The Marquess of Londonderry
Portrait in hussar uniform
|Minister to Prussia|
|Preceded by||No representation|
|Succeeded by||George Henry Rose|
|Ambassador to Austria|
|Monarch||George III |
|Preceded by||The Earl of Aberdeen|
|Succeeded by||Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley|
Charles William Stewart
18 May 1778
Dublin, Kingdom of Ireland
|Died||6 March 1854 (aged 75)|
Londonderry House, Park Lane, London
|Spouse(s)||Lady Catherine Bligh |
Lady Frances Anne Vane-Tempest (d. 1865)
|Children||Frederick Stewart, 4th Marquess of Londonderry|
George Vane-Tempest, 5th Marquess of Londonderry
Frances Anne Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
Alexandrina Dawson-Damer, Countess of Portarlington
Lord Adolphus Vane-Tempest
Lady Adelaide Emelina Caroline Vane
Lord Ernest McDonnell Vane-Tempest
|Parents||Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry|
Lady Frances Pratt
Charles William Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry KG GCB GCH PC (18 May 1778 – 6 March 1854) was an Irish soldier in the British army, a politician, and a nobleman. As a soldier he fought in the French Revolutionary Wars, in the suppression of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and in the Napoleonic wars. He excelled as a cavalry commander on the Iberian Peninsula under John Moore and Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington).
Having been dismissed by Wellington, his half-brother Lord Castlereagh helped him to launch a diplomatic career. He was posted to Berlin in 1813, and then as Ambassador to Austria, where his half-brother was the British plenipotentiary at the Congress of Vienna.
He married Lady Catherine Bligh in 1804 and then Lady Frances Anne Vane, a rich heiress, in 1819, changing his surname to hers, thus being called Charles Vane instead of Charles Stewart from there on. He succeeded his half-brother as 3rd Marquess of Londonderry in 1822. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1853, and he died a year later in London.
His father, Robert Stewart, was an important landowner in Ireland but not yet a nobleman at the time of Charles's birth. Robert Stewart was made a baron a year after his birth in 1789.
His father married twice. Charles's mother was his father's second wife, Frances, daughter of Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, a leading English jurist. Charles was his father's second son. His half-brother from his father's first marriage was Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who made a brilliant diplomatic and political career. He and his half-brother remained lifelong friends and wrote each other many letters. His half-brother's influence helped to make his father a Marquess and to launch and further Charles in his own diplomatic career.
Charles Stewart entered the British Army on 3 April 1791 (at the age of 12) as ensign in the 108th Regiment. He was commissioned a lieutenant on 8 January 1793 in this same unit. He saw service in 1794 in the Flanders Campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The remainder of his military career developed during the Napoleonic Wars, more exactly in the Peninsular War. The war started with the Corunna Campaign (1808–1809), in which the British troops were commanded by Sir John Moore. In this campaign Charles Stewart commanded a brigade of cavalry, and played, together with Lord Paget, a prominent role in the cavalry clash of Benavente where the French General Lefebvre-Desnouettes was taken prisoner.
When the British troops returned to the Iberian Peninsular after the Corunna Campaign, they were commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington). Charles Stewart was appointed, in April 1809, Adjutant General to Wellesley. This was an administrative job and not much to his liking, especially as Wellesley never discussed his decisions with subordinates. Nevertheless, he sometimes managed to see action and distinguished himself, particularly at the battle of Talavera (July 1809) for which he received the thanks of the Parliament on 2 February 1810 when he returned to England on sick leave. He also excelled at Bussaco in September 1810 and at Fuentes de Oñoro (May 1811) where he took a French Colonel prisoner in single combat.
He resigned his position as Adjutant General in February 1812. Some say due to bad health, but some say that Wellington fired him. Wellington apparently appreciated him as a soldier but judged him a "sad brouillon and mischief-maker" among his staff.
On 20 November 1813, he was made Colonel of the 25th Light Dragoons, an honorary position. He became a Knight Companion of the Bath that same year. He was also made Knight Grand Cross of the Guelphic Order (GCH) in 1816 and colonel of the 10th Hussars on 3 February 1820.
In 1796, he was elected to the Irish House of Commons as Tory representative for Thomastown, County Kilkenny, and after only two months exchanged this seat for that of Londonderry County. He sat for the latter constituency until the Act of Union in 1801, and then represented Londonderry in the British House of Commons until 1814. In 1807 he became Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies.
