masterclass, a symposium, and concerts of his music as well as works dedicated in his honor.
In 1963 Wuorinen wrote in the journal Perspectives on New Music "I must unequivocally state that pitch serialization is no longer an issue", and that young composers should be "acting out the implications of the older generation's work". For Richard Taruskin, such statements imply a totalitarian view that only twelve-tone composers are to be regarded as composers. Taruskin has described similar statements as "fantasies of infantile omnipotence".
In 1971, when Wuorinen was denied tenure by the Columbia University music faculty, he blamed it on the "hostility to the present, and those who advocate it in music". Others have attributed the decision to Wuorinen's intolerant and arrogant attitude.
While the tonal system, in an atrophied or vestigial form, is still used today in popular and commercial music, and even occasionally in the works of backward-looking serious composers, it is no longer employed by serious composers of the mainstream, it has been replaced or succeeded by the 12-tone system.— Charles Wuorinen, Simple Composition (1978), opening paragraph
In a 1988 interview, Wuorinen stated "I feel what I do is right [...] pluralism [i.e. non-serial music] has gone too far," and criticized views in which "the response of the untutored becomes the sole criterion for judgement". In response, he suggested: "I would try to change the present relationship of the composer to the public from one in which the composer says: 'please, judge me,' to one in which I say: 'I have something to show you and offer my leadership.'
More recently, Wuorinen has described the term serialism as "almost without meaning", a change that has also been criticized. In a 2005 interview, when asked if he was a serialist composer, he restated this opinion:
Question: People say that you [Wuorinen] are a serialist, you write atonal, difficult, thorny music. Are those perceptions correct or not, or is there some truth to them?
Wuorinen: An interesting question to ask someone about one or the other of us, "Oh, he's this or that way," is "Which particular piece are you referring to?" You won't get an answer, I guarantee you. These categories have very little meaning. To call me a serial composer, I think, is—first of all, the term has to be defined, and no one ever bothers to do it.
In 2018, Wuorinen denounced the jury of the Pulitzer Prize for awarding the music award to hip-hop artist Kendrick Lamar, telling the New York Times the decision constituted: “the final disappearance of any societal interest in high culture.”
Performance and conducting
Wuorinen was active as a performer, a pianist and a conductor of his own works as well as other 20th-century repertoire. His orchestral appearances have included the Cleveland Orchestra, Chicago Symphony, New York Philharmonic, San Francisco Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the American Composers Orchestra. He conducted the American, and later the West Coast, premieres of Morton Feldman's monodrama Neither.
In 1962 he co-founded The Group for Contemporary Music, an ensemble dedicated to performance of new chamber music. In addition to cultivating a new generation of performers, commissioning and premiering hundreds of new works, the Group has also been a model for similar organizations that have appeared in the United States since its founding.
Many of Wuorinen's works were recorded.
- "Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Charles Wuorinen dies at 81". Toronto City News. Associated Press. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Blostein, Michael. "Charles Wuorinen". AllMusic Guide. AllMusic. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- "Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Charles Wuorinen dies at 81". Washington Post. Associated Press. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Steinberg, Michael "Tanglewood: Some Dissonance" The Boston Globe, August 8, 1972
- Wakin, Daniel J. "Sometimes Keeping the Beat Is Easy" The New York Times. April 7, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Burbank, Richard D. (1994). Charles Wuorinen: A Bio-Bibliography. London: Greenwood Press. p. 14. ISBN 0313253994. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Hiemenz, Jack "Augustana College's Major Premiere: Wuorinen's 'Celestial Sphere' Stirs and Fascinates" Musical America, October 1981
- Steinberg, Michael "Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide" Oxford University Press, February 2008
- Donald Rosenberg "Orchestra's greatness radiates again" Akron Beacon Journal, December 14, 1984
- Finn, Robert "A premiere, new era for orchestra" Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 12, 1984
- Kisselgoff, Anna. "A Premiere Having Fun With Mozart." The New York Times. January 31, 1992. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- "Listing at the NYCB site".