From 1813 until the end of the war, he was Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Berlin, and was also Military Commissioner with the allied armies, being wounded at the Battle of Kulm.
The recipient of numerous foreign honours, Stewart was also ennobled as Baron Stewart, of Stewart's Court and Ballylawn in County Donegal, in 1814 by the Prince Regent. In the same year, he received honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge, was admitted to the Privy Council, and was appointed a Lord of the Bedchamber to the King.
He was also appointed Ambassador to Austria, a post he held for nine years (1814–1823), and attended the Congress of Vienna with his half-brother Lord Castlereagh as one of the British plenipotentiaries. The historian Adam Zamoyski says that he made a spectacle of himself with his loutish behaviour, was apparently rather often inebriated, frequented prostitutes quite openly, and once even started a fist-fight in the middle of the street with a Viennese coach driver after he punched the coachman's horse.
He quit the diplomatic service in 1823 after his half-brother's death in 1822. Queen Victoria had a low esteem of the Marquess of Londonderry's abilities as a civil servant. She said that he should, in her opinion, not be given any post of importance.
Back in England, Londonderry befriended Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III) while the latter was exiled in London between 1836 and 1840. After Bonaparte had been elected president of France in 1851, Londonderry asked him to free Abd-el-Kader.
By the time of the Great Irish Famine in the 1840s, Londonderry was one of the ten richest men in the United Kingdom. While many landlords made efforts to mitigate the worst effects of the famine on their tenants, Londonderry was criticised for meanness: he and his wife gave only £30 to the local relief committee but spent £150,000 (£13.3 million as of 2019) renovating Mount Stewart, their Irish home. Nevertheless, Debbie Orme maintains that "the Marquis was held in high regard in the land for his attempts to alleviate suffering during the potato famine". During the tenant right campaign of the early 1850s Londonderry insisted on his full rights and this alienated many of his tenants. He was in disagreement over this question with his son and heir Frederick, who was more liberally inclined.
Marriages and family
His first wife was Lady Catherine Bligh, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Darnley. Charles married her on 8 August 1804 at the church of St George's, Hanover Square, London; she was three years older than he. She bore him a son, named Frederick, who was to become the 4th Marquess of Londonderry. She died during the night of 10–11 February 1812, of fever following a minor operation, while her husband was on his way home from Spain.
Lord Stewart married his second wife, Lady Frances Anne Vane-Tempest, daughter and heiress of Sir Henry Vane-Tempest, on 3 April 1819 at her mother's house in Bruton Street, Mayfair, and took her surname of Vane, by Royal licence, as had been stipulated in her father's will. He was henceforth known as Charles William Vane, while his son out of his first marriage remained Frederick Stewart. He used his new bride's immense wealth to acquire the Seaham Hall estate in County Durham with a view to developing the coalfields there. He also built the harbour at Seaham, to rival nearby Sunderland.
He commissioned Benjamin Wyatt to build a mansion at Wynyard Park. It was completed by Philip Wyatt in 1841 and cost £130,000 (equivalent to £10,772,000 in 2016) to build and furnish. Unfortunately, just as the mansion was being completed, a fire broke out and gutted the house; it was later restored and remodelled by Ignatius Bonomi.
Lord Stewart succeeded his half-brother as 3rd Marquess of Londonderry in 1822. The following year he was created Earl Vane and Viscount Seaham, of Seaham in the County Palatine of Durham, with remainder to the heirs male of the body of his second wife.
Governor of County Londonderry from 1823, Londonderry was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Durham in 1842 and the following year became Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Life Guards. Queen Victoria finally made him a Knight of the Garter in 1853, and he died a year later at Londonderry House. His widow honoured him by the Londonderry Equestrian Statue in Durham. His son Frederick built Scrabo Tower near Newtownards as a monument to the memory of his father.
He was succeeded as Marquess of Londonderry by Frederick Stewart, the only child from his first marriage, and as Earl Vane by George Vane, the eldest son from his second marriage. At Charles's death Frederick, therefore, became the 4th Marquess of Londonderry, whereas George became the 2nd Earl Vane. George was later to become the 5th Marquess after his half-brother had died childless.
Charles was styled:
- The Honourable Charles Stewart from 1789 until 1813 (because his father was created Baron Londonderry in 1789),
- The Honourable Sir Charles Stewart from 1813 to 1814 (because he was made a Knight of the Bath),
- The Right Honourable The Lord Stewart from 1814 to 1822 (because he was made a baron in his own right), and finally
- The Most Honourable The Lord Londonderry.
By Catherine Bligh:
By Frances Anne Emily Vane-Tempest:
- George Henry Robert Charles William Vane-Tempest, 5th Marquess of Londonderry (1821–1884)
- Lady Frances Anne Emily Vane (1822–1899); married John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough.
- Lady Alexandrina Octavia Maria Vane (1823–1874), godchild of Alexander I of Russia; married Henry Dawson-Damer, 3rd Earl of Portarlington.
- Lord Adolphus Frederick Charles William Vane-Tempest (1825–1864), politician; became insane, and had to be medically restrained.
- Lady Adelaide Emelina Caroline Vane (c.1830–1882); disgraced the family by eloping with her brother's tutor, Rev. Frederick Henry Law.
- Lord Ernest McDonnell Vane-Tempest (1836–1885), fell in with a press-gang and had to be bought a commission in the army, from which he was subsequently cashiered.
Through his daughter Lady Frances, Lord Londonderry is a great-grandfather of Winston Churchill.
The 3rd Marquess was a prolific writer and editor. He wrote and published books about his own military and diplomatic career and published many of his half-brother's papers.
His War Memoirs
The following two books describe the Napoleonic War as he saw them happen. The first describes his experience of the Peninsular War. The second the War of the Sixth Coalition, which forced Napoleon to abdicate:
- Vane, Charles William (1828), Narrative of the Peninsular War, London: Henry Colburn and
- Vane, Charles William (1830), Narrative of the War in Germany and France: In 1813 and 1814, London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley
The 3rd Marquess also compiled, edited, and published many of the papers left by his half-brother and published them in the following twelve volumes, divided in three series.
The first series appeared in 1848 and 1849 under the title Memoirs and Correspondence. The volumes are not marked first series on the title pages. They are:
- Vane, Charles William (1848), Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 1, London: Henry Colburn - The Irish Rebellion
- Vane, Charles William (1848), Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 2, London: Henry Colburn - Arrangements for a Union
- Vane, Charles William (1849), Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 3, London: Henry Colburn - Completion of the Legislative Union
- Vane, Charles William (1849), Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 4, London: Henry Colburn - Concessions to Catholics and Dessenters: Emmett's Insurrection
The second series appeared in 1851 under the title Correspondence, Despatches and Other Papers. The volume numbers continue, despite being marked 2nd series and are therefore 4 to 8. They are:
- Vane, Charles William (1851), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 2, 5, London: William Shoberl - Military and Miscellaneous
- Vane, Charles William (1851), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 2, 6, London: William Shoberl - Military and Miscellaneous
- Vane, Charles William (1851), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 2, 7, London: William Shoberl - Military and Miscellaneous
- Vane, Charles William (1851), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 2, 8, London: William Shoberl - Military and Miscellaneous
The third series appeared in 1853. The four volumes have the same title as the second series. The volume numbering is irregular. They are:
- Vane, Charles William (1853), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 9, London: John Murray - Military and Diplomatic
- Vane, Charles William (1853), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 3, 2, London: John Murray - Military and Diplomatic
- Vane, Charles William (1853), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 3, 3, London: John Murray
- Vane, Charles William (1853), Correspondence Despatches and Other Papers of Viscount Castlereagh, Second Marquess of Londonderry, 12, London: John Murray
Notes and references
- "No. 13131". The London Gazette. 9 September 1789. p. 597.
The Right Honourable Robert Stewart, Baron Londonderry
- Alison 1861, p. 4.
- Vane 1828, p. 207: "... Lord Paget and the writer of these pages arrived: when the former made haste to bring up the 10th hussars, whilst the latter put himself at the head of the detachments already in the field. ... leaving in our hands the General Le Fevre their Colonel ..."
- Hugo 1838, p. 109, left column: "... le général Lefebvre-Desnouettes passa à gué cette rivière avec trois escadrons de chasseurs de la garde, et se trouva bientôt en face de toute la cavalerie Anglaise commandée par les généraux Stewart et Paget. Les Français malgré leurs courageux efforts, ne purent pas lutter contre de forces si supérieures, et repassèrent l'Esla, abandonnant aux Anglais une soixantaine d'hommes blessés ou démontés, parmi lesquels se trouvait le général Lefebvre-Desnouettes."