- Kozinn, Allan. "What Balanchine Might Have Created For Stravinsky" The New York Times. January 3, 1996. Retrieved May 5, 2011
- Cooman, Carson. "Three Questions Before the First Night." mvdaily.com Website
- Kirzinger, Robert. "An Introduction to Wuorinen's Fourth Piano Concerto." Archived August 31, 2011, at the Wayback Machine BSO Website
- Smith, Steve. "A Serialist Island Thrives in a Sea of Minimalism." The New York Times. January 28, 2007 . Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Kozinn, Allan. "The Cerebral Onstage, Not Without Wit ." The New York Times. November 3, 2008 . Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- Tommasini, Anthony. "Renaissance and Medieval Hues in a Modernist Work" The New York Times. January 26, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Tommasini, Anthony. "In Full Flight for Serkin in an Ambitious Pair of Concertos." The New York Times. February 4, 2006 . Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Tommasini, Anthony. "Bird Song, Modernism and Brahms Take Flight." The New York Times. April 7, 2008 . Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Kozinn, Allan. "Fluid States of Tension to Celebrate Connections." The New York Times. December 11, 2011 . Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Smith, Steve. "Some Rigor, Some Sensuousness and a Blend of Old and New." The New York Times. December 14, 2008 . Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Davis, Peter G. "Charles Wuorinen's Haroun and the Sea of Stories is a modernist twelve-tone opera that's easy to love" New York Magazine. November 15, 2004. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Kozinn, Allan. "The Least and the Most in a Tanglewood Series" The New York Times. August 4, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Eichler, Jeremy. "At Tanglewood festival, new music takes over the spotlight" The Boston Globe. August 5, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- "Opera: Brokeback Mountain, Teatro Real;". Teatro-Real.com. October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- William Jeffery, "Brokeback Mountain Opera Receives World Premiere Archived 2017-07-25 at the Wayback Machine", Limelight Magazine (January 30, 2014).
- Peyser 1995, p. 206.
- Taruskin, Richard (2008). "Calling all Pundits: No more Predictions". The Danger of Music and Other Anti-Utopian Essays. University of California Press. pp. 104–108. ISBN 0520942795.
- "Charles Wuorinen Brass Music. – Greenleaf Music – Dave Douglas jazz blog and store". January 13, 2010.
- Lang, Paul Henry (August 29, 1971). "Music at Columbia Will Endure, Even Without Wuorinen". The New York Times.
- "A discussion with James Levine, John Harbison and Charles Wuorinen, moderated by Daniel J. Wakin". The New York Times. March 27, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- Tommassini, Anthony (July 2000). "Midcentury Serialists: The Bullies or the Besieged?". The New York Times.
- Peyser 1995, p. 203.
- Kennedy, Michael (2006), The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4
- June 9th People, LGBT Daily Spotlight. Accessed September 3, 2019. "Wuorinen resides in New York City and Long Valley, New Jersey."
References and interviews
- Bloomberg TV segment at the Wuorinen website, 2008
- Brokeback Mountain, The Opera Charles Wuorinen interviewed by Peter Dobrin, ArtsWatch: PhillyNews.com, June 9, 2008
- Burbank, Richard D. Charles Wuorinen: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 1994. ISBN 0-313-25399-4
- Duffie, Bruce. "Interview with Charles Wuorinen", February 26, 1987
- Karchin, Louis. "Wuorinen, Charles". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001.
- Kennedy, Michael. The Oxford Dictionary of Music. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-861459-4.
- Kerner, Leighton (January 2005). "In Review: New York City". Opera News. pp. 54–56.
- Charles Wuorinen (June 5, 2007). "Art and Entertainment". NewMusicBox (Interview). Interviewed by Frank J. Oteri (published July 1, 2007). (includes video)
- Peyser, Joan (1995). The Music of my Time, Vol.1. pp. 199 ff. ISBN 0912483997.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Romig, James. "Charles Wuorinen: Adapting To The Times". Liner notes for Albany Records (Troy 871).
- Smith, Steve. "A Serialist Island Thrives in a Sea of Minimalism". The New York Times (January 28, 2007).
- Tommasini, Anthony. "Renaissance and Medieval Hues in a Modernist Work". The New York Times (January 26, 2009). (review of Wuorinen's Time Regained)
- Wakin, Daniel. "Sometimes Keeping the Beat is Easy". The New York Times (April 7, 2007) (article on performance of Wuorinen's Percussion Symphony)
- Wuorinen, Charles. 1979. Simple Composition, New York, NY: C.F. Peters Corporation. ISBN 0938856065
- Morris, Robert, Review of Charles Wuorinen's Simple Composition. Theory & Practice 1980, 5/1:66-72.
- Hibbard, William, Charles Wuorinen, The Politics of Harmony. Perspectives of New Music Vol. 7, No. 2 (Spring–Summer, 1969), pp. 155–166 (article consists of 16 pages)
- Seelye, Todd, Charles Wuorinen Guitar Variations, Soundboard Magazine, the Journal of the Guitar Foundation of America, Spring 1997, Vol. 23, No. 4
- Karchin, Louis, Pitch Centricity as an Organizing Principle in Speculum Speculi of Charles Wuorinen, Theory and Practice, Volume 14/15, 1989/90.
- Kresky, Jeffrey, The Recent Music of Charles Wuorinen Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 25 Nos. 1&2, Winter 1987/Summer 1987
- Karchin, Louis, Charles Wuorinen's Reliquary for Stravinsky Contemporary Music Review, 2001, Vol 20, Part 4, pp 9–27
- Steinberg, Michael, Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide Oxford University Press, February 2008, pp 317–336