- Oman 1913, p. 157: "He Wellesley did not wish to have a Gneisenau or a Moltke at his side: he only wanted zealous and competent chief clerks."
- "Thanks of the house to General Stewart". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 5 February 1810.
- Alison 1861, p. 423: "Sir Charles Stewart, who made Colonel La Motte, of the 18th Chasseurs, prisoner in single combat"
- Alison 1861, p. 480: "... and he became so seriously ill that Lord Wellington, much against both their wishes, insisted on his return. He embarked for Britain, accordingly, in the beginning of February 1812."
- Jennings, 1885 & ps: "Charles Stewart (third Marquis of Londonderry) was a sad brouillon and mischief-maker. I was obliged to get rid of him.", p. 346.
- "No. 16699". The London Gazette. 30 January 1813. pp. 227–228.
Knights Companions of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
- "No. 16729". The London Gazette. 17 May 1813. p. 944.
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of His Majesty the King of Prussia
- "No. 16909". The London Gazette. 18 June 1814. p. 1255.
to grant the dignity of a baron of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland onto the Honourable Sir Charles William Stewart
- Zamoyski 2007, p. 400: "Stewart, probably drunk, drove his own coach and four into the courtyard, and stopped, blocking the exit. Lord Pumpernickel as he had been dubbed after a play running at the time, refused to move out of the way, defying orders and threats."
- Urquhart, 2007 & ps: "Queen Victoria's mandate 'that Lord Londonderry should not be employed in any post of importance, as this would, in her opinion, be detrimental to the interests of the country'", p. 68.
- "Miscellaneous". The Spectator. 12 April 1851. p. 8. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
Pardon me, my Prince, if I take the liberty to write to you ...
- Kinealy 2013, p. 53: "Lord Londonderry and his wife made contributions of £20 and £10 to their local relief committees at the beginning of 1847. The following year the Londonderrys expended £15,000 renovating their home in Mount Stewart"
- Orme, Debbie. "The History of Scrabo Tower - Guardian of the North Down coast". Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "Scrabo Tower - Historic Buildings Details". Department for Communities.
In fact, rather than the object of the tenant affection, the 3rd Marquis, had alienated many of his tenantry through his unbending attitude during the Tenant Right campaign of the early 1850s.
- "LADY CATHERINE BLIGH, LADY CHARLES STEWART". National Trust.
- Lloyd 1898, p. 280, left column, top: "She died on 8 Feb. 1812, while he was on his way back from Spain, ..."
- "No. 17480". The London Gazette. 25 May 1819. p. 906.
... may, in compliance with the provisions of the last will and testament of the said Sir Henry Vane, Bart. from henceforth continue to respectively use the surname of Vane only, ...
- "No. 17909". The London Gazette. 29 March 1823. p. 498.
- Equestrian statue, monument to the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Alison, Archibald (1861), Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewart the second and the third Marquesses of Londonderry, 1, Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons
- Hugo, Abel (1838), France militaire: histoire des armées françaises de terre et de mer de 1792 à 1837 (in French), 4, Paris: Delloye
- Jennings, Louis J. (1885), The Croker Papers. The correspondence and Diary of the Late Right Honourable John Wilson Croker LL.D., FRS, Secretary to the Admiralty from 1809 to 1830, London: John Murray
- Kinealy, Christine (2013), Charity and the Great Hunger in Ireland: The Kindness of the Strangers, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1441117588
- Lloyd, Ernest Marsh (1898), "STEWART, CHARLES WILLIAM", in Lee, Sidney (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, 54, London: Smith Elder & Co, pp. 278–281
- Oman, Charles (1913), Wellington's Army, 1809-1814, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.
- Urquhart, Diane (2007), The Ladies of Londonderry: Women and Political Patronage, London: I. B. Tauris, ISBN 1-84511-410-8
- Vane, Charles William (1828), Narrative of the Peninsular War from 1808 to 1813, London: Henry Colburn
- Zamoyski, Adam (2007), Rites of Peace, the Fall of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna, London: Harper Collins, ISBN 978-0007197576
- Genealogy of Charles William Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry on The Peerage website
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Londonderry
|Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Stewart, Charles William.